Neoaves

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Neoavians
Temporal range: Late CretaceousHolocene, 69–0 Ma
[1]
Toulouse - Sturnus vulgaris - 2012-02-26 - 3.jpg
Common starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Infraclass: Neognathae
Clade: Neoaves
Sibley et al., 1988
Clades

Neoaves is a clade that consists of all modern birds (Neornithes or Aves) with the exception of Paleognathae (ratites and kin) and Galloanserae (ducks, chickens and kin).[2] Almost 95% of the roughly 10,000 known species of modern birds belong to the Neoaves.[3]


The early diversification of the various neoavian groups occurred very rapidly around the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event,[4][5] and attempts to resolve their relationships with each other have resulted initially in much controversy.[6][7]

Phylogeny

The early diversification of the various neoavian groups occurred very rapidly around the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.[8] As as result of the rapid radiation attempts to resolve their relationships have produced conflicting results, some quite controversial, especially in the earlier studies.[9][10][11] Nevertheless, some recent large phylogenomic studies of Neoaves have led to much progress on defining orders and supraordinal groups within Neoaves, even though they have failed to come to a consensus on an overall high order topology of these groups.[12][13][14][11] A genomic study of 48 taxa by Jarvis et al. (2014) divided Neoaves into two main clades, Columbea and Passerea, but an analysis of 198 taxa by Prum et al. (2015) recovered different groupings for the earliest split in Neoaves.[12][13] A reanalysis with an extended dataset by Reddy et al. (2017) suggested this was due the type of sequence data, with coding sequences favouring the Prum topology.[14] The disagreement on topology even with large phylogenomic studies led Suh (2016) to propose a hard polytomy of nine clades as the base of Neoaves. An analysis by Houde et al. (2019) recovered Columbea and a reduced hard polytomy of six clades within Passerea.[15]

Nevertheless, these studies do agree on a number of supraorderal groups, which Reddy et al. (2017) dubbed the "magnicent seven", which together with three "orphaned orders" make up Neoaves.[14] Significantly, they both include a large waterbird clade (Aequornithes) and a large landbird clade (Telluraves). The groups defined by Reddy et al. (2017) are as follows:

  • The "magnificent seven" supraordinal clades:
  1. Telluraves (landbirds)
  2. Aequornithes (waterbirds)
  3. Eurypygimorphae (sunbittern, kagu and tropicbirds)
  4. Otidimorphae (turacos, bustards and cuckoos)
  5. Strisores (nightjars, swifts, hummingbirds and allies)
  6. Columbimorphae (mesites, sandgrouse and pigeons)
  7. Mirandornithes (flamingos and grebes)


The following cladogram illustrates the proposed relationships between all neoavian bird orders using the supraordinal tree recovered by Prum, R.O. et al. (2015)[13], with some taxon names following Yury, T. et al. (2013)[18] and Kimball et al. 2013.[19]


Neoaves
Strisores

Caprimulgiformes (nightjars) Batrachostomus septimus 01.jpg

Steatornithiformes (oilbird) Steatornis caripensis MHNT ZON STEA 1.jpg

Nyctibiiformes (potoos)

Podargiformes (frogmouths) PodargusSuperciliarisWolf.jpg

Aegotheliformes (owlet-nightjars)

Apodiformes (hummingbirds, treeswifts, and swifts) Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg

Columbaves
Otidimorphae

Musophagiformes (turacos)Planches enluminées d'histoire naturelle (1765) (Tauraco persa).jpg

Otidiformes (bustards)Cayley Ardeotis australis flipped.jpg

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)British birds in their haunts (Cuculus canorus).jpg

Columbimorphae

Columbiformes (pigeons) Meyers grosses Konversations-Lexikon - ein Nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen Wissens (1908) (Antwerpener Breiftaube).jpg

Mesitornithiformes (mesites)Monias benschi 1912 white background.jpg

Pterocliformes (sandgrouse)Pterocles quadricinctus white background.jpg

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)Cuvier-72-Grue cendrée.jpg

Aequorlitornithes
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)Cuvier-87-Flamant rouge.jpg

Podicipediformes (grebes)Podiceps cristatus Naumann white background.jpg

Charadriiformes (waders and relatives)D'Orbigny-Mouette rieuse et Bec-en-ciseaux white background.jpg

Ardeae
Eurypygimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)Cuvier-95-Phaeton à bec rouge.jpg

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu)Cuvier-72-Caurale soleil.jpg

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons)

Austrodyptornithes

Procellariiformes (albatross and petrels)Thalassarche melanophris 1838.jpg

Sphenisciformes (penguins) Cuvier-90-Manchot du Cap.jpg

Ciconiiformes (storks) Weißstorch (Ciconia ciconia) white background.jpg

Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.)

Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons, ibises, etc.)Spot-billed pelican takeoff white background.jpg

(core waterbirds)
Inopinaves

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)Cuvier-59-Hoazin huppé.jpg

Telluraves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (New World vultures)Vintage Vulture Drawing white background.jpg

Accipitriformes (hawks and relatives)Golden Eagle Illustration white background.jpg

Afroaves

Strigiformes (owls)Cuvier-12-Hibou à huppe courte.jpg

Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mousebirds)

Cavitaves

Leptosomiformes (cuckoo roller)

Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)Harpactes fasciatus 1838 white background.jpg

Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills and relatives)A monograph of the Bucerotidæ, or family of the hornbills (Plate II) (white background).jpg

Picodynastornithes

Coraciiformes (kingfishers and relatives)Cuvier-46-Martin-pêcheur d'Europe.jpg

Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives)Atlante ornitologico (Tav. 26) (picchio verde).jpg

Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)Cariama cristata 1838 white background.jpg

Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)NewZealandFalconBuller white background.jpg

Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)Pyrrhura lucianii - Castelnau 2.jpg

Passeriformes (passerines)Cuvier-33-Moineau domestique.jpg

(core landbirds)

References

  1. ^ Van Tuinen M. (2009) Birds (Aves). In The Timetree of Life, Hedges SB, Kumar S (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 409–411.
  2. ^ a b Jarvis, E.D. (2014) Whole genome analyzes resolve the early branches in the tree of life of modern birds.
  3. ^ Ericson, Per G.P.; et al. (2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543–547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003. PMID 17148284.
  4. ^ McCormack, J.E. et al (2013). A phylogeny of birds based on over 1,500 loci collected by target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. PLoS One, 8(1):e54848. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054848.
  5. ^ Claramunt, S.; Cracraft, J. (2015). "A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds". Sci Adv. 1 (11). doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501005. PMC 4730849. PMID 26824065.
  6. ^ Mayr G. (2011) Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores and other novelties - a critical review of the higher-level phylogeny of neornithine birds. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 49:58-76.
  7. ^ Matzke, A. et al. (2012) Retroposon insertion patterns of neoavian birds: strong evidence for an extensive incomplete lineage sorting era Mol. Biol. Evol.
  8. ^ Claramunt, S.; Cracraft, J. (2015). "A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds". Sci Adv. 1 (11): e1501005. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501005. PMC 4730849. PMID 26824065.
  9. ^ Mayr G. (2011) Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores and other novelties - a critical review of the higher-level phylogeny of neornithine birds. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 49:58-76.
  10. ^ Matzke, A. et al. (2012) Retroposon insertion patterns of neoavian birds: strong evidence for an extensive incomplete lineage sorting era Mol. Biol. Evol.
  11. ^ a b Braun, Edward L.; Cracraft, Joel; Houde, Peter (2019). "Resolving the Avian Tree of Life from Top to Bottom: The Promise and Potential Boundaries of the Phylogenomic Era": 151–210. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-16477-5_6. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ a b Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904. PMID 25504713.
  13. ^ a b c Prum, Richard O.; Berv, Jacob S.; Dornburg, Alex; Field, Daniel J.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Lemmon, Alan R. (2015). "A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing". Nature. 526 (7574): 569–573. doi:10.1038/nature15697. ISSN 0028-0836.
  14. ^ a b c Reddy, Sushma; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Pandey, Akanksha; Hosner, Peter A.; Braun, Michael J.; Hackett, Shannon J.; Han, Kin-Lan; Harshman, John; Huddleston, Christopher J.; Kingston, Sarah; Marks, Ben D.; Miglia, Kathleen J.; Moore, William S.; Sheldon, Frederick H.; Witt, Christopher C.; Yuri, Tamaki; Braun, Edward L. (2017). "Why Do Phylogenomic Data Sets Yield Conflicting Trees? Data Type Influences the Avian Tree of Life more than Taxon Sampling". Systematic Biology. 66 (5): 857–879. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syx041. ISSN 1063-5157.
  15. ^ Houde, Peter; Braun, Edward L.; Narula, Nitish; Minjares, Uriel; Mirarab, Siavash (2019). "Phylogenetic Signal of Indels and the Neoavian Radiation". Diversity. 11 (7): 108. doi:10.3390/d11070108. ISSN 1424-2818.
  16. ^ Prum, R.O. et al. (2015) A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526, 569–573.
  17. ^ Suh, Alexander (2016). "The phylogenomic forest of bird trees contains a hard polytomy at the root of Neoaves". Zoologica Scripta. 45: 50–62. doi:10.1111/zsc.12213. ISSN 0300-3256.
  18. ^ Yuri et al. (2013) Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals. Biology, 2(1):419-444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419
  19. ^ Kimball, R.T. et al. (2013) Identifying localized biases in large datasets: A case study using the Avian Tree of Life. Mol Phylogenet Evol. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.05.029
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