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Native to Arunachal Pradesh
Native speakers
unknown (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 nef
Glottolog nefa1235[2]

Nefamese (also Arunamese) is a pidgin of Arunachal Pradesh (formerly NEFA), India. Its classification is unclear; Ethnologue states that it is based on the Assamese language, but also that it is most closely related to the Sino-Tibetan Gallong like the Assamese language formed out by the mixture of languages like Austric, Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-Chinese family of languages.

Nefamese emerged in eastern Arunachal Pradesh as a lingua franca among the Nishi, Adi, Apatanai, Khampti, Hill Miri, Idu Mishimi, Nocte, Wanchu, Tagin, Mompa, Zakhring, Apatani, and Bugun peoples, among others—between them and with other Indigenous Assamese people and other Indigenous groups of Northeast India. The language is threatened by, and has perhaps somewhat been replaced by, the use of Hindi due to force of the mainland Indian Government and its policies.


Nefamese has six vowel phonemes, eighteen consonant phonemes and six diphthongs.[3]


  1. ^ Nefamese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nefamese". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ (Bhuyan 2012, p. 232)

See also


  • Bhuyan, Nupur Chandra (2012). "The Phonological aspects of Nefamese" (PDF). Retrieved February 7, 2013.
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