Near-open front unrounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Near-open front unrounded vowel
æ
IPA Number 325
Encoding
Entity (decimal) æ
Unicode (hex) U+00E6
X-SAMPA {
Braille ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
Audio sample

The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨æ⟩, a lowercase of the ⟨Æligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".

The rounded counterpart of [æ], the near-open front rounded vowel (for which the IPA provides no separate symbol) has been reported to occur allophonically in Danish;[2][3] see open front rounded vowel for more information.

In practice, ⟨æ⟩ is sometimes used to represent the open front unrounded vowel; see the introduction to that page for more information.

Features

  • Its vowel height is near-open, also known as near-low, which means the tongue is positioned similarly to an open vowel, but is slightly more constricted – that is, the tongue is positioned similarly to a low vowel, but slightly higher.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[4] perd [pæːrt] 'horse' Allophone of /ɛ/ before sequences /rs/, /rt/, /rd/ and, in some dialects, before /k x l r/. See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[5] كتاب About this sound[kiˈtæːb]  'book' Allophone of /a/ in the environment of plain labial and coronal consonants as well as /j/ (depending on the speaker's accent). See Arabic phonology
Bashkir[6] йәй / yäy About this sound[jæj]  'summer'
Catalan Majorcan[7] tesi [ˈt̪æzi] 'thesis' Main realization of /ɛ/. See Catalan phonology
Valencian[7]
Danish Standard[2][8] dansk [ˈd̥a̝nsɡ̊] 'Danish' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩ – the way it is realized by certain older or upper-class speakers.[9] See Danish phonology
Dutch[10] pen [pæn] 'pen' Allophone of /ɛ/ before /n/ and the velarized or pharyngealized allophone of /l/. In non-standard accents this allophone is generalized to other positions, where [ɛ] is used in Standard Dutch.[11] See Dutch phonology
English Cultivated New Zealand[12] cat About this sound[kʰæt]  'cat' Higher in other New Zealand varieties. See New Zealand English phonology
General American[13] See English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation[14] Fully open [a] in contemporary RP.[14] See English phonology
Estonian[15] väle [ˈvæ̠le̞ˑ] 'agile' Near-front.[15] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[16] mäki [ˈmæki] 'hill' See Finnish phonology
French Parisian[17] bain [bæ̃] 'bath' Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ̃⟩. See French phonology
Quebec[18] ver [væːʁ] 'worm' Allophone of /ɛ/ before /ʁ/ or in open syllables, and of /a/ in closed syllables.[18] See Quebec French phonology
German Standard Austrian[19] oder [ˈoːdæ] 'or' Used by some speakers instead of [ɐ].[19] See Standard German phonology
West Central German accents[20] Used instead of [ɐ].[20] See Standard German phonology
Northern accents[21] alles [ˈa̝ləs] 'everything' Lower and often also more back in other accents.[21] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[22] spät [ʃpæːt] 'late' Open-mid [ɛː] or close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the open-mid /ɛː/.[23] See Standard German phonology
Greek Macedonia[24] γάτα/gáta [ˈɣætæ] 'cat' See Modern Greek phonology
Thessaly[24]
Thrace[24]
Pontic[25] καλάθια/kaláthia [kaˈlaθæ] 'baskets'
Hungarian[26] nem [næm] 'no' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Kurdish Sorani (Central) گاڵته [gäːɫtʲæ] 'joke' Equal to Palewani (Southern) front [a]. See Kurdish phonology
Lakon[27] rävräv [ræβræβ] 'evening'
Limburgish[28][29][30] twelf [ˈtβ̞æ̠ləf] 'twelve' Front[29][30] or near-front,[28] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect, in which the vowel is near-front.
Luxembourgish[31] Käpp [kʰæpʰ] 'heads' See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[32][33] lær [læːɾ] 'leather' See Norwegian phonology
Persian[34][35] هشت [hæʃt] 'eight'
Portuguese Some dialects[36] pedra [ˈpædɾɐ] 'stone' Stressed vowel. In other dialects closer /ɛ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[37] também [tɐˈmæ̃] 'also' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/.
Romanian Bukovinian dialect[38] piele [ˈpæle] 'skin' Corresponds to [je] in standard Romanian. Also identified in some Central Transylvanian sub-dialects.[38] See Romanian phonology
Russian[39][40] пять About this sound[pʲætʲ]  'five' Allophone of /a/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Zeta-Raška dialect[41] дан/dan [d̪æn̪] 'day' Regional reflex of Proto-Slavic *ь and *ъ. Sometimes nasalised.[41]
Sinhala[42] ඇය [æjə] 'she'
Slovak Some speakers[43] väzy [ˈʋæzi̞] 'ligaments' Many speakers pronounce it the same as [ɛ̝]. See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[44][45][46] ära About this sound[²æːɾä]  'hono(u)r' Allophone of /ɛː, ɛ/ before /r/. See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[46] läsa [²læːsä] 'to read' Realization of /ɛː, ɛ/ for younger speakers. Higher [ɛː, ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] for other speakers
Turkish[47] sen [s̪æn̪] 'you' Allophone of /e/ before syllable-final /m, n, l, r/. In a limited number of words (but not before /r/), it is in free variation with [].[47] See Turkish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  3. ^ Basbøll (2005:46)
  4. ^ Donaldson (1993:3)
  5. ^ Holes (2004:60)
  6. ^ Berta (1998:183)
  7. ^ a b Rafel (1999:14)
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  9. ^ Basbøll (2005:32)
  10. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 129)
  11. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 128–129, 131)
  12. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004:609)
  13. ^ Wells (1982:486)
  14. ^ a b Gimson (2014:119–120)
  15. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  16. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  17. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:226)
  18. ^ a b Walker (1984:75)
  19. ^ a b Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015:342)
  20. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:40)
  21. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:64)
  22. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:65)
  23. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34, 64–65)
  24. ^ a b c Newton (1972:11)
  25. ^ Revithiadou & Spyropoulos (2009:41)
  26. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  27. ^ François (2005:466)
  28. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  29. ^ a b Peters (2006:119)
  30. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007:221)
  31. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  32. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  33. ^ Popperwell (2010:16, 21–22)
  34. ^ Majidi & Ternes (1991)
  35. ^ Campbell (1995)
  36. ^ Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction – by Milton M. Azevedo Page 186.
  37. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  38. ^ a b Pop (1938), p. 29.
  39. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:50)
  40. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224–225)
  41. ^ a b Okuka 2008, p. 171.
  42. ^ Perera & Jones (1919:5)
  43. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  44. ^ Eliasson (1986:273)
  45. ^ Thorén & Petterson (1992:15)
  46. ^ a b Riad (2014:38)
  47. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)

References

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 978-0-203-97876-4
  • Berta, Árpád (1998), "Tatar and Bashkir", in Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.), The Turkic languages, Routledge, pp. 283–300
  • Campbell, George L. (1995), "Persian", Concise compendium of the world's languages (1st publ. ed.), London: Routledge, p. 385, ISBN 0415160499
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-9004103405
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2013) [First published 2003], Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-50650-2
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), "1. Pronunciation", A Grammar of Afrikaans, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1–35, ISBN 9783110134261
  • Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4
  • Eliasson, Stig (1986), "Sandhi in Peninsular Scandinavian", in Anderson, Henning (ed.), Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 271–300
  • François, Alexandre (2005), "Unraveling the history of vowels in seventeen north Vanuatu languages" (PDF), Oceanic Linguistics, 44 (2): 443–504, doi:10.1353/ol.2005.0034
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Maclagan, Margaret (2004), "Regional and social differences in New Zealand: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 603–613, ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Holes, Clive (2004), Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 978-1-58901-022-2
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Majidi, Mohammad-Reza; Ternes, Elmar (1991), "Illustrations of the IPA: Persian (Farsi)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 96–98
  • Moosmüller, Sylvia; Schmid, Carolin; Brandstätter, Julia (2015), "Standard Austrian German", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (3): 339–348, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000055
  • Newton, Brian (1972), The Generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 8, Cambridge University Press
  • Okuka, Miloš (2008), Srpski dijalekti, Zagreb: Prosvjeta, ISBN 9789537611064
  • Perera, H.S.; Jones, D. (1919), A colloquial Sinhalese reader in phonetic transcription, Manchester: Longmans, Green & Co
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Popperwell, Ronald G. (2010) [First published 1963], Pronunciation of Norwegian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15742-1
  • Rafel, Joaquim (1999), Aplicació al català dels principis de transcripció de l'Associació Fonètica Internacional (PDF) (3rd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, ISBN 978-84-7283-446-0
  • Revithiadou, Anthi; Spyropoulos, Vassilios (2009), Οφίτικη Ποντιακή: Έρευνα γλωσσικής καταγραφής με έμφαση στη διαχρονία και συγχρονία της διαλέκτου [Ofitika Pontic: A documentation project with special emphasis on the diachrony and synchrony of the dialect] (PDF) (in Greek), John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-31
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1
  • Suomi, Kari; Toivanen, Juhani; Ylitalo, Riikka (2008), Finnish sound structure – Phonetics, phonology, phonotactics and prosody (PDF), Studia Humaniora Ouluensia 9, Oulu University Press, ISBN 978-951-42-8984-2
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Illustrations of the IPA: Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090
  • Thorén, Bosse; Petterson, Nils-Owe (1992), Svenska Utifrån Uttalsanvisningar, ISBN 978-91-520-0284-1
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 978-82-990584-0-7
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (2): 219–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100307002940
  • Walker, Douglas (1984), The Pronunciation of Canadian French (PDF), Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, ISBN 978-0-7766-4500-1
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bunčić, Daniel (2015), "Russian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221–228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395

External links

  • List of languages with [æ] on PHOIBLE
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Near-open_front_unrounded_vowel&oldid=926005517"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-open_front_unrounded_vowel
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Near-open front unrounded vowel"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA