Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɪ
ï̞
IPA number 319
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
X-SAMPA I
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Listen

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɪ⟩, i.e. a small capital letter i. The International Phonetic Association advises serifs on the symbol's ends.[2] Some sans-serif fonts do meet this typographic specification.[3] Prior to 1989, there was an alternate symbol for this sound: ⟨ɩ⟩, the use of which is no longer sanctioned by the IPA.[4] Despite that, some modern writings[5] still use it.

Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol ⟨i⟩, which technically represents the close front unrounded vowel.

The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ɪ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close front unrounded vowel,[6] therefore, an alternative transcription of this vowel is ⟨⟩ (a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ï̞⟩). The symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ is often also used to transcribe the close-mid near-front unrounded vowel, which is a slightly lower vowel, though it still fits the definition of a mid-centralized [i]. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as Californian, General American and modern Received Pronunciation)[7][8][9] as well as some other languages (such as Icelandic),[10][11] and it can be transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ̞⟩ (a lowered ⟨ɪ⟩) in narrow transcription. Certain sources[12] may even use ⟨ɪ⟩ for the close-mid front unrounded vowel, but that is rare. For the close-mid (near-)front unrounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ (or ⟨i⟩), see close-mid front unrounded vowel.

For the fully central equivalents of these vowels, see near-close central unrounded vowel and close-mid central unrounded vowel.

Some languages, such as Danish[13][14] and Sotho[15] have the near-close front unrounded vowel, which differs from its near-front counterpart in that it is a lowered, but not centralized close front unrounded vowel, transcribed in the IPA as ⟨ɪ̟⟩, ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩.

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[16] meter [ˈmɪ̞ˑtɐr] 'meter' Close-mid. Allophone of /ɪə/ in less stressed words and in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words. In the latter case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [ɪə̯ ~ ɪ̯ə ~ ɪə].[16] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Kuwaiti[17] بِنْت [bɪnt] 'girl' Corresponds to /i/ in Classical Arabic.[17][18] See Arabic phonology
Lebanese[18] لبنان [lɪbnæːn] 'Lebanon'
Burmese[19] မျီ [mjɪʔ] 'root' Allophone of /i/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized.[19]
Chinese Shanghainese[20] / ih [ɪ̞ʔ˥] 'one' Close-mid; appears only in closed syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɛ/ ([]), which appears only in open syllables.[20]
Cipu Tirisino dialect[21] n-upití [n ù pì̞tí̞] "while he
stepped"
Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[21]
Czech Bohemian[22] byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-front [ɪ][22] and close-mid front [ɪ̟˕].[23] It corresponds to close front [i] in Moravian Czech.[23] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[13][14] hel [ˈhe̝ːˀl] 'whole' Front; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[13][14] It is typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ - the way it is pronounced in the conservative variety.[24] The Danish vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɪ⟩ is pronounced similarly to the short /e/.[25] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[26][27][28] blik About this sound [blɪk] 'glance' The Standard Northern realization is near-close [ɪ],[26][27] but the Standard Belgian realization has also been described as close-mid [ɪ̞].[28] Some regional dialects have a vowel that is slightly closer to the cardinal [i].[29] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[30] bit [bɪ̟t] 'bit' Front;[30] also described as close [i].[31] See Australian English phonology
Californian[7] About this sound [bɪ̞t] Close-mid.[7][8] See English phonology
General American[8]
Inland Northern American[32] [bɪt] The quality varies between near-close near-front [ɪ], near-close central [ɪ̈], close-mid near-front [ɪ̞] and close-mid central [ɘ].[32]
Philadelphian[33] The height varies between near-close [ɪ] and close-mid [ɪ̞].[33]
Northern England[34]
Welsh[35][36][37] Near-close [ɪ] in Abercrave and Port Talbot, close-mid [ɪ̞] in Cardiff.[35][36][37]
Estuary[38] [bɪʔt] Can be front [ɪ̟], near-front [ɪ] or close-mid [ɪ̞], with other realizations also being possible.[38]
Norfolk[39]
Received Pronunciation[9][40] Close-mid [ɪ̞] for younger speakers, near-close [ɪ] for older speakers.[9][40]
Some speakers of West Midlands English[41] The height varies between near-close [ɪ] and close-mid [ɪ̞]; can be close [i] instead.[41]
New Zealand[42][43] bed [be̝d] 'bed' The quality varies between near-close front [e̝], near-close near-front [ɪ], close-mid front [e] and close-mid near-front []. It is typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e⟩.[42] In the cultivated variety, it is mid [].[43] See New Zealand English phonology
Some South African speakers[44] Used by some General and Broad speakers. In the Broad variety, it is usually lower [ɛ], whereas in the General variety, it can be close-mid [e] instead.[44] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e⟩. See South African English phonology
Faroese[45] lint [lɪn̥t] 'soft' See Faroese phonology
French Quebec[46] petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables.[46] See Quebec French phonology
Galician[47][48] onte [ˈɔn̪t̪ɪ] 'yesterday' Unstressed allophone of /i/ and /e/.[47][48] See Galician phonology
Gayo[49] tingkep [tɪŋˈkəp] 'window' Possible allophone of /i/ and /e/; in both cases the backness varies between front and near-front.[49]
German Standard[50][51][52] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtə] 'please' Described variously as front [ɪ̟],[50] near-front [ɪ][51] and close-mid [ɪ̞].[52] For some speakers, it may be as high as [i].[53] See Standard German phonology
Chemnitz dialect[54] Wind [ʋɪ̞n̪t̪] 'wind' Close-mid.[54] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Some Swiss dialects[55][56] Chìng [ɣ̊ɪŋː] 'child' The example word is from the Bernese dialect.
Hungarian[57] visz [vɪs] 'to carry' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[10][11] vinur [ˈʋɪ̞ːnʏ̞ɾ] 'friend' Close-mid.[10][11] See Icelandic phonology
Kaingang[58] firi [ɸɪˈɾi] 'rattlesnake' Atonic allophone of /i/ and /e/.[59]
Limburgish Most dialects[60][61] hin [ɦɪ̞n] 'chicken' Near-close [ɪ][61] or close-mid [ɪ̞],[60] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Weert dialect[62] zeen [zɪːn] 'to be' Allophone of /eə/ before nasals.[62]
Luxembourgish[63] Been [be̝ːn] 'leg' Front;[63] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩. Also described as close-mid [].[64] See Luxembourgish phonology
Maltese[65] Ikel [ɪkɛl] 'food'
Mongolian[66] хир [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Norwegian Urban East[67][68] litt [li̞tː] 'a little' Front;[67][68] also described as close [i].[69] See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian[70] cine [ˈsinɪ] 'cine' Reduction and neutralization of unstressed /e/ (can be epenthetic), /ɛ/ and /i/. Can be voiceless. See Portuguese phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[71] rikke [ˈʁɪkə] [translation needed]
Romanian Banat dialect[72] râu [rɪw] 'river' Corresponds to [ɨ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[73][74] дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə] 'tree' Backness varies between front and near-front. It occurs only in unstressed syllables.[73][74] See Russian phonology
Sandawe[75] dtine [tì̞né] 'trap' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[75]
Sema[76] pi [pì̞] 'to say' Front;[76] also described as close [i].[77]
Shiwiar[78] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[78]
Slovak[79][80] rýchly [ˈrɪːxlɪ] 'fast' Backness varies between front [ɪ̟] and near-front [ɪ].[79] See Slovak phonology
Slovene Standard[81] mira [ˈmɪ̀ːɾä] 'myrrh' Allophone of /i/ before /r/.[81] See Slovene phonology
Sotho[15] ho leka [hʊ̠lɪ̟kʼɑ̈] 'to attempt' Front; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[15] See Sotho phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[82] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[82]
Swedish Central Standard[83][84] sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪ː] 'herring' The quality has been variously described as close-mid front [ɪ̟˕],[83] near-close front [ɪ̟][84] and close front [i].[85] See Swedish phonology
Tamambo[86] cili [xi̞li̞] 'to tickle' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[86]
Temne[87] pim [pí̞m] 'pick' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[87]
Turkish[88] müşteri [my̠ʃt̪e̞ˈɾɪ] 'customer' Allophone of /i/ described variously as "word-final"[88] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[89] See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[90] ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[91] być [bɪt͡ʃ] 'to be' Allophone of /i/ after hard consonants.[91] See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian Standard[92][93] ik [ɪk] 'I' See West Frisian phonology
Hindeloopers[94] beast [bɪːst] 'beast' Corresponds to /ɪə/ in Standard West Frisian.
Yoruba[95] [example needed] Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ĩ⟩. It is nasalized, and may be close [ĩ] instead.[95]

References

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ "IPA Fonts: General Advice". International Phonetic Association. 2015. With any font you consider using, it is worth checking that the symbol for the centralized close front vowel (ɪ, U+026A) appears correctly with serifs top and bottom; that the symbol for the dental click (ǀ, U+01C0) is distinct from the lower-case L (l) 
  3. ^ Sans-serif fonts with serifed ɪ (despite having serifless capital I) include Arial, FreeSans and Lucida Sans.
    On the other hand, Segoe and Tahoma place serifs on ɪ as well as capital I.
    Finally, both are serifless in Calibri.
  4. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 167.
  5. ^ Such as Árnason (2011)
  6. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 13.
  7. ^ a b c Ladefoged (1999), p. 42.
  8. ^ a b c Wells (1982b), p. 486.
  9. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), p. 90.
  10. ^ a b c Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  11. ^ a b c Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  12. ^ Such as Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012).
  13. ^ a b c Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  14. ^ a b c Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  15. ^ a b c Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  16. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 119.
  17. ^ a b Ayyad (2011), p. ?.
  18. ^ a b Khattab (2007), p. ?.
  19. ^ a b Watkins (2001), p. 293.
  20. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  21. ^ a b McGill (2014), pp. 308–309.
  22. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  23. ^ a b Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), pp. 228–229.
  24. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  25. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  26. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 128.
  27. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  28. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  29. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  30. ^ a b Cox (2012), p. 159.
  31. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  32. ^ a b Gordon (2004), pp. 294, 296.
  33. ^ a b Gordon (2004), p. 290.
  34. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  35. ^ a b Tench (1990), p. 135.
  36. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  37. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 93.
  38. ^ a b Altendorf & Watt (2004), p. 188.
  39. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  40. ^ a b Wells (1982a), p. 291.
  41. ^ a b Clark (2004), p. 137.
  42. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  43. ^ a b Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  44. ^ a b Bowerman (2004), pp. 936–937.
  45. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  46. ^ a b Walker (1984), pp. 51–60.
  47. ^ a b Regueira (2010), pp. 13–14.
  48. ^ a b Freixeiro Mato (2006), p. 112.
  49. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  50. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 87.
  51. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013), p. 234.
  52. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  53. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  54. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  55. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  56. ^ Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 247.
  57. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  58. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  59. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  60. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), pp. 158–159.
  61. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 119.
  62. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. ?.
  63. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  64. ^ Trouvain & Gilles (2009), p. 75.
  65. ^ Borg (1997), p. ?.
  66. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  67. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  68. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 18.
  69. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15–16.
  70. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  71. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  72. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  73. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), p. 37.
  74. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 225.
  75. ^ a b Eaton (2006), p. 237.
  76. ^ a b Teo (2012), p. 368.
  77. ^ Teo (2014), p. 27.
  78. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  79. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  80. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  81. ^ a b Jurgec (2007), p. 3.
  82. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  83. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  84. ^ a b Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  85. ^ Dahlstedt (1967), p. 16.
  86. ^ a b Riehl & Jauncey (2005), p. 257.
  87. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010), p. 249.
  88. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  89. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  90. ^ Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14
  91. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 34.
  92. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  93. ^ de Haan (2010), pp. 332–333.
  94. ^ van der Veen (2001), p. 102.
  95. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

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