Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɪ
ï̞
IPA number 319
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
X-SAMPA I
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Sound

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɪ⟩, i.e. a small capital letter i. The International Phonetic Association advises serifs on the symbol's ends.[1] Some sans-serif fonts do meet this typographic specification.[2] Prior to 1989, there was an alternate symbol for this sound: ⟨ɩ⟩, the use of which is no longer sanctioned by the IPA.[3] Despite that, some modern writings[4] still use it.

Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol ⟨i⟩, which technically represents the close front unrounded vowel.

The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ɪ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close front unrounded vowel,[5] therefore, an alternative transcription of this vowel is ⟨⟩ (a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ï̞⟩). The symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ is often also used to transcribe the close-mid near-front unrounded vowel, which is a slightly lower vowel, though it still fits the definition of a mid-centralized [i]. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as Californian, General American and modern Received Pronunciation)[6][7][8] as well as some other languages (such as Icelandic),[9][10] and it can be transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ̞⟩ (a lowered ⟨ɪ⟩) in narrow transcription. Certain sources[11] may even use ⟨ɪ⟩ for the close-mid front unrounded vowel, but that is rare. For the close-mid (near-)front unrounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ (or ⟨i⟩), see close-mid front unrounded vowel.

For the fully central equivalents of these vowels, see near-close central unrounded vowel and close-mid central unrounded vowel.

Some languages, such as Danish[12][13] and Sotho[14] have the near-close front unrounded vowel, which differs from its near-front counterpart in that it is a lowered, but not centralized close front unrounded vowel, transcribed in the IPA as ⟨ɪ̟⟩, ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for classifying vowels. Some linguists use the terms "high" and "low", respectively, instead of "close" and "open".[citation needed]

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[15] meter [ˈmɪ̞ˑtɐr] 'meter' Close-mid. Allophone of /ɪə/ in less stressed words and in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words. In the latter case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [ɪə̯ ~ ɪ̯ə ~ ɪə].[15] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Kuwaiti[16] بِنْت [bɪnt] 'girl' Corresponds to /i/ in Classical Arabic.[16][17] See Arabic phonology
Lebanese[17] لبنان [lɪbnæːn] 'Lebanon'
Burmese[18] [orthographic
form needed
]
[mjɪʔ] 'root' Allophone of /i/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized.[18]
Chinese Shanghainese[19] / ih [ɪ̞ʔ˥] 'one' Close-mid; appears only in closed syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɛ/ ([]), which appears only in open syllables.[19]
Cipu Tirisino dialect[20] n-upití [n ù pì̞tí̞] "while he
stepped"
Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[20]
Czech Bohemian[21] byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-front [ɪ][21] and close-mid front [ɪ̟˕].[22] It corresponds to close front [i] in Moravian Czech.[22] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[12][13] hel [ˈhe̝ːˀl] 'whole' Front; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[12][13] It is typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ - the way it is pronounced in the conservative variety.[23] The Danish vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɪ⟩ is pronounced similarly to the short /e/.[24] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[25][26][27] blik About this sound [blɪk] 'glance' The Standard Northern realization is near-close [ɪ],[25][26] but the Standard Belgian realization has also been described as close-mid [ɪ̞].[27] Some regional dialects have a vowel that is slightly closer to the cardinal [i].[28][29] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[30] bit [bɪ̟t] 'bit' Front;[30] also described as close [i].[31] See Australian English phonology
Californian[6] About this sound [bɪ̞t] Close-mid.[6][7] See English phonology
General American[7]
Inland Northern American[32] [bɪt] The quality varies between near-close near-front [ɪ], near-close central [ɪ̈], close-mid near-front [ɪ̞] and close-mid central [ɘ].[32]
Philadelphian[33] The height varies between near-close [ɪ] and close-mid [ɪ̞].[33]
Northern England[34]
Welsh[35][36][37] Near-close [ɪ] in Abercrave and Port Talbot, close-mid [ɪ̞] in Cardiff.[35][36][37]
Estuary[38] [bɪʔt] Can be front [ɪ̟], near-front [ɪ] or close-mid [ɪ̞], with other realizations also being possible.[38]
Norfolk[39]
Received Pronunciation[8][40] Close-mid [ɪ̞] for younger speakers, near-close [ɪ] for older speakers.[8][40]
Some speakers of West Midlands English[41] The height varies between near-close [ɪ] and close-mid [ɪ̞]; can be close [i] instead.[41]
New Zealand[42][43] bed [be̝d] 'bed' The quality varies between near-close front [e̝], near-close near-front [ɪ], close-mid front [e] and close-mid near-front []. It is typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e⟩.[42] In the cultivated variety, it is mid [].[43] See New Zealand English phonology
Some Broad and General South African speakers[44] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e⟩. In the Broad variety, it is usually lower [ɛ], whereas in the General variety, it can be close-mid [e] instead.[44] See South African English phonology
Faroese[45] lint [lɪn̥t] 'soft' See Faroese phonology
French Quebec[46] petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables.[46] See Quebec French phonology
Galician[47][48] onte [ˈɔn̪t̪ɪ] 'yesterday' Unstressed allophone of /i/ and /e/.[47][48] See Galician phonology
Gayo[49] tingkep [tɪŋˈkəp] 'window' Possible allophone of /i/ and /e/; in both cases the backness varies between front and near-front.[49]
German Standard[50][51][52] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtə] 'please' Described variously as front [ɪ̟],[50] near-front [ɪ][51] and close-mid [ɪ̞].[52] For some speakers, it may be as high as [i].[53] See Standard German phonology
Chemnitz dialect[54] Wind [ʋɪ̞n̪t̪] 'wind' Close-mid.[54] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Some Swiss dialects[55][56] Chìng [ɣ̊ɪŋː] 'child' The example word is from the Bernese dialect.
Hungarian[57] visz [vɪs] 'to carry' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[9][10] vinur [ˈʋɪ̞ːnʏ̞ɾ] 'friend' Close-mid.[9][10] See Icelandic phonology
Kaingang[58] [ɸɪˈɾi] 'rattlesnake' Atonic allophone of /i/ and /e/.[59]
Limburgish Most dialects[60][61] hin [ɦɪ̞n] 'chicken' Near-close [ɪ][61] or close-mid [ɪ̞],[60] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Weert dialect[62] zeen [zɪːn] 'to be' Allophone of /eə/ before nasals.[62]
Luxembourgish[63] Been [be̝ːn] 'leg' Front;[63] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩. Also described as close-mid [].[64] See Luxembourgish phonology
Maltese[65] Ikel [ɪkɛl] 'food'
Mongolian[66] ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[67][68] litt [li̞tː] 'a little' Front;[67][68] also described as close [i].[69] See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian[70] cine [ˈsinɪ] 'cine' Reduction and neutralization of unstressed /e/ (can be epenthetic), /ɛ/ and /i/. Can be voiceless. See Portuguese phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[71] rikke [ˈʁɪkə] [translation needed]
Romanian Banat dialect[72] râu [rɪw] 'river' Corresponds to [ɨ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[73][74] дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə] 'tree' Backness varies between front and near-front. It occurs only in unstressed syllables.[73][74] See Russian phonology
Sandawe[75] dtine [tì̞né] 'trap' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[75]
Sema[76] pi [pì̞] 'to say' Front;[76] also described as close [i].[77]
Shiwiar[78] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[78]
Slovak[79][80] rýchly [ˈrɪːxlɪ] 'fast' Backness varies between front [ɪ̟] and near-front [ɪ].[79] See Slovak phonology
Slovene Standard[81] mira [ˈmɪ̀ːɾä] 'measure' Allophone of /i/ before /r/.[81] See Slovene phonology
Sotho[14] ho leka [hʊ̠lɪ̟kʼɑ̈] 'to attempt' Front; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[14] See Sotho phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[82] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[82]
Swedish Central Standard[83][84] sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪ː] 'herring' The quality has been variously described as close-mid front [ɪ̟˕],[83] near-close front [ɪ̟][84] and close front [i].[85] See Swedish phonology
Tamambo[86] cili [xi̞li̞] 'to tickle' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[86]
Temne[87] pim [pí̞m] 'pick' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.[87]
Turkish[88] müşteri [my̠ʃt̪e̞ˈɾɪ] 'customer' Allophone of /i/ described variously as "word-final"[88] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[89] See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[90] ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[91] być [bɪt͡ʃ] 'to be' Allophone of /i/ after hard consonants.[91] See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian Standard[92][93] ik [ɪk] 'I' See West Frisian phonology
Hindeloopers[94] beast [bɪːst] 'beast' Corresponds to /ɪə/ in Standard West Frisian.
Yoruba[95] [example needed] Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ĩ⟩. It is nasalized, and may be close [ĩ] instead.[95]

References

  1. ^ "IPA Fonts: General Advice". International Phonetic Association. 2015. With any font you consider using, it is worth checking that the symbol for the centralized close front vowel (ɪ, U+026A) appears correctly with serifs top and bottom; that the symbol for the dental click (ǀ, U+01C0) is distinct from the lower-case L (l) 
  2. ^ Sans-serif fonts with serifed ɪ (despite having serifless capital I) include Arial, FreeSans and Lucida Sans.
    On the other hand, Segoe and Tahoma place serifs on ɪ as well as capital I.
    Finally, both are serifless in Calibri.
  3. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 167.
  4. ^ Such as Árnason (2011)
  5. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 13.
  6. ^ a b c Ladefoged (1999), p. 42.
  7. ^ a b c Wells (1982b), p. 486.
  8. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), p. 90.
  9. ^ a b c Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  10. ^ a b c Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  11. ^ Such as Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012).
  12. ^ a b c Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  13. ^ a b c Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  14. ^ a b c Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  15. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 119.
  16. ^ a b Ayyad (2011), p. ?.
  17. ^ a b Khattab (2007), p. ?.
  18. ^ a b Watkins (2001), p. 293.
  19. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  20. ^ a b McGill (2014), pp. 308–309.
  21. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  22. ^ a b Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), pp. 228–229.
  23. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  24. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  25. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 128.
  26. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  27. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  28. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  29. ^ Peters (2010), p. 241.
  30. ^ a b Cox (2012), p. 159.
  31. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  32. ^ a b Gordon (2004), pp. 294, 296.
  33. ^ a b Gordon (2004), p. 290.
  34. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  35. ^ a b Tench (1990), p. 135.
  36. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  37. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 93.
  38. ^ a b Altendorf & Watt (2004), p. 188.
  39. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  40. ^ a b Wells (1982a), p. 291.
  41. ^ a b Clark (2004), p. 137.
  42. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  43. ^ a b Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  44. ^ a b Bowerman (2004), pp. 936–937.
  45. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  46. ^ a b Walker (1984), pp. 51–60.
  47. ^ a b Regueira (2010), pp. 13–14.
  48. ^ a b Freixeiro Mato (2006), p. 112.
  49. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  50. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 87.
  51. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013), p. 234.
  52. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  53. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  54. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  55. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  56. ^ Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 247.
  57. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  58. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  59. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  60. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), pp. 158–159.
  61. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 119.
  62. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. ?.
  63. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  64. ^ Trouvain & Gilles (2009), p. 75.
  65. ^ Borg (1997), p. ?.
  66. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  67. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  68. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 18.
  69. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15–16.
  70. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  71. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  72. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  73. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), p. 37.
  74. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 225.
  75. ^ a b Eaton (2006), p. 237.
  76. ^ a b Teo (2012), p. 368.
  77. ^ Teo (2014), p. 27.
  78. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  79. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  80. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  81. ^ a b Jurgec (2007), p. 3.
  82. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  83. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  84. ^ a b Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  85. ^ Dahlstedt (1967), p. 16.
  86. ^ a b Riehl & Jauncey (2005), p. 257.
  87. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010), p. 249.
  88. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  89. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  90. ^ Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14
  91. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 34.
  92. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  93. ^ de Haan (2010), pp. 332–333.
  94. ^ van der Veen (2001), p. 102.
  95. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

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