Near-close near-back rounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Near-close near-back rounded vowel
ʊ
ü̞
IPA number 321
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ
Unicode (hex) U+028A
X-SAMPA U
Kirshenbaum U
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
Sound

The near-close near-back rounded vowel, or near-high near-back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages. The IPA symbol that represents this sound is ⟨ʊ⟩. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternate IPA symbol for this sound, ⟨ɷ⟩, called "closed omega"; use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA.[1] In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol ⟨⟩ (a small capital U) is used. Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol ⟨u⟩, which technically represents the close back rounded vowel.

The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ʊ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close back rounded vowel,[2] therefore, an alternative transcription of this vowel is ⟨⟩ (a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ü̞⟩). The symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ is often also used to transcribe the close-mid near-back rounded vowel, which is a slightly lower vowel, though it still fits the definition of a mid-centralized [u]. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as General American and Geordie)[3][4] as well as some other languages (such as Maastrichtian Limburgish).[5] It can be transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ̞⟩ (a lowered ⟨ʊ⟩) in narrow transcription. Certain sources[6] may even use ⟨ʊ⟩ for the close-mid back rounded vowel, but that is rare. For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ (or ⟨u⟩), see close-mid back rounded vowel.

For the fully central equivalents of these vowels, see near-close central rounded vowel and close-mid central rounded vowel.

Some languages, such as Bengali[7] and Korean[8] have the near-close back rounded vowel, which differs from its near-back counterpart in that it is a lowered, but not centralized close back rounded vowel, transcribed in the IPA as ⟨ʊ̠⟩, ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩.

There is even one language (Palula) that contrasts a long near-close back rounded vowel with a short close-mid near-back rounded vowel, but they tend to be transcribed simply as /uː/ and /u/.[9]

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, the terms "high" and "low" are also in widespread use.

A few languages also have the near-close near-back unrounded vowel (which does not have a separate IPA symbol) in their inventory.

Near-close near-back protruded vowel

The near-close near-back protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʊ⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close near-back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʊ̫⟩ for the near-close near-back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʊʷ⟩ or ⟨ɯ̽ʷ⟩ (a near-close near-back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

The close-mid near-back protruded vowel can be transcribed ⟨ʊ̞ʷ⟩ or ⟨ʊ̫˕⟩, whereas the near-close back protruded vowel can be transcribed ⟨u̞ʷ⟩, ⟨ɯ̞ʷ⟩ or ⟨u̫˕⟩.

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali[7] তুমি [ˈt̪u̞ˌmiː] 'you' Back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.[7] See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[10] абатство [ɐˈbat̪s̪t̪vo̝] 'abbey' Back; possible realization of unstressed /u/ and /ɔ/ in post-stressed syllables.[10] See Bulgarian phonology
Burmese[11] [orthographic
form needed
]
[mʊʔ] 'smooth' Allophone of /u/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized.[11]
Chinese Shanghainese[12] [kʊ¹] 'melon' The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.[12]
Danish Standard[13][14] kone [ˈkʰo̝ːnə] 'wife' Back;[13][14] also described as close-mid [].[15][16] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩. The Danish vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʊ⟩ is pronounced similarly to (or the same as) the short /o/.[17] See Danish phonology
Dutch Some speakers[18] hok [ɦʊk] 'den' Contrasts with /ɔ/ in certain words, but many speakers have only one vowel /ɔ/.[18] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[19][20] hook [hʊk] 'hook' Also described as close back [u].[21] See Australian English phonology
Northern England[20][22]
Welsh[23][24] In Cardiff, it is advanced and lowered to [ɵ], often also with unrounding to [ɘ].[25]
General American[3] [hʊ̞k] Close-mid.[3][4][26]
Geordie[4]
Southern Michigan[26]
Cockney[27] [ʊʔk] Sometimes fronted to [ʊ̈].[27]
Conservative Received Pronunciation[20] [hʊʔk] Often lowered and advanced to [ɵ], or unrounded to [ɘ]. See English phonology
Multicultural London[28] May be front [ʏ] instead.[28]
New Zealand[29] The height varies between near-close and close-mid; it is unrounded and advanced to [ɪ̈ ~ ɘ] in some lexical items.[30] See New Zealand English phonology
Norfolk[31]
Some Estuary speakers[32] Often advanced to [ʊ̈ ~ ʏ], or advanced and lowered to [ɵ ~ ø̠].[32]
Faroese[33] gult [kʊl̥t] 'yellow' See Faroese phonology
French Quebec[34] foule [fʊl] 'crowd' Allophone of /u/ in closed syllables.[34] See Quebec French phonology
Galician[35][36] bebo [ˈbe̞β̞ʊ] 'I drink' Unstressed allophone of /u/ and /o/.[35][36] See Galician phonology
Gayo[37] wuk [ˈwʊk̚] 'hair' Possible allophone of /u/ and /o/; in both cases the backness varies between back and near-back.[37]
German Standard[38][39] Stunde About this sound [ˈʃtʊndə] 'hour' Described variously as near-close[38] and close-mid.[39] See Standard German phonology
Chemnitz dialect[40] Schurf [ʃʊˤːf] 'blight' Pharyngealized; may be realized as [ʊːɒ̯] instead.[40] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Some Swiss dialects[41][42] Hùng [hʊŋː] 'dog' The example word is from the Bernese dialect.
Hungarian[43] ujj [ʊjː] 'finger' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Irish Munster[44] dubh [d̪ˠɰʊvˠ] 'black' Allophone of /ʊ/ between broad consonants.[44] See Irish phonology
Kaingang[45] [kʊˈtu] 'deaf' Atonic allophone of /u/ and /o/.[46]
Korean[8] 구리/guri [ku̞ɾi] 'copper' Back;[8] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. See Korean phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[5] póp [pʊ̞p] 'doll' Close-mid.[5]
Weert dialect[47] [example needed] Used only by older speakers.[47]
Li'o Ke'o[48] [peru̞ ʔbäʔi] 'a shell' Back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.[48]
Luxembourgish[49] Sprooch [ʃpʀo̝ːχ] 'language' Back;[49] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩. Also described as close-mid [].[50] See Luxembourgish phonology
Mongolian[51] ус [ʊs] 'water'
Northern Paiute Mono Lake dialect[52] hudziba [hu̞d͡zibɐ] 'bird' Back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.[52]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[53][54] ond [ʊnː] 'bad' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-back,[53] near-close back[54] and close back,[55] whereas the type of rounding is more often said to be compressed[56][57] than protruded.[54] It may transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Sognamål[58] spytt [spʊ̞t] 'spit' Close-mid back.[58] See Norwegian phonology
Palula[9] [orthographic
form needed
]
[sʊ̞m] 'dry mud' Close-mid; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. It contrasts with a near-close back rounded vowel, which is typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩.[9]
Pashayi Lower Darai Nur dialect[59] [orthographic
form needed
]
[sʊ̞r] 'sun' Close-mid.[59]
Polish[60] tu [t̪ʊ] 'here' Very rare realization of /u/.[61] See Polish phonology
Portuguese Brazilian[62] pulo [ˈpulʊ] 'leap' Reduction and neutralization of unstressed /u, o, ɔ/; can be voiceless. See Portuguese phonology
Russian[63] сухой About this sound [s̪ʊˈxʷo̞j] 'dry' Unstressed allophone of /u/.[63] See Russian phonology
Sandawe[64] dtu [tʊ̂] 'come out' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.[64]
Shiwiar[65] [example needed] Allophone of /u/.[65]
Slovak[66][67][68] ruka [ˈrʊkä] 'arm' Backness varies between back and near-back.[66] See Slovak phonology
Sotho[69] potso [pʼʊ̠t͡sʼɔ] 'query' Back; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels.[69] See Sotho phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[70] tus [t̪ʊ̠ː] 'your' (pl.) Back. Corresponds to [u] in other dialects, but in these dialects they are distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[70]
Tamambo[71] culi [xʊli̞] 'to clear land' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.[71]
Temne[72] put [pú̞t] 'burst' Back, typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.[72]
Turkish[73] buzlu [buz̪ˈl̠ʊ] 'icy' Allophone of /u/ described variously as "word-final"[73] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[74] See Turkish phonology
Yoruba[75] [example needed] Near-back or back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ũ⟩. It is nasalized, and may be close [ũ̟ ~ ũ] instead.[75]

Near-close near-back compressed vowel

Near-close near-back compressed vowel
ʊ͍
ɯ̽ᵝ

Some languages, such as Norwegian, are found with a near-close near-back vowel that has a distinct type of rounding, called compressed or exolabial.

There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɯ̽͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɯ̽] and labial compression) or ⟨ɯ̽ᵝ⟩ ([ɯ̽] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨ʊ͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

Only the Shanghainese dialect is known to contrast this with the more typical protruded (endolabial) near-close near-back vowel, although the height of both of these vowels varies from close to close-mid.[12]

The near-close back compressed vowel can be transcribed ⟨ɯ̞͡β̞⟩, ⟨ɯ̞ᵝ⟩ or ⟨u͍˕⟩.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Shanghainese[12] [tɯ̽ᵝ¹] 'capital' The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.[12]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[53][54] ond [ɯ̽ᵝnː] 'bad' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-back,[53] near-close back[54] and close back,[55] whereas the type of rounding is more often said to be compressed[56][57] than protruded.[54] It may transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[76][77][78] ort About this sound [ɯ̽ᵝʈː] 'locality' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-back,[76] near-close back[77][78] and close back.[79] See Swedish phonology

References

  1. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 169.
  2. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 13.
  3. ^ a b c Wells (1982), p. 486.
  4. ^ a b c Watt & Allen (2003), p. 268.
  5. ^ a b c Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), pp. 158–159.
  6. ^ Such as Haugen (2004).
  7. ^ a b c Khan (2010), p. 222.
  8. ^ a b c Lee (1999), p. 121.
  9. ^ a b c Liljegren & Haider (2009), pp. 383–384.
  10. ^ a b Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  11. ^ a b Watkins (2001), p. 293.
  12. ^ a b c d e Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), pp. 328–329.
  13. ^ a b Uldall (1933), p. ?.
  14. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  15. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  16. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  17. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  18. ^ a b van Oostendorp (2013), section 29.
  19. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  20. ^ a b c Geoff Lindsey (2012) The British English vowel system, Speech Talk
  21. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  22. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  23. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  24. ^ Tench (1990), p. 135.
  25. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), pp. 92–93.
  26. ^ a b Hillenbrand (2003), p. 122.
  27. ^ a b Mott (2011), p. 75.
  28. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  29. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  30. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98, 100–101.
  31. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  32. ^ a b Altendorf & Watt (2004), p. 188.
  33. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  34. ^ a b Walker (1984), pp. 51–60.
  35. ^ a b Regueira (2010), pp. 13–14.
  36. ^ a b Freixeiro Mato (2006), p. 112.
  37. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  38. ^ a b Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  39. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  40. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 237.
  41. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  42. ^ Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 247.
  43. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  44. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  45. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  46. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  47. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  48. ^ a b Baird (2002), p. 94.
  49. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  50. ^ Trouvain & Gilles (2009), p. 75.
  51. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  52. ^ a b Babel, Houser & Toosarvandani (2012), p. 240.
  53. ^ a b c d Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  54. ^ a b c d e f Popperwell (2010), pp. 27-28.
  55. ^ a b Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 20.
  56. ^ a b Haugen (1974), p. 40.
  57. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), p. 16.
  58. ^ a b Haugen (2004), p. 30.
  59. ^ a b Lamuwal & Baker (2013), p. 245.
  60. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 75, 115.
  61. ^ Rocławski (1976), p. 115.
  62. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  63. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), p. 69.
  64. ^ a b Eaton (2006), p. 237.
  65. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  66. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  67. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  68. ^ Mistrík (1988), p. 13.
  69. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  70. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  71. ^ a b Riehl & Jauncey (2005), p. 257.
  72. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010), p. 249.
  73. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  74. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  75. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
  76. ^ a b Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  77. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  78. ^ a b Bolander (2001), p. 55.
  79. ^ Dahlstedt (1967), p. 16.

Bibliography

  • Altendorf, Ulrike; Watt, Dominik (2004), "The dialects in the South of England: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181–196, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4 
  • Babel, Molly; Houser, Michael J.; Toosarvandani, Maziar (2012), "Mono Lake Northern Paiute", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (2): 233–243, doi:10.1017/S002510031100051X 
  • Baird, Louise (2002), "Kéo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 93–97, doi:10.1017/S0025100302000178 
  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830 
  • Bolander, Maria (2001), Funktionell svensk grammatik (1st ed.), Liber AB, ISBN 9789147050543 
  • Chen, Yiya; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2015), "Shanghai Chinese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (3): 321–327, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000043 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87–103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Connolly, John H. (1990), "Port Talbot English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 121–129, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Cox, Felicity; Palethorpe, Sallyanne (2007), "Australian English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (3): 341–350, doi:10.1017/S0025100307003192 
  • Dahlstedt, Karl-Hampus (1967), Svårigheter i svenskans uttal, Modersmålslärarnas förening 
  • Doke, Clement Martyn; Mofokeng, S. Machabe (1974), Textbook of Southern Sotho Grammar (3rd ed.), Cape Town: Longman Southern Africa, ISBN 0-582-61700-6 
  • Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015), Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4 
  • Eades, Domenyk; Hajek, John (2006), "Gayo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 107–115, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002416 
  • Eaton, Helen (2006), "Sandawe", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 235–242, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002647 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano 
  • Fleischer, Jürg; Schmid, Stephan (2006), "Zurich German" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 243–253, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002441 
  • Freixeiro Mato, Xosé Ramón (2006), Gramática da lingua galega (I). Fonética e fonoloxía (in Galician), Vigo: A Nosa Terra, ISBN 978-84-8341-060-8 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526 
  • Haugen, Ragnhild (2004), Språk og språkhaldningar hjå ungdomar i Sogndal (PDF), Bergen: Universitetet i Bergen 
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162 
  • Haugen, Einar (1974) [1965], Norwegian-English Dictionary, The University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-03874-2 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307 
  • Hillenbrand, James M. (2003), "American English: Southern Michigan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 121–126, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001221 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. (2010), "Temne", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 247–253, doi:10.1017/S002510031000006X 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla (2010), "Bengali (Bangladeshi Standard)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 221–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000071 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2010), A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9 
  • Lamuwal, Abd-El-Malek; Baker, Adam (2013), "Southeastern Pashayi", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 243–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000133 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2009), "Palula", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 381–386, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990193 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Marti, Werner (1985), Berndeutsch-Grammatik, Bern: Francke, ISBN 3-7720-1587-5 
  • Mistrík, Jozef (1988) [First published 1982], A Grammar of Contemporary Slovak (2nd ed.), Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo 
  • Mott, Brian (2011), "Traditional Cockney and Popular London Speech" (PDF), Dialectologia, 9: 69–94, ISSN 2013-2247 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 55: 87–109 
  • Popperwell, Ronald G. (2010) [First published 1963], Pronunciation of Norwegian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15742-1 
  • Regueira, Xosé Luís (2010), Dicionario de pronuncia da lingua galega (PDF), A Coruña: Real Academia Galega, ISBN 978-84-87987-77-9 
  • Riehl, Anastasia K.; Jauncey, Dorothy (2005), "Tamambo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002197 
  • Rocławski, Bronisław (1976), Zarys fonologii, fonetyki, fonotaktyki i fonostatystyki współczesnego języka polskiego, Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego 
  • Rosenqvist, Håkan (2007), Uttalsboken: svenskt uttal i praktik och teori, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur, ISBN 978-91-27-40645-2 
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8 
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Illustrations of the IPA: Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Tench, Paul (1990), "The Pronunciation of English in Abercrave", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 130–141, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Trouvain, Jürgen; Gilles, Peter (2009), PhonLaf - Phonetic Online Material for Luxembourgish as a Foreign Language 1 (PDF), pp. 74–77 
  • Uldall, Hans Jørgen (1933), A Danish Phonetic Reader, The London phonetic readers, London: University of London Press 
  • van Oostendorp, Mark (2013), Klankencyclopedie van het Nederlands, Neder-L 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Walker, Douglas (1984), The Pronunciation of Canadian French (PDF), Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, ISBN 0-7766-4500-5 
  • Watkins, Justin W. (2001), "Burmese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 291–295, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397 
  • Wells, John C. (1982b), Accents of English, 3: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0 
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española (2nd ed.), Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (PDF), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Near-close_near-back_rounded_vowel&oldid=772014815"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-close_near-back_rounded_vowel
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Near-close near-back rounded vowel"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA