Near-close central rounded vowel

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Near-close central rounded vowel
ʊ̈
ʉ̞
IPA number 321 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+028A U+0308
X-SAMPA U\ or }_o
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)

The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ʊ̈⟩ (centralized [ʊ]) and ⟨ʉ̞⟩ (lowered [ʉ]) for a protruded vowel, and ⟨ʏ̈⟩ for a compressed vowel.

The symbol ⟨ᵿ⟩, a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, is used as an unofficial extension of the IPA to represent this sound by a number of publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells and the Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch,[2] a pronunciation dictionary for German. In the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, ⟨ᵿ⟩ represents free variation between /ʊ/ and /ə/.

Near-close central protruded vowel

The near-close central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʊ̈⟩ or ⟨ʉ̞⟩. This article uses the first symbol. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʊ̫̈⟩ or ⟨ʉ̫˕⟩ for the near-close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʊ̈ʷ⟩, ⟨ʉ̞ʷ⟩, ⟨ɪ̈ʷ⟩ or ⟨ɨ̞ʷ⟩ (a near-close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

Occurrence

Note: Because ⟨ʊ⟩ is commonly used for the close-mid near-back rounded vowel (see near-close near-back rounded vowel), some of the vowels transcribed with ⟨ʊ̈⟩ can actually be close-mid as well. See close-mid central rounded vowel.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Standard Northern[3] fuut [fʉ̞t] 'grebe' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩; also described as close front [y][4] and near-close front [ʏ].[5] See Dutch phonology
English Cockney[6] good [ɡʊ̈d] 'good' Only in some words, particularly good, otherwise realized as near-back [ʊ].[6]
Rural white Southern American[7] Can be front [ʏ] instead.[7]
Southeastern English[8] May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead;[8] it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Ulster[9] Short allophone of /u/.[9]
New Zealand[10][11] goose [ɡʉ̞ːs] 'goose' Possible realization of /ʉː/.[10][11] See New Zealand English phonology
Shetland[12] strut [stɹʊ̈t] 'strut' Can be [ɔ̟] or [ʌ] instead.[12]
Irish Munster[13] giobal [ˈɟjʊ̟bˠəɫ̪] 'rag' Slightly retracted; allophone of /ʊ/ after a slender consonant.[13] See Irish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[14] gull [ɡʉ̞lː] 'gold' The quality has been variously described as near-close front [ʉ̞˖],[15] near-close central [ʉ̞][14] and close central [ʉ],[16] whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed[17][18] and protruded.[18][19] It may differ from /ʏ/ only by the type of rounding. Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[20] ютиться [jʊ̈ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə] 'to huddle' Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology

Near-close central compressed vowel

Near-close central compressed vowel
ʏ̈
ʏ̵
ɨ̞͡β̞
ɨ̞ᵝ

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [ʏ], which is normally compressed. Another possibility is ⟨ʏ̵⟩, a centralized [ʏ] by analogy with the close central vowels, though this symbol may not display properly in all browsers. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɨ̞͡β̞⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] and labial compression) and ⟨ɨ̞ᵝ⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈ᵝ⟩ ([ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] modified with labial compression).

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Urban East[14] gull [ɡʏ̈lː] 'gold' The quality has been variously described as near-close front [ʏ],[15] near-close central [ʏ̈][14] and close central [ÿ],[16] whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed[17][18] and protruded.[18][19] It may differ from /ʏ/ only by the type of rounding. Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Swedish[21] duell About this sound [dʏ̈ˈɛ̝lː] 'duel' Unstressed allophone of /ɵ/ in some environments;[22] can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ̞⟩. See Swedish phonology

References

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Krech et al. (2009:171). The authors use that symbol to transcribe the vowel in Urban East Norwegian that is otherwise normally transcribed as ⟨ʉ̞⟩ or simply ⟨ʉ⟩.
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (2007), p. 30.
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  6. ^ a b Mott (2011), p. 75.
  7. ^ a b Thomas (2004), pp. 303, 308.
  8. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 174.
  9. ^ a b Jilka, Matthias. "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  11. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  12. ^ a b Melchers (2004), p. 42.
  13. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  14. ^ a b c d Popperwell (2010), pp. 30–31.
  15. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  16. ^ a b Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 21.
  17. ^ a b Haugen (1974), p. 40.
  18. ^ a b c d Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 15–16.
  19. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), pp. 29, 31.
  20. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 38.
  21. ^ Riad (2014), pp. 28-29.
  22. ^ Riad (2014), p. 27.

Bibliography

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (2007), Wat is de beste transcriptie voor het Nederlands? (PDF) (in Dutch), Nijmegen: Radboud University, archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2017 
  • Haugen, Einar (1974) [1965], Norwegian-English Dictionary, The University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-03874-2 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), "7.3.10 Norwegisch", Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mannell, Robert; Cox, Felicity; Harrington, Jonathan (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Melchers, Gunnel (2004), "English spoken in Orkney and Shetland: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 35–46, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Mott, Brian (2011), "Traditional Cockney and Popular London Speech" (PDF), Dialectologia, 9: 69–94, ISSN 2013-2247 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Popperwell, Ronald G. (2010) [First published 1963], Pronunciation of Norwegian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15742-1 
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1 
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8 
  • Thomas, Erik R. (2004), "Rural Southern white accents", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 300–324, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
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