Nazism in the United States

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Nazism in the United States came right from the rise of Nazism around the Twenties[1][dubious ] and has continued to exist perennially, on a smaller scale, through the first two decades of the twenty-first century.[2][dubious ]

Background

The International Jew, Nov. 1920 - 1st Edition by Henry Ford

In some parts of the United States, many non-white people were disenfranchised, barred from government office[dubious ], and prevented from holding most government jobs well into the second half of the 20th century.[3] The belief in racial superiority was widely accepted. Whites had used their political and economic power to segregate public spaces and facilities in law and establish social dominance over blacks in the South.[4][5] Immigration legislation enacted in the United States in 1921 and 1924 was interpreted widely as being at least partly anti-Jewish in intent because it strictly limited the immigration quotas of eastern European nations with large Jewish populations, nations from which approximately 3 million Jews had immigrated to the United States by 1920.[6][7] The idea of racial superiority was widely accepted. [8] The US leaders of journalism and business such as H. L. Mencken expressed confidence that Nazism at that time would prevent Bolshevism in Europe in the interwar period and the beginning of the second world war.[9] Companies such as IBM at the time fully committed at the time to providing the infrastructure and possible logistics for the German government.[10] There was also initial cooperation between the FBI (Edmund Coffey and Edgar Hoover) and the Gestapo (Reinhard Heydrich) in the interwar period with mutual praise between the two organizations.[11]

Interbellum

Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, the National Socialist German Workers’ Party,[12] or Nazi Party, grew into a mass movement promoting German pride and anti-Semitism, and expressed dissatisfaction with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.[13] The party's early financing is believed to have been partially handled by Eckart along with the money raised at Beer Hall Parties by Feder.,[14]

German American Bund parade on East 86th St., New York City, October 30, 1939

In the end of 1922, the New York Times reported rumors that Ford was financing Hitler's nationalist and anti-Semitic movements in Munich.[15][16] In 1938, Ford was awarded the Grand Cross of the German Eagle medal by Hitler. Ford's anti-Semitic views echoed the fears and assumptions of many Americans during the mid-1920s: a time when Ku Klux Klan membership had reached four million[17] and discriminatory immigration policies were enacted favoring immigrants from northern and western Europe over other parts of the world.

Beginning in 1930 the Rockefeller Foundation provided financial support to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics,[18] which later inspired and conducted eugenics experiments in the Third Reich. The Rockefeller Foundation funded Nazi racial studies even after it was clear that this research was being used to rationalize the demonizing of Jews and other groups. Up until 1939 the Rockefeller Foundation was funding research used to support Nazi racial science studies at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (KWIA).[19] Reports submitted to Rockefeller did not hide what these studies were being used to justify, but Rockefeller continued the funding and refrained from criticizing this research so closely derived from Nazi ideology. The Rockefeller Foundation did not alert "the world to the nature of German science and the racist folly" that German anthropology promulgated, and Rockefeller funded, for years after the passage of the 1935 Nuremberg racial laws.[20][21]

Twentieth century

21st century

Main article: Neo-Nazism

See also

Bibliography

  • Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. James Q. Whitman. ISBN: 9781400884636

References

  1. ^ Diamond, The Nazi Movement in the United States 1924-1941, pg 48.:"The DAI, or German Foreign Institute, played an essential role in the proliferation of early American Nazism. This organization, more than any other, took advantage of the outflow of German emigrants in the 1920s to spread its ideology beyond the borders of Weimar Germany. Most specifically, it targeted Germans leaving for the United States".
  2. ^ Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Hitlerland American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise to Power. America in WWII. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016. 
  3. ^ J. Morgan Kousser, The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880-1910 (Yale UP, 1974) and Samuel Issacharoff, Pamela Karlan and Richard Pildes, The Law of Democracy(Foundation press, 1998).
  4. ^ Opera addresses true story of black 14-year-old convicted, executed, exonerated 70 years later
  5. ^ Murphy, Edgar Gardner. The Problems of the Present South. 1910, p. 37
  6. ^ Glen Jeansonne (9 June 1997). Women of the Far Right: The Mothers' Movement and World War II. University of Chicago Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-226-39589-0. 
  7. ^ Laqueur, Walter Ze'ev (1965-01-01). Russia and Germany. Transaction Publishers. p. 105. ISBN 9781412833547. 
  8. ^ Hitler's Ostkrieg and the Indian Wars: Comparing Genocide and Conquest
  9. ^ Imagining Hitler Christopher Hitchens
  10. ^ Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation (London: Crown Publishers, 2001), p. 208
  11. ^ Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany Robert Gellately
  12. ^ following as the antecedent of the German Workers' Party
  13. ^ HISTORY, Education. "NAZI PARTY". A&E Television Networks. 
  14. ^ Raise, Of Hitler. "Nazi Party is Formed". The History Place. 
  15. ^ Imagining Hitler Christopher Hitchens
  16. ^ Page 2, Column 8. "New York Times, Dec. 20, 1922: "BERLIN HEARS FORD IS BACKING HITLER"". The New York Times. 
  17. ^ KU KLUX KLAN. by splcenter.org. Retrieved on 25 January 2017.
  18. ^ Schmuhl, Hans Walter (2008). Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics, 1927-1945. [Dordrecht, Netherlands]: Springer. p. 87.
  19. ^ Black, Edwin (9 November 2003). "Eugenics and the Nazis -- the California connection". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  20. ^ (Gretchen Schafft, From Racism to Genocide: Anthropology in the Third Reich. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004)
  21. ^ Schmuhl, Hans-Walter (2003). The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, 1927-1945". Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 259. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-6599-6. 
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