National personification

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Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.
An early example of National personification in a gospel book dated 990: Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Emperor Otto III.
1909 cartoon in Puck shows (clockwise) US, Germany, Britain, France and Japan engaged in naval race in a "no limit" game.

A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.[citation needed] It may appear in editorial cartoons and propaganda.

Some early personifications in the Western world tended to be national manifestations of the majestic wisdom and war goddess Minerva/Athena, and often took the Latin name of the ancient Roman province. Examples of this type include Britannia, Germania, Hibernia, Helvetia and Polonia. Examples of personifications of the Goddess of Liberty include Marianne, the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World), and many examples of United States coinage. Another ancient model was Roma, a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state, and who was revived in the 20th Century as the personification of Mussolini's "New Roman Empire". Examples of representations of the everyman or citizenry—rather than of the nation itself—are Deutscher Michel ,John Bull and Uncle Sam.[1]

Personifications by country or territory

Country Image Personification
 Albania Mother Albania Tirana 2.JPG Mother Albania (Nëna Shqipëria)
 Argentina 20060128 - Mausoleo del General San Martín en la Catedral de Buenos Aires.jpg Effigy of the Republic/Liberty/Progress/Fatherland, Gaucho, Martín Fierro
 Armenia Arm-3897-65 amyak end K 2.jpg Mother Armenia (Mayr Hayastan; lit. "Mother Hayastan")
 Australia LBM-Lindsay.jpg Little Boy from Manly
 Austria Wien 01 Austriabrunnen 07.jpg Austria
 Bangladesh Bangamata (lit. Mother Bengal); Bengal tiger.[2]

Joy Bangla (Bengali: জয় বাংলা; meaning "Victory to Bengal") was the slogan and war cry of the Mukti Bahini that fought for the independence of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.[3]

 Belgium La-Belgique-couronnant-ses-enfants-illustres-Jamar-1854.tif La Belgique or Belgica. The country is also commonly represented by a lion, historically known as Leo Belgicus.
 Brazil Rodrigues-republica-mab.jpg Efígie da República; the Bandeirante (only in São Paulo State); the Candango (in Brasília); the Gaúcho (in Rio Grande do Sul)
 Bulgaria Georgi-Danchov-Svobodna-Bulgaria.jpg Mother Bulgaria
 Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak
 Canada Statue Dollard des Ormeaux, parc Lafontaine, Montréal 2005-08-29.jpg Mountie[disputed ], Johnny Canuck, Le Vieux de '37 (French Canada), Adam Dollard des Ormeaux (used during the two World Wars as a military example), Mother Canada (at the Canadian National Vimy Memorial)
 Chile Roto chileno.jpg El Roto, El Huaso, La Carmela, Doña Juanita (an average Chilean woman from the countryside), Moya (a common surname used as N.N.)
 Czech Republic Vaclav Maly -The National Museum in Prague 048 Čechie, Czech Vašek, double-tailed Czech lion, Svejk.
 Denmark Holger danske.jpg Holger Danske
 Dominican Republic Conchoprimo.jpeg Conchoprimo
 Egypt Nahdet Misr.jpg Mother of the World (Om El Donia)
 El Salvador SalvadorDelMundo.jpg Monumento al Divino Salvador del Mundo
 Europe Enlèvement d'Europe by Nöel-Nicolas Coypel (detail).jpg Europa or Europa regina
 Finland SuomiNeito.png Finnish Maiden (Suomi-neito)
 France Marianne Symbol of french republic 3.jpg Marianne
 Georgia Saint George - Carlo Crivelli.jpg Georgia: Saint George, "Mother of a Georgian" (Kartvlis Deda)
 Germany Image Germania (painting).jpg Germany: Germania, Arminius (Hermann der Cherusker), Deutscher Michel

Bavaria: Bavaria, Berlin: Berolina, Brunswick: Brunonia, Franconia: Franconia, Hamburg: Hammonia, Prussia: Borussia, Palatinate: Palatia, Saxony: Saxonia

 Greece Theodoros Vryzakis, Grateful Hellas (1858).jpg Hellas
 Haiti Czestochowska.jpg Ezili Dantor, Katrin (based off the real life Haitian hero, Catherine Flon)
 Hungary Hungária nőalak Aradon.jpg The Lady of Hungaria
 Iceland Arnason-front.jpg The Lady of the Mountains (Fjallkonan)
 India Bharat matha.jpg Bharat Mata ("Mother India")
 Indonesia Statue of Goddess or Queen at Monas.JPG Ibu Pertiwi
 Iran Illustrerad Verldshistoria band I Ill 058.jpg Cyrus the Great
 Ireland Edmund Dwyer Gray UnitedIrelandCartoon April1888.png Ériu, Banba, Fódla, Kathleen Ni Houlihan, Hibernia, Scotia,[4] Granuaile, The Old Woman of Beare[5]
 Israel PikiWiki Israel 5668 cartoon museu in holon.jpg Srulik
 Italy Reggio calabria monumento all'italia.jpg Italia Turrita
 Japan Amaterasu cave crop.jpg Amaterasu
 Jordan Abu Mahjoob
 Kenya Wanjiku
Korea ( North Korea and  South Korea) Dangun, Ungnyeo, Korean Tiger, Yangban, Chollima
 Macedonia Mother Macedonia[6][7]
 Malaysia TuahNatlHistoryMuseumKL.jpg Hang Tuah, Harimau Malaya
 Malta Malta 1922 One Pound.jpg Melita
 Mexico Alegoría de la Patria Mexicana 1.jpg Alegoría de la Patria Mexicana (es), Our Lady of Guadalupe, La China Poblana
 Morocco BarbaryLionB1898bw.jpg Barbary Lion
 Netherlands Wapen Bataafse Republiek.svg Dutch Maiden, Dutch Republic Lion
 New Zealand 1901 Universal Postage 1 penny red.JPG Kiwi, Zealandia, southern man (for the South Island)
 Norway Norges Grundlov 1814 Frihed Lighed Broderskab, 1914.jpg Mother Norway (no), stereotyp. Ola Nordmann & Kari Nordmann, hist. Nór
 Palestine Handala.gif Handala
 Peru The chalán, La Madre Patria
 Philippines
RizalParkIntramurosGolfClubjf8588 13.JPG
Juan dela Cruz, María Clara, Ináng Bayan, Filipinas, Philippine eagle
 Poland Quincunx Polonia.jpg Polonia
 Portugal Zepovinho.jpg Zé Povinho, Eu nacional (National Self), Republic effigy, Guardian Angel of Portugal
 Romania Gheorghe Tattarescu - 11 februarie 1866 Romania Moderna.jpg România
 Russia RossiiaLaveretsky.jpg Mother Russia/Mother Motherland
 Serbia Kosovo Maiden, Uroš Predić, 1919.jpg Mother Serbia, Kosovo Maiden
 Singapore Singapore Mini Merlion.JPG Merlion
 Slovakia Wladyslaw Skoczylas - Janosik.jpg Jánošík
 Slovenia Kranjski Janez ("John from Carniola", an average man from Slovenia's central region), Peter Klepec
 Spain Biblioteca Nacional de España (Madrid) 03b.jpg Hispania
 Suriname Mama Sranan Sculpture Mama Sranan (Mother Suriname), a 1965 sculpture by Jozeph Klas in the center of Paramaribo, of a mother figure holding five children representing Suriname's ethnic groups in her arms.[8]
 Sweden Moder svea berga.JPG Mother Svea
  Switzerland Zweifranken (cropped).jpg Helvetia
 Thailand Pra Siamdevadhiraj.png Phra Siam Devadhiraj (พระสยามเทวาธิราช "The guardian angel of Siam"), Thailand
 Ukraine Cossack Mamay 1890.jpg Cossack Mamay
 United Kingdom Britannia-Statue.jpg Britannia, John Bull
 United States Unclesamwantyou.jpg Uncle Sam (government personification), Statue of Liberty as Lady Liberty, Columbia, Johnny Rebel (The South, obsolete), Billy Yank (The North, obsolete), Brother Jonathan
 Vietnam The Four Immortals

See also

References

  1. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, "Mass-Producing Traditions: Europe, 1870-1914," in Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge, 1983), 263-307.
  2. ^ "NATIONAL SYMBOLS". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. 
  3. ^ Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 310. ISBN 8176484695. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  4. ^ O'Clery, M. (2003) Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters as translated into English
  5. ^ O'Rourke Murphy, M. & MacKillop, J. (2006). An Irish Literature Reader: Poetry, Prose, Drama.
  6. ^ "A Manifesto from the Provisional Government of Macedonia". 1881. Our mother Macedonia became now as a widow, lonely and deserted by her sons. She does not fly the banner of the victorious Macedonian army 
  7. ^ Bulgarian graphic representation of Bulgaria, East Rumelia and Macedonia
  8. ^ http://www.parbode.com/opinie/item/2629-kunstschatten-mama-sranan

Further reading

  • Lionel Gossman. "Making of a Romantic Icon: The Religious Context of Friedrich Overbeck's 'Italia und Germania.'" American Philosophical Society, 2007. ISBN 0-87169-975-3. [1]

External links

  • A scholarly case study of the evolution of Deutscher Michel
  • Kirsten Stirling: "The Image of the Nation as a Woman in Twentieth Century Scottish Literature"
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