National Supervisory Commission

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National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国国家监察委员会
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guójiā Jiānchá Wěiyuánhuì
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg
Common name National Supervision Commission
Agency overview
Formed March 2018
Jurisdictional structure
National agency China
Operations jurisdiction China
Headquarters Beijing, China

Elected officer responsible
  • Yang Xiaodu, Director of the National Supervisory Commission
Website
CCDI & NSC official website
National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese 中华人民共和国国家监察委员会
Traditional Chinese 中華人民共和國國家監察委員會
This article is part of a series on the
Politics of China
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg

National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China[1] is the highest anti-corruption agency of the People's Republic of China, at the same administrative ranking as Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate. Its operations are merged with the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China.[2] The National Supervision Commission was formed at the first session of the 13th National People's Congress in 2018.[3] The Commission includes the director, deputy director, and ordinary members and the director is appointed by the National People's Congress.[4]

Background

The National Supervisory Commission was formed as part of a series of reforms to China's anti-corruption system during the first term of Xi Jinping as General Secretary of the Communist Party. While the Communist Party had institutionalized internal mechanisms for combating corruption in some form since its early days, it was apparent that it was largely ineffective at curbing systemic corruption, and otherwise had no legal basis, as the main organ tasked with combating corruption and malfeasance, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, was a party organ, not a state one.[5]

Prior to Xi's anti-corruption campaign, offenses were often prosecuted at the direction of local party authorities through their control of local Commissions for Discipline Inspection (CDIs) and procuratorial organs. While these authorities theoretically reported to their superior commissions at the next higher level of administration (i.e. the municipal organ would report to the provincial one, the provincial organ would report into the CCDI), in addition to answering to the local party leadership, in reality the local CDIs only answered to local party leaders, as they controlled the budgets, personnel, and resources of these organizations. This often led to arbitrary exercise of power and political selectiveness in the targets of corruption efforts.[5]

Formation

In late 2016, Supervisory Commissions (SCs) began pilot initiatives in Shanxi, Beijing and Zhejiang. Provincial level chiefs of Discipline Inspection began serving concurrently as heads of the local Supervisory Commissions.[5]

The formation of the National Supervisory Commission centralized control of anti-corruption resources to the central authorities and was aimed at curbing local interference in anti-corruption efforts. The former National Anti-Corruption Bureau, the Office Against Dereliction of Duty, and the anti-corruption department of the Procuratorate were all folded into a single agency.[5]

In February 2018, an amendment to the constitution was proposed to make national and local supervision commissions official state organs. Local commissions will be appointed by local peoples' congresses at county and higher level and will be accountable to them and to the supervision commission at the higher level.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "People's Republic of China Supervision Law (draft)". China Law Translate. China. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Why should the National Supervisory Commission merges its operations with the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of CPC?(为什么中央纪委与国家监察委员会要合署办公?)". Website of CCDI & NSC. China. 2 Feb 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  3. ^ "China to set up national supervision commission next year". Xinhua News Agency. 2017-10-30.
  4. ^ "Anti-graft campaign to broaden". The Standard. 2017-11-06.
  5. ^ a b c d Deng, Jinting (March 2018). "The National Supervision Commission: A New Anti-corruption Model in China". International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. 52: 58-73.
  6. ^ "CPC proposes listing supervisory commissions as state organs in Constitution". www.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua. 2018-02-25. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
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