National Congress of the Communist Party of China

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National Congress of the Communist Party of China
中国共产党全国代表大会
Logo
Communist Party of China emblem
Type
Type
Term limits
Five years
Leadership
Authority
Jurisdiction
Meeting place
China Senate House.jpg
Great Hall of the People
Beijing, China
Website
en.people.cn/206235//

The National Congress of the Communist Party of China(NCCPC) (Chinese: 中国共产党全国代表大会; pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì; literally: Chinese Communist Party National Representatives Congress) is a party congress that is held every five years. The National Congress is theoretically the highest body within the Communist Party of China, but in practice important decisions are made before the meeting.[citation needed] Since 1987 the National Congress has been held in the months of October or November. The venue for the event, beginning in 1956, is the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. In the past two decades the National Congress of the CPC has been pivotal at least as a symbolic part of leadership changes, and therefore has gained international media attention.

Since the mid-1980s, the Communist Party has attempted to maintain a smooth and orderly succession and avoiding a cult of personality, by having a major shift in personnel every ten years in even number party congresses, and by promoting people in preparation for this shift in odd number party congresses.

In addition, as people at the top level of the party retire, there is room for younger members of the party to move up one level. Hence the party congress is a time of a general personnel reshuffle, and the climax of negotiations that involve not only the top leadership but practically all significant political positions in China. Because of the pyramid structure of the party and the existence of mandatory retirement ages, cadres who are not promoted at a party congress are likely to face the end of their political careers.

In addition to making leadership changes, the Congress also reviews and changes, if necessary, the Party's Constitution, and selects the Central Committee, a powerful decision making body. Each five-year cycle of the National People's Congress also has a series of plenums of the Central Committee which since the mid-1990s have been held more or less regularly once every year.

Similar to the practice of the NPC, the delegates to the Congress are formally selected from grassroot party organizations, and like the NPC, the system of staggered elections in which one level of the party votes for the delegates to the next higher level allows the party center to control the election of delegates.[clarification needed]

Keys

Abbreviations
CC Central Committee
CCDI Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
FM Full member (a member with voting rights).
AM Alternate member (a member without voting rights).
VD Voting delegate (a delegate who can vote).
AD Alternate delegate (a delegate who cannot vote).
DU Data unavailable.
SID Specially invited delegate (a party member who has retired, but giving ordinary delegate rights).
Political Report Political Report to the Central Committee, a document which briefs delegates about the period since the last congress and future work.
Constitution Constitution of the Communist Party of China, the fundamental governing document of the CPC. Formerly known as the Charter.
PMR Party members represented at the congress by delegates (the party membership at the time).

Convocations

Congress Duration
(start—end)
Delegates Electoral
units
Elected Political Report
(presented by)
Constitution
(changes)
PMR
CC CCDI
1st National Congress
8 days
None
23 July

31 July 1921
12 7 Chen Duxiu
[note 1]
50
2nd National Congress
7 days
CC consultations
16 July

23 July 1922
12 DU 5 FM

3 AM
Chen Duxiu 1st Charter 195
3rd National Congress
8 days
CC appointments
12 June

20 June 1923
~30 DU 9 FM

5 AM
Chen Duxiu Amendment 420
4th National Congress
11 days
CC appointments
11 January

22 January 1925
20 DU 9 FM

5 AM
Chen Duxiu Amendment 994
5th National Congress
13 days
1927 election
27 April

9 May 1927
~80 11 22 FM

14 AM
Chen Duxiu Amendment
[note 2]
57,967
6th National Congress
23 days
1928 election
18 June

11 July 1928
84 VD

34 AD
17 14 FM

13 AM
Qu Qiubai 2nd Charter 130,194
7th National Congress
49 days
1939–1945 election
23 April

11 June 1945
544 VD

208 AD
8 44 FM

33 AM
Mao Zedong 3rd Constitution 1,210,000
8th National Congress
30 days
1955–1956 election
15–27 September 1956

5–23 May 1958
1,026 VD

107 AD
31 97 FM

73 AM
Liu Shaoqi 4th Constitution 10,730,000
9th National Congress
23 days
1968–1969 election
1 April

24 April 1969
1,512 DU 170 FM

109 AM
Lin Biao 5th Constitution 22,000,000
10th National Congress
4 days
1972–1973 election
24 August

24 August 1973
1,249 DU 194 FM

124 AM
Zhou Enlai 6th Constitution 28,000,000
11th National Congress
6 days
1976–1977 election
12 August

18 August 1977
1,510 DU 201 FM

132 AM
Hua Guofeng Amendment 35,000,000
12th National Congress
6 days
1981–1982 election
1 September

11 September 1982
1,600 VD

149 AD
DU 210 FM

138 AM
132 Hu Yaobang 7th Constitution 39,000,000
13th National Congress
7 days
1986–1987 election
25 October

1 November 1987
1,936 VD

61 SID
33 175 FM

110 AM
69 Zhao Ziyang Amendment 46,000,000
14th National Congress
6 days
1991–1992 election
12 October

18 October 1992
1,989 VD

46 SID
34 189 FM

130 AM
108 Jiang Zemin Amendment 51,000,000
15th National Congress
6 days
1996–1997 election
12 September

18 September 1997
2,074 VD

60 SID
36 193 FM

151 AM
115 Jiang Zemin Amendment 58,000,000
16th National Congress
7 days
2001–2002 election
8 November

15 November 2002
2,114 VD

40 SID
38 198 FM

158 AM
121 Jiang Zemin Amendment 66,000,000
17th National Congress
6 days
2006–2007 election
15 October

21 October 2007
2,217 VD

57 SID
38 208 FM

167 AM
127 Hu Jintao Amendment 73,363,000
18th National Congress
7 days
2011–2012 election
8 November

15 November 2012
2,270 VD

57 SID
40 205 FM

168 AM
130 Hu Jintao Amendment 82,600,000

Notes

  1. ^ The 1st National Congress conceived of a party program, a document which focuses on ideology rather than explaining the organizational structure of the party.[1]
  2. ^ Decided by congress that the 5th Politburo would amend the constitution after the congress.[1]

References

General

Information on congresses, number of delegates, electoral units, number of people elected to CCs, party membership, the individual who presented the Political Report and information on when the congress was convened can be found in these sources:

Bibliography

Specific

  1. ^ a b Wu 2015, p. 182.
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