State Anthem of the Soviet Union

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State Anthem of the Soviet Union[1]
State Emblem of the Soviet Union.svg

Emblem of the Russian SFSR.svg

State anthem of Russian SFSR
Soviet Union

Lyrics Gabriel El-Registan, Sergey Mikhalkov (1943 and 1977)
Music Alexander Alexandrov, 1938 (?)
Adopted 1 January 1944
1 September 1977 (modified version)
Relinquished 26 December 1991
(as anthem of the Soviet Union)
23 November 1990
(as anthem of the Russian SFSR)
Audio sample
State Anthem of the USSR (instrumental)

Slav’sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye! (Russian: Славься, Отечество наше свободное!; Slav’sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye!, lit. "Be glorious, our free Fatherland!"), officially known as the "State Anthem of the Soviet Union" (Russian: Государственный гимн СССР, tr. Gosudarstvenny Gimn SSSR) was introduced during World War II on 15 March 1944, replacing The Internationale as the official anthem of the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The lyrics were written by Sergey Mikhalkov (1913–2009) in collaboration with Gabriel El-Registan (1899–1945) and the music was composed by Alexander Alexandrov (1883–1946). Although the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, its national anthem's melody continues to be used in the Russian Federation's national anthem, which has different lyrics to the version used in the Soviet Union.

History

Playing of the State Anthem at the 63rd Anniversary Jubilee of the Great October Socialist Revolution, 1980.

The music was originally composed by Alexander Alexandrov in 1930 for the Hymn of the Bolshevik Party with lyrics by Vasily Lebedev-Kumach, adapted from an older song of Alexandrov's, Zhit' stalo luchshe. When came time for a new national anthem to replace The Internationale and boost the morale of Soviet forces fighting the threat of The Third Reich, Alexandrov used his pre-existing melody and had Gabriel El-Registan create new lyrics for the hymn of the united republics.

The anthem itself was played for the first time on Soviet radio at midnight on 1 January 1944.[2][citation needed] The newly created lyrics had three different refrains following three different stanzas; in each refrain, the second line was consequently modified with references to friendship, then happiness and finally to glory. Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union's war against Nazi Germany were originally invoked in the second and third lyrics respectively.

With the process of de-Stalinization inaugurated after Stalin's death, the lyrics which referred to Stalin were considered unacceptable and during 1953–1977 the anthem was performed without lyrics.[3] A notable exception took place at the 1976 Canada Cup ice hockey tournament, where the singer Roger Doucet insisted on performing the anthem with lyrics, after consultations with Russian studies scholars from Université de Montréal and the Soviet team officials.[4][5] In 1977, to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution, revised lyrics, earlier written in 1970 by the original author Sergey Mikhalkov,[6] were adopted. The varying refrains were replaced by a uniform refrain following all stanzas; the line praising Stalin was dropped, as were the lines referring to the Great Patriotic War. A notable change in the lyrics is the replacement of a line referencing the Flag of the Soviet Union to one mentioning the Bolshevik Party in the form of "Partiya Lenina" (The party of Lenin). These lyrics were also present in the original Bolshevik party anthem at the same location within the melody, followed by the lyrics "Partiya Stalina" (The party of Stalin).

Use in the Russian Federation

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian Federation adopted a new wordless anthem called the "Patriotic Song", although there were suggestions for adopting lyrics. As a result, a few different versions were produced.[7] In 2000, the current national anthem of Russia was introduced, which used the music of the Soviet national anthem and the lyrics written by Sergey Mikhalkov.

The Soviet anthem remains for many a song of national pride and of international unity with former Union republics. It is often played at Communist rallies and apolitical Victory Day celebrations.[citation needed][where?]

State Union of Russia and Belarus

Also, the same music was used for a proposal of the anthem of the State Union of Russia and Belarus entitled Derzhavny Soyuz Narodov (Union of Sovereign Nations). Although never officially adopted, the lyrics of that piece were not tied to any specific nationality, and could be adopted for a broader union. However, there appears to be no plans to utilize that piece in any official role. The anthem also had official versions in the languages of every Soviet republic and in several other Soviet languages.

Decommmunization

In some[which?] post-Soviet states which adopted decommunization laws banning the Communist symbolism, performing the Soviet anthem is illegal. For example, since 2015 in Ukraine the offenders face up to five years of prison.[8] Similar laws were adopted in Latvia[9], Lithuania[10] and Germany.

Lyrics

Lyrics for the 1944 version
Russian Transliteration Official translation Literal translation Paul Robeson translation[11] German translation

Союз нерушимый республик свободных

Сплотила навеки Великая Русь.

Да здравствует созданный волей народов

Единый, могучий Советский Союз!

Sojuz njerushimyy rjespublik svobodnykh

Splotila navjeki Vjelikaja Rus’.

Da zdravstvujet sozdannyy voljej narodov

Yedinyy, moguchij Sovyetskij Sojuz!

Unbreakable Union of freeborn Republics

Great Russia has welded forever to stand!

Created in struggle by will of the Peoples,

United and Mighty our Soviet Land!

An unbreakable union of free republics,

The Great Russia has welded forever to stand.

Long live the creation of the will of the people,

The united, mighty Soviet Union!

United forever in friendship and labor,

Our mighty Republics will ever endure.

The great Soviet Union will live through the ages.

The dream of a people their fortress secure.

Von Russland, dem Großen,

auf ewig verbündet

steht machtvoll der

Volksrepubliken Bastion.

Es lebe, vom Willen

der Völker gegründet, die einig mächtige Sowjetunion.

ПРИПЕВ:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя Советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!
PRIPEV:
Slav’sya, Otechyestvo nashye svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhnyy oplot!
Znamya Sovyetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust’ ot pobyedy k pobyedye vedyot!
CHORUS:
Sing to our Motherland, Free and Undying,
Bulwark of Peoples in Brotherhood Strong!
Flag of the Soviets, Flag of the people,
From Victory to Victory lead us on!
CHORUS:
Be glorious, our free Motherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' friendship!
Banner of the Soviets, Banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!
CHORUS:
Long live our Soviet motherland, built by the people's mighty hand.
Long live our people, united and free.
Strong in our friendship tried by fire. Long may our crimson flag inspire,
Shining in glory for all men to see.
REFRAIN:

Ruhm und Lobgesang

dir, freies Vaterland!

Freundschaft der Völker

hast fest du gefügt.

Fahne der Sowjetmacht,

Fahne in Volkes Hand,

Du sollst uns führen von Sieg zu Sieg.

Сквозь грозы сияло нам солнце свободы,

И Ленин великий нам путь озарил:

Нас вырастил Сталин — на верность народу,

На труд и на подвиги нас вдохновил!

Skvoz’ grozy siyalo nam solntsye svobody,

I Lyenin velikiy nam put’ ozaril,

Nas vyrastil Stalin – na vernost’ narodu,

Na trud i na podvigi nas vdokhnovil!

Through tempests the shadows of freedom have cheered us,

Along the new path where great Lenin did lead,

Be true to the people, thus Stalin has reared us,

Inspired us to labor and Valorus Deed.

Through tempests the sun of freedom shone to us,

And the great Lenin illuminated our path,

We were raised by Stalin to be true to the people,

To labour and heroic deeds he inspired us!

Through days dark and stormy where great Lenin led us

Our eyes saw the bright Sun of freedom above

and Stalin our leader with faith in the people,

Inspired us to build up the land that we love.

O Sonne der Freiheit

durch Wetter und Wolke,

Von Lenin dem Großen ward

licht unser Pfad.

Und Stalin erzog uns

zur Treue dem Volke, beseelt uns zu Schaffen der heldischen Tat!

ПРИПЕВ:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Счастья народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя Советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!
PRIPEV:
Slav’sya, Otechyestvo nashye svobodnoye,
Schast'ya narodov nadyozhnyy oplot!
Znamya Sovyetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust’ ot pobyedy k pobyedye vedyot!
CHORUS:
Sing to our Motherland, Free and Undying,
Bulwark of Peoples in Happiness Strong!
Flag of the Soviets, Flag of the people,
From Victory to Victory lead us on!
CHORUS:
Be glorious, our free Motherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' happiness!
Banner of the Soviets, Banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!
CHORUS:
Long live our Soviet motherland, built by the people's mighty hand.
Long live our people, united and free.
Strong in our friendship tried by fire. Long may our crimson flag inspire,
Shining in glory for all men to see.
REFRAIN:

Ruhm und Lobgesang

dir, freies Vaterland!

Freundschaft der Völker

hast fest du gefügt.

Fahne der Sowjetmacht,

Fahne in Volkes Hand,

Du sollst uns führen von Sieg zu Sieg.

Мы армию нашу растили в сраженьях.

Захватчиков подлых с дороги сметём!

Мы в битвах решаем судьбу поколений,

Мы к славе Отчизну свою поведём!

My armiyu nashu rastili v srazhyen’yakh,

Zakhvatchikov podlykh s dorogi smyetyom!

My v bitvakh ryeshayem sud’bu pokolyeniy,

My k slavye Otchiznu svoyu povyedyom!

Our army grew up in the heat of grim battle,

Barbarian invaders we'll swiftly strike down.

In combat the fate of the future we'll settle,

Our country we'll lead to eternal renown!

We grew our army in battles,

We will sweep the vile invaders out of the way!

We shall in battle decide the fate of generations,

We shall lead to glory our Motherland!

We fought for the future, destroyed the invader,

and brought to our homeland the laurels of fame.

Our glory will live in the memory of nations

and all generations will honor her name.

Wir haben in Schlachten das

Heer geschaffen,

und schlagen den Feind, der

uns frech überrannt.

Entscheidet das Los von Generationen mit Waffen

und führen zum Ruhm unser heimatlich Land.

ПРИПЕВ:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Славы народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя Советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!
PRIPEV:
Slav’sya, Otechyestvo nashye svobodnoye,
Slavy narodov nadyozhnyy oplot!
Znamya Sovyetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust’ ot pobyedy k pobyedye vedyot!
CHORUS:
Sing to our Motherland, Free and Undying,
Bulwark of Peoples in Bravery Strong!
Flag of the Soviets, Flag of the people,
From Victory to Victory lead us on!
CHORUS:
Be glorious, our free Motherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' glory!
Banner of the Soviets, Banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!
CHORUS:
Long live our Soviet Motherland, built by the people's mighty hand.
Long live our people, united and free.
Strong in our friendship tried by fire. Long may our crimson flag inspire,
Shining in glory for all men to see!
REFRAIN:

Ruhm und Lobgesang

dir, freies Vaterland!

Freundschaft der Völker

hast fest du gefügt.

Fahne der Sowjetmacht,

Fahne in Volkes Hand,

Du sollst uns führen von Sieg zu Sieg!


Lyrics for the 1977 version
Russian Transliteration for Russian Ukrainian (Translation from Russian by Mykola Bazhan) Transliteration for Ukrainian Belarusian Transliteration for Belarusian (Latin alphabet)
Союз нерушимый республик свободных

Сплотила навеки Великая Русь!

Да здравствует созданный волей народов

Единый, могучий Советский Союз!

ПРИПЕВ:
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Партия Ленина - сила народная
Нас к торжеству Коммунизма ведёт!

Сквозь грозы сияло нам солнце свободы,

И Ленин великий нам путь озарил:

На правое дело он поднял народы,

На труд и на подвиги нас вдохновил!

ПРИПЕВ

В победе бессмертных идей Коммунизма

Мы видим грядущее нашей страны,

И Красному знамени славной Отчизны

Мы будем всегда беззаветно верны!

ПРИПЕВ

Soyuz nerushimy respublik svobodnykh

Splotila naveki velikaya Rus’!

Da zdravstvuyet sozdanny voley narodov

Yediny, moguchiy Sovetskiy Soyuz!

PRIPEV:
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Partiya Lenina - sila narodnaya
Nas k torzhestvu Kommunizma vedyot!

Skvoz’ grozy siyalo nam solntse svobody,

I Lenin velikiy nam put’ ozaril,

Na pravoye delo on podnyal narody,

Na trud i na podvigi nas vdohnovil!

PRIPEV

V pobede bessmertnyh idey Kommunizma

My vidim gryadushcheye nashey strany,

I Krasnomu znameni slavnoy Otchizny

My budem vsegda bezzavetno verny!

PRIPEV

Союзом незламним республіки вільні

Навіки з'єднала Великая Русь!

Хай квітне, народами створений спільно

Єдиний, могутній Радянський Союз!

ПРИСПІВ:

Славимо велич Вітчизни свободної,

Дружби народів опори в віках!

Партія Леніна — сила народная

До комунізму нам вказує шлях.

Крізь грози світило нам сонце свободи,

І Ленін великий нам путь осіяв,

На битву за правду покликав народи,

Натхнення на труд і на подвиги дав.

ПРИСПІВ

У звершенні славних ідей комунізму

Ми бачим, країно, майбутнє твоє.

Червоному стягу своєї Вітчизни

Народ наш несхитну присягу дає.

ПРИСПІВ

Soyuzum nezlamnym respubliky vil'ni

Naviky z"yednala Velikaya Rus'!

Khay kvitne, narodamy stvoreny spil'no

Yediny, mohutniy Radyans'ky Soyuz!

Pryspiv:

Slavymo velych Vitchyzny svobodnoyi,

Druzhby narodiv opory v vikakh!

Partiya Lenina-syla narodnaya

Do komunizmu nam vkazuye shlyakh.

Kriz' hrozy svitylo nam sontse svobody,

I Lenin velyky nam put' osiyav,

Na bytvu za pravdu poklykav narody,

Natkhnennya na trud i na podvigi dav.

Pryspiv

U zvershenni slavnykh idey komunizmu

My bachym, krayino, maybutnye tvoye.

Chervonomu styahu svoyeyi Vitchyzny

Narod nash neskhitnu prysyahu daye.

PRYSPIV

Непарушны звяз свабодных рэспублік,

Быў створаны навекі вялікай Расіяй!

Няхай жыве створаны воляй народаў,

Адзіны, магутны Савецкі Саюз!

ПРЫПЕЎ:

Слаўся, айчына наша свабодная,

Надзейны аплот братэрскіх народаў!

Партыя Леніна, сіла народная,

Вядзе нас да трыумфу камунізму!

Праз навальніцы нам ззяла сонца свабоды,

І Ленін вялікі нам паказаў шлях.

Дзеля правай справы ён падняў народы,

Натхнуў нас на працу і подзвігі.

ПРЫПЕЎ

У перамозе несмяротных ідэй камунізму

Мы бачым будучыню нашай краіны.

І чырвонаму сцягу слаўнай айчыны,

Мы будзем заўжды самааддана верныя!

ПРЫПЕЎ

Neparušny zviaz svabodnych respublik,

Byǔ stvorany naveki vialikaj Rasijaj!

Niachaj žyve stvorany voliaj narodaǔ,

Adziny, mahutny, Savecki Sajuz!

PRIPEŬ

Slaǔsia, aičyna naša svabodnaja,

Nadzeiny aplot braterskich narodaǔ!

Partyja Lenina, sila narodnaya,

Viadze nas da tryumfu kamunizmu!

Praz naval'nicy nam zziala sonca svabody,

I Lenin vialiki nam pakazaǔ šliach

Dzelia pravaj spravy jon padniaǔ,

Natchnuŭ nas na pracu i podzvihi.

PRIPEŬ

U peramoze nesmiarotnych idej kamunizmu

My bačym budučynu našaj krainy,

I čyrvonamu sciahu slaǔnaj aičyny,

My budzem zaǔždy samaaddana verny'ja!

PRIPEǓ

International Phonetic Alphabet transcription for Russian Literal translation Official CPSU translation [12]
sɐˈjus nʲɪ.ruˈʂɨ.mɨj rʲɪsˈpub.lʲɪk svɐˈbod.nɨx
splɐˈtʲi.lə nɐˈvʲe.kʲɪ vʲɪˈlʲi.kə.jɪ ˈrusʲ
də‿ˈzdra.stvu.jɪt ˈsoz.də.nɨj ˈvo.lʲɪj nɐˈro.dəf
ɪˈdʲi.nɨj mɐˈɡu.t͡ɕɪj sɐˈvʲɛt͡s.kʲɪj sɐˈjus
CHORUS:
ˈslafʲ.sʲə ɐˈtʲe.t͡ɕɪs.tvə ˈna.ʂɨ svɐˈbod.nə.jɪ
ˈdruʐ.bɨ nɐˈro.dəf nɐˈdʲoʐ.nɨj ɐˈplot
ˈpar.tʲɪ.jə ˈlʲe.nʲɪ.nə sʲi.lə nɐˈrod.nə.jə
nɐs k‿tər.ʐɨstˈvu kə.muˈnʲiz.mə vʲɪˈdʲot
skvəzʲ‿ˈɡro.zɨ sʲɪˈja.lɐ nam ˈson.t͡sɪ svɐˈbo.dɨ
i‿ˈlʲe.nʲɪn vʲɪˈlʲi.kʲɪj nɐm‿ˈputʲ ə.zɐˈrʲil
nɐ‿ˈpra.və.jɪ ˈdʲɛ.lə on ˈpod.nʲɪl naˈro.dɨ
nɐ‿ˈtrud i‿nɐ‿ˈpod.vʲɪ.ɡʲɪ ˈnas vdəx.nɐ.vʲɪl
CHORUS
f‿pɐˈbʲe.dʲɪ bʲɪˈsmʲɛrt.nɨx ɪˈdʲej kə.muˈnʲiz.mə
mɨ‿ˈvʲi.dʲɪm ɡrʲɪˈdu.ɕːiə ˈna.ʂɨj stra.nɨ
i ˈkras.nə.mu ˈzna.mʲɪ.nʲɪ ˈslav.nəj ɐˈt͡ɕiz.nɨ
mɨ ˈbu.dʲɪm fsʲɪɡˈda bɪ.zːɐˈvʲɛt.nə vʲɪrˈnɨ
CHORUS
A union that's unbreakable of free republics,
Great Russia has welded forever to stand!
Long live the creation of the will of the people,
The united, mighty Soviet Union!
CHORUS:
Glory to the fatherland, land of the free
A reliable stronghold of peoples' friendship!
Party of Lenin, strength of the people,
Leads us to the triumph of Communism!
Through tempests the sun of freedom shone to us,
And the great Lenin illuminated our path,
To a just cause he raised up the peoples,
To labour and heroic deeds he inspired us!
CHORUS
In the victory of the immortal ideas of Communism
We see the future of our country,
And to the Red Banner of our glorious Fatherland
We shall always be selflessly true!
CHORUS
Unbreakable Union of freeborn Republics,
Great Russia has welded forever to stand.
Created in struggle by will of the people,
United and mighty, our Soviet land!
CHORUS:
Sing to the Motherland, home of the free,
Bulwark of peoples in brotherhood strong.
O Party of Lenin, the strength of the people,
To Communism's triumph lead us on!
Through tempests the sunrays of freedom have cheered us,
Along the new path where great Lenin did lead.
To a righteous cause he raised up the peoples,
Inspired them to labour and valourous deed.
CHORUS
In the victory of Communism's deathless ideal,
We see the future of our dear land.
And to her fluttering scarlet banner,
Selflessly true we always shall stand!
CHORUS

See also

References

  1. ^ Государственный гимн СССР (Russian)
    Державний гімн СРСР (Ukrainian)
    Дзяржаўны гімн СССР (Byelorussian)
    СССР мадҳияси (Uzbek)
    КСРО Мемлекеттік Әнұраны (Kazakh)
    ეროვნული ჰიმნი სსრკ (Georgian)
    ССРИ Дөвләт һимни (Azerbaijani)
    SSRS valstybinis himnas (Lithuanian)
    Имнул де стат ал УРСС (Moldavian)
    PSRS valsts himna (Latvian)
    СССР Мамлекеттик Гимн (Kirghiz)
    ИҶШС Суруди Милли (Tajik)
    ԽՍՀՄ պետական ​​օրհներգը (Armenian)
    дабаралы өвги ССРС (Turkmen)
    NSVL Liidu riigimünte (Estonian)
    Neuvostoliiton valtion himna (Finnish)
  2. ^ "Гимн СССР (1943)". Archived from the original on 2016-04-20. 
  3. ^ Sputnik. "Russia Marks Soviet Poet Mikhalkov’s 100th Anniversary". 
  4. ^ Morse, Eric (9 September 2009). "The Cold War on ice". canada.com. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. 
  5. ^ "How Roger Doucet Wrote the Soviet National Anthem". 
  6. ^ Голованова, М. П.; В. С. Шергин (2003). Государственные символы России. Москва: Росмэн-Пресс. p. 150. ISBN 5-353-01286-0. 
  7. ^ II. Связанные с гимном Глинки Archived August 1, 2012, at Archive.is
  8. ^ "За гимн СССР - 5 лет тюрьмы: декоммунизация в цифрах и фактах". 
  9. ^ "Latvia Bans Soviet, Nazi Symbols"
  10. ^ "BBC NEWS - Europe - Lithuanian ban on Soviet symbols". 

External links

  • 20 Most popular Soviet songs
  • The author of Russian national anthem: sources of the USSR's anthem in Russian.
  • by K.Kovalev – Eng. Bortniansky's anthem "Kol slaven" - Eng.
  • Vocal performance of the National Anthem of the Soviet Union with lyrics on YouTube
  • As presented by Central Television in 1984 on YouTube
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