National Agency for Combating Terrorism

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National Agency for Combating Terrorism (BNPT)
Logo BNPT.jpg
Agency overview
Jurisdiction Indonesia Indonesia
Agency executive
Website www.bnpt.go.id

The National Agency for Combating Terrorism (Indonesian: Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme abbreviated as BNPT) is an Indonesian non-ministerial government department that works to prevent terrorism. BNPT is headed by a chief, Suhardi Alius, who is responsible to the President. When it was first launched, the leader of BNPT held the ranking of a civil servant but the Presidential Regulation in 2012 elevated the post of BNPT Chief to the ministerial level. [1]

BNPT was formed based on the 46th Presidential Regulation of 2010. The predecessor of this agency was Combating Terrorism Coordinating Desk (Indonesian: Desk Koordinasi Pemberantasan Terorisme abbreviated as DKPT). [1]

Its stated missions involve prevention terrorism and radicalism through efforts to work with government institutions and the community including prevention, protection, prosecution and de-radicalization of terrorism in Indonesia. [2]

In 2015, Indonesia was taken out of the 'Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories' (NCCTs) list by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF). Indonesia now has the same advantages and status as G20 countries. The exit proves that BNPT is committed to preventing terrorism by combating financial crimes through the implementation of Law No.9/2013. [3]

Function

BNPT is responsible for: [1]

  • Formulating policies, strategies, and programs in the field of prevention terrorism;
  • Coordinating the relevant government agencies in the implementation and implementing policies in the field of prevention terrorism;
  • Implementing policies in the field of counter-terrorism by forming task forces composed of elements relevant government agencies in accordance with the duties, functions and authority of each. The field of prevention terrorism covering prevention, protection, de-radicalization, taking action, and the preparation of national preparedness.

The organizational structure

BNPT's organizational structure consists of: [1]

  • Chief
  • Main Secretariat
  • Deputy of Prevention, Protection, and Deradicalisation
  • Deputy Repression and Development Capabilities
  • Deputy for International Cooperation
  • Inspectorate

Chiefs

No. Name Years in position
1
Inspector General. Pol. Drs. Ansyaad Mbai
2010-2014
2
Komjen. Pol. Saud Usman Nasution
2014-2016
3
Tito Karnavian.jpg Komjen. Pol. Tito Karnavian
2016
4
Komjen. Pol. Suhardi Alius
2016-incumbent

Terrorism in Indonesia

Religious-based terrorism

Religious terrorism is the act of terrorism carried out with religion as the main motivation and goal. Since the late 1960s, religious extremism has been especially prominent among the Muslim communities.[4] Social psychologist M. Brooke Rogers and others wrote that extremist religious fundamentalism can be closely linked to carrying out acts of violence and terror in the name of revenge or honor. [5] According to J. Dingley and M. Kirk-Smith, the act of sacrifice itself can act as a bridge between violence and religion. Cultural, social, and religious background plays a crucial role in birthing religious terrorism, especially groups that stemmed out from specific geographical areas.[6]

Terrorist groups in Indonesia

Jemaah Islamiah (JI)

Jemaah Islamiah was established in 1993 by Abu Bakar Baasyir and have been linked to Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and the Abu Sayyaf group.[7] Suspected group members hail from not just Indonesia, but neighboring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, and Thailand.[8] JI was the group responsible behind the 2002 Bali bombings which resulted in 202 casualties.[9]

In October 2002, JI was designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the US Department of State. [10]

Jemaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD)

Jemaah Ansharut Daulah is the terrorist group behind the 2018 Surabaya bombings [11]and have admitted to be associated with Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. [12] JAD commonly recruits members from Australia and Southeast Asia. In 2017, the United States declared JAD as a terrorist group, thus prohibiting US citizens from getting involved with the group and JAD's assets in the US were frozen. [13]

In July 2018, a court ruling provided legal justification for arrests of individuals associated with JAD through the establishment of Article 12A in the Terrorism Law. [14]

Jemaah Ansharut Tauhid (JAT)

Jemaah Ansharut Tauhid was established in 2008 also by Abu Bakar Baasyir and have admitted to being associated with Al-Qaeda.[15]  JAT has conducted multiple attacks targeting civilians and Indonesian officials, even causing death upon several Indonesian police. They often carry out bank robberies and other illicit activities to fund their supply of weapons.[16]

Darul Islam

Establish in the early 1940s, Darul Islam commonly used the term 'jihad' as the main reasoning behind their actions. Their ultimate goal is to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia.[17]

Incident that led to establishment

Bali bombings

On 12 October 2002, Imaam Samudara, Amrozi bin Nurhasyim and another terrorist from the Jemaah Islamiah terrorist group detonated two bombs in a popular nightclub along Kuta beach in Bali [18] and another in front of the United States Consulate in Denpasar [19]. The terrorists stated that their main goals was to kill as many Americans as possible as a form of revenge for "what Americans have done towards Muslims" as they regarded the war on terrorism as a form of religious discrimination.[20]

Amrozi has said that he regrets that he killed too many Australians instead of Americans, while in prison.[21]

Involvements

See also: List of terrorist incidents in Indonesia

Jakarta attacks

Multiple explosions and gun related attacks in Jakarta in January 2016 resulted in 8 casualties and 24 serious injuries. The attack carried out by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) near Sarinah Mall in Central Jakarta.[22] One of the bombings was carried out in a Starbucks store close to the United Nations building which hosted multiple foreigners and expats, two of whom have been killed.[23]

Surabaya bombings

Before the Ramadhan season of 2018, a series of suicide bombings were carried out in multiple churches around Surabaya. The bombings were said to be the brainchild of Islamic State-inspired Jemaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD), or Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid (JAT) groups, according to National Police chief, General Tito Karnavian. [24]

Indonesian President Joko Widodo strongly condemned the attacks and described it as an "act of cowards". [25]

University of Riau, Sumatra Island

Three university students in the University of Riau were caught with homemade explosives and had planned to carry out an attack on the local parliament of Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau. The weapons and explosives they held were seized after BNPT carried out a raid in the university. [26]

One of the suspects was identified as being part of a local terrorist group called Jemaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD), which was the group behind the 2018 Surabaya Bombings. [27]

Safety Measures and Efforts

University involvements

The increase in Islamic radicalism among young adults, especially those in university has been concerning. After the arrest of the three individuals from the University of Riau incident, a total of 122 universities across Indonesia have joined forces with BNPT to aid in combating terrorism stemmed from religious extremism. [28]

De-radicalization program

There are over 600 convicted criminals and terrorists who have been through the de-radicalization program that is carried out by BNPT. [29] The leader of BNPT, Suhardi Alius, believes it is a successful effort as only 3 criminals out of the approximate 600 have gotten involved with terrorism after completing the program. [30]

Anti-Terrorism Laws

After the 2002 Bali bombings, the Indonesian government was quick to implement new counter-terrorism laws and amend existing laws. [31]

Law No. 5/2002

This law concerns the act of money laundering and covers 10 chapters plus 46 articles. [32] The Chapters consists of: [32]

  1. General Provisions
  2. The Crime of Money Laundering
  3. Other Criminal Acts related to the Crime of Money Laundering
  4. Reporting
  5. Centre for Financial Transactions Reporting and Analysis
  6. Investigation, Prosecution and Examination before the Courts
  7. Protection of Reporting Parties and Witnesses
  8. International Cooperation
  9. Transitional Provisions
  10. Closing Provisions

Law No. 15/2003

This law grants BNPT and other government organizations the permission to detain anyone they deem as a suspect for up to 6 months without a trail, using intelligence reports as evidence and intercept phone calls which they deem would allow them to gain access to information crucial to solving and preventing terrorism cases. [33]

Law No. 17/2011

This law concerns State Intelligence and their role to intercept and conduct surveillance on any kind of communication that they deem may potentially threaten national security. [34]

Law No.9/2013

A stark improvement from Law No 15 of 2003 which only contained a brief idea of preventing terrorism-related transactions. The newer law was created right after the Bali bombings to fill in existing gaps in the criminalization of terrorism funding. [35] More specifically, the law allows the government in freezing and seizing assets of suspected terrorists. [36]

Criticism

Al-Chaidar

Terrorism observer, Al-Chaidar believes the de-radicalization program is not effective and is strongly against the fact that these criminals are then released to the community. He is sure that they will get involved in terrorism acts again and that stricter laws and punishments should be imposed. [30]

John Sidel

In John Sidel's book "The Islamist Threat in Southeast Asia: A Reassessment", he states that he does not believe strong security approaches will have any affect on preventing terrorism. In fact, he is sure serious actions can potentially be more counterproductive towards efforts on terrorism prevention. [8]

Human Rights Watch

After the Eradication of Criminal Acts of Terrorism Law (the “CT Law”) was passed on May 25, 2018, Brad Adams from the Human Rights Watch wrote an open letter to President Joko Widodo and Speaker Bambang Soesatyo stating the cons of the CT Law ranging on the fact that it depended on a far-reaching definition of terrorism, to a broader imposition of the death penalty, and the violation of basic human rights. [37]

Bilveer Singh

Bilveer Singh, an Associate Professor of Political Science at Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, concurs that the anti-terrorism laws in Indonesia are still weak despite efforts to improve them after the events in 2002 and 2009. In his paper, he proposes various measures to aid Indonesia's battle with terrorism. [38]

See Also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Tentang BNPT". Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  2. ^ "Visi dan Misi PPID". 2018. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  3. ^ "Indonesia out of FATF Blacklist". Tempo. 2015-06-25. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  4. ^ Saiya, Nilay; Fidler, Joshua (2018-03-25). "Taking God Seriously: The Struggle against Extremism". Middle East Policy. 25 (1): 80–95. doi:10.1111/mepo.12326. ISSN 1061-1924.
  5. ^ Rogers, M. Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M.; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan (2007-01-01). "The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A social psychological analysis". International Review of Psychiatry. 19 (3): 253–262. doi:10.1080/09540260701349399. ISSN 0954-0261. PMID 17566903.
  6. ^ Dingley, J.; Kirk-Smith, M. (2002-03-01). "Symbolism and Sacrifice in Terrorism". Small Wars & Insurgencies. 13 (1): 102–128. doi:10.1080/714005406. ISSN 0959-2318.
  7. ^ "1267 COMMITTEE ADDS NAME OF AN ENTITY TO ITS LIST | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  8. ^ a b Sidel, John Thayer (2007). The Islamist Threat in Southeast Asia: A Reassessment. Institute of Southeast Asian. ISBN 9789812304896.
  9. ^ Harris-Hogan, Shandon. "Remembering the Bali bombings ten years on". The Conversation. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  10. ^ "Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  11. ^ CNN, Bard Wilkinson. "Terror group JAD linked to Indonesia family suicide attacks". CNN. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  12. ^ "Islamic State group claims deadly Indonesia church attacks". France 24. 2018-05-13. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  13. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "US names Jamaah Ansharut Daulah as terrorist organization". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  14. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Court ruling gives authorities justification to arrest more JAD members". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  15. ^ "JEMMAH ANSHORUT TAUHID (JAT) | United Nations Security Council". www.un.org. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  16. ^ "Terrorist Designations of Jemmah Anshorut Tauhid". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  17. ^ Solahudin; McRae, Dave (2013). The Roots of Terrorism in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jem'ah Islamiyah. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801479380.
  18. ^ "Bali death toll set at 202". 2003-02-19. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  19. ^ Harris-Hogan, Shandon. "Remembering the Bali bombings ten years on". The Conversation. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  20. ^ Correspondent, Alex Spillius, South-East Asia (2002-11-09). "Bali bombers 'were trying to kill Americans'". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  21. ^ "Profile: Amrozi". 2008-11-08. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  22. ^ Topsfield, Jewel (2016-01-14). "Jakarta attacks: seven dead in multiple attacks linked to Islamic State". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  23. ^ "As it happened: Gunmen mount terror attacks in Jakarta". ABC News. 2016-01-14. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  24. ^ "Terrorist suicide families wreak havoc in Indonesia". ucanews.com. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  25. ^ "Families behind Surabaya attacks were friends, police say". ABC News. 2018-05-14. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  26. ^ "Indonesia Raids Campus, Detains 3 Terror Suspects". VOA. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  27. ^ hermesauto (2018-06-03). "3 held by Indonesian police over alleged terror plot on lawmakers in Riau". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  28. ^ "Indonesian universities ramp up student monitoring to stop terrorism". Times Higher Education (THE). 2018-07-06. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  29. ^ Sugiharto, Jobpie (2018-05-09). "Mako Brimob Rusuh, BNPT Bicara Deradikalisasi". Tempo. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  30. ^ a b Sugiharto, Jobpie (2018-05-20). "Al Chaidar: Program Deradikalisasi Teroris BNPT Salah". Tempo. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  31. ^ "Indonesia – Southeast Asia Security Laws | International Commission of Jurists". Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  32. ^ a b "Law of the Republic of Indonesia concerning the Crime of Money Laundering (2002) | International Commission of Jurists". Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  33. ^ "Anti-Terrorism Law No. 15 (2003) | International Commission of Jurists". Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  34. ^ "The Republic of Indonesia draft Law Number 17 Year 2011 on State Intelligence (2011) | International Commission of Jurists". Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  35. ^ Price, David; Fenton, Adam (2014-06-23). "Forbidden Funds – Indonesia's New Legislation for Countering the Financing of Terrorism". Rochester, NY.
  36. ^ "Prevention and the Suppression of Terrorist Financing Law No. 9 (2013) | International Commission of Jurists". Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  37. ^ Avenue, Human Rights Watch | 350 Fifth; York, 34th Floor | New; t 1.212.290.4700, NY 10118-3299 USA | (2018-06-20). "Letter on Indonesia's New Counterterrorism Law". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  38. ^ Singh, Bilveer (15 March 2016). "Revising Indonesia's Anti-Terrorism Laws" (PDF). RSiS S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. No 057 – via www.rsis.edu.sg.

External links

  • Indonesian Presidential Regulation No. 46 Year 2010
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