Nanakshahi calendar

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The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ, nānakashāhī) Calendar is a tropical solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. The calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of eminent Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership.[1] It was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar and has been in use since 1998. The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469. New Year's Day falls annually on what is March 14 in the Gregorian Western calendar.[1]

The calendar is accepted in about 90% of the gurdwaras throughout the world. There is some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar among certain sectors of the Sikh world. [2] Some organizations and factions that have not accepted include the Sant Samaj, Damdami Taksal, and Buddha Dal Nihangs.

Features of the new calendar:

  • Uses the accurate Tropical year (365 Days, 5 Hours, 48 Minutes, 45 Seconds) rather than the Sidereal year
  • Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak (Founder of Sikhism)
  • Year one is the Year of Guru Nanak's birth (1469 C.E.). As an example, August 2017 CE is Nanakshahi 549.
  • Is Based on Gurbani - Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib
  • Seasons stay intact with Gurbani
  • Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days
  • Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month (Phagun) has an extra day
  • Approved by Akal Takht in 2003

Months

The months in the Nanakshahi calendar are:[1][3]

No. Name Punjabi Days Gregorian Months
1 Chet ਚੇਤ 31 14 March – 13 April
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ 31 14 April – 14 May
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ 31 15 May – 14 June
4 Harh ਹਾੜ 31 15 June – 15 July
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ 31 16 July – 15 August
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ 30 16 August – 14 September
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ 30 15 September – 14 October
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ 30 15 October – 13 November
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ 30 14 November – 13 December
10 Poh ਪੋਹ 30 14 December – 12 January
11 Magh ਮਾਘ 30 13 January – 11 February
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ 30/31 12 February – 13 March
Important events Nanakshahi date Gregorian date
Birth of Guru Gobind Singh, the Tenth Sikh Guru 23 Poh 5 Jan
Birth of Guru Har Rai, the seventh Sikh Guru 19 Magh 31 Jan
Guru Har Rai becomes the seventh Guru of the Sikhs
Nanakshahi New Year Commences
Hola Mohalla Festival
1 Chet 14 Mar
Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, dies 6 Chet 19 Mar
The ordination of the Khalsa
Birth of Guru Nanak
1 Vaisakh 14 Apr
Guru Angad, the second Sikh Guru, merges back to the creator 3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Guru Amar Das becomes the third Guru of the Sikhs 3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Guru Harkrishan, the eighth Guru of the Sikhs, dies 3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes the Ninth Guru of the Sikhs 3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Birth of Guru Angad, the second Sikh Guru 5 Vaisakh 18 Apr
Birth of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru of the Sikhs 5 Vaisakh 18 Apr
Birth of Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru 19 Vaisakh 2 May
Birth of Guru Amar Das, the third Sikh Guru 9 Jeth 23 May
Guru Hargobind becomes the sixth Guru of the Sikhs 28 Jeth 11 Jun
Guru Arjan, the fifth Guru of the Sikhs, in martyred by Chandu Shah in Lahore 2 Harh 16 Jun
Birth of Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru 21 Harh 5 Jul
Guru Hargobind Sahib 6 Sawan 21 Jul
Guru Harkrishan Sahib 8 Sawan 23 Jul
Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is installed at the Golden Temple for the first time 17 Bhadon 1 Sep
Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of the Sikhs, dies 2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Ram Das becomes the fourth Guru of the Sikhs 2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Ram Das, the fourth Guru of the Sikhs, dies 2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Arjan becomes the fifth Guru of the Sikhs 2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Angad becomes the second Guru of the Sikhs 4 Assu 18 Sep
Guru Nanak, the first Guru of the Sikhs, dies 8 Assu 22 Sep
Birth of Guru Ram Das, the fourth Guru of the Sikhs 25 Assu 9 Oct
Guru Har Rai, the seventh Guru of the Sikhs, dies 6 Katak 20 Oct
Guru Harkrishan becomes the eighth Guru of the Sikhs 6 Katak 20 Oct
Sovereignty of the Sikh Scripture (Guru Granth Sahib) declared as the Guru for all times to come by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and the last Sikh Guru 6 Katak 20 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, dies 7 Katak 21 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh becomes the tenth Guru of the Sikhs 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Guru Tegh Bahadur martyred in Delhi by Aurangzeb for defending the oppressed 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Ajit Singh, and Jujhar Singh, the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, martyred in the battle of Chamkaur 8 Poh 21 Dec
Zorawar Singh, and Fateh Singh, the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh, executed in Sirhind 13 Poh 26 Dec

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  2. ^ "Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC". BBC. 2003-07-29. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  3. ^ Gurbani And Nanakshahi Calendar Nanakshahi Sangrand Dates in Gregorian Calendar – Forever from 14 March 2003 CE / 535 NS

External links

  • Purewal.biz, website of Mr. Pal Singh Purewal, the creator of the Nanakshahi Calendar, this site contains detailed articles about this calendar.
  • Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC
  • Gurpurab Nanakshahi Calendar
  • Nanakshahi Day with Holidays and API
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