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Muslims

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Muslims
Prayer in Cairo 1865.jpg
Muslims praying in 1865 Cairo by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Total population
c.1.9 billion[1][2][3] worldwide (2020)
Founder
Muhammad[4]
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia 236,800,000[5]
 Pakistan 198,800,000[6]
 India 194,600,000[7]
 Bangladesh 151,900,000[8]
 Nigeria 99,100,000[9]
 Egypt 95,000,000[10]
 Iran 82,900,000[11]
 Turkey 82,800,000[12]
 Algeria 42,000,000[13]
 Iraq 41,300,000[14]
 Sudan 39,900,000[15]
 Ethiopia 38,200,000[16]
 Afghanistan 36,800,000[17]
 Morocco 36,300,000[18]
 Saudi Arabia 32,300,000[2]
 Uzbekistan 30,800,000[19]
 Yemen 29,600,000[20]
 China 25,200,000[2]
 Malaysia 20,600,000[21]
 Syria 15,600,000[2]
Rest of the world 340,200,000[2]
Religions
80–90% Sunni Islam[22][23]
10–13% Shia Islam[24][25]
~1% Ahmadiyya[26]
~1% Other Muslim traditions, e.g. Ibadi Islam[27]
Scriptures
Quran[28]
Languages

Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).[33] "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter" (to God).[34]

The beliefs of Muslims include: that God (Arabic: اللهAllāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus;[35] that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif)[36] and that the Quran is the final unaltered revelation from God (Final Testament).[37]

As of 2015, 1.8 billion or about 24.1% of the world population are Muslims.[38] By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the Middle East-North Africa (MENA),[39] 81% in Central Asia,[40][41] 65% in the Caucasus,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48] 40% in Southeast Asia,[49][50] 31% in South Asia,[51][52] 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa,[53] 25% in AsiaOceania,[54] around 6% in Europe,[55] and 1% in the Americas.[56][57][58][59]

Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%)[60] and Shia.[24] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country;[61] 20% in the Middle East–North Africa,[62] where it is the dominant religion;[63] 31% of Muslims live in South Asia,[64] the largest population of Muslims in the world;[65] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[66] Muslims are the vast majority in the Sahel, the overwhelming majority in Central Asia,[67] the majority in the Caucasus[68][69] and widespread in Southeast Asia.[70] India is the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries.[71] Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, China, Europe, and Russia.[72][73] Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.[74][75][76]

Qualifier

The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[77][78]

To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[79] It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله) "There is no god but Allah, (and) Muhammad is the messenger of God."[80]

In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but God), and Muhammadun rasul Allah (Muhammad is the messenger of God),[81] which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.[82] The first statement of the shahada is also known as the tahlīl.[83]

In Shia Islam, the shahada also has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh), which translates to "Ali is the wali of God".[84]

Lexicology

The word muslim (Arabic: مسلم‎, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; English: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/ or moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/[85]) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact".[86][87] A female adherent is a muslima (Arabic: مسلمة‎) (also transliterated as "Muslimah"[88] ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون) or muslimīn (مسلمين), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات).

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان‎, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in Central and South Asia. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.[89] Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.[90] Other obsolete terms include Muslimite[91] and Muslimist.[92]

Musulmán/Mosalmán (Persian: مسلمان‎) is a synonym for Muslim and is modified from Arabic. It is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the (dated) German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος (all used for a Muslim).[93] In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become archaic in usage.

Apart from Persian, Spanish, Polish, Portuguese, Italian, and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Dari, Pashto, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, Turkish, Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Azeri, Maltese, Hungarian, Czech, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Romanian, Dutch, and Sanskrit.

Meaning

The Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said:

A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship exclusively to God...Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.[94]

Other prophets

The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, and their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Moses, and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat (Torah) to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) to David and the Injil (Gospel) to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets.

Demographics

World Muslim population by percentage (2010 data from Pew Research Center)
A map of Muslim populations by absolute number, (Pew Research Center, 2009)

The most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims,[95] followed by Pakistan (11.0%), Bangladesh (9.2%), and Egypt (4.9%).[96] About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East and North Africa.[95][97]

Sizable minorities are also found in India, China, Russia, Ethiopia, the Americas, Australia and parts of Europe. The country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.[2] Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.

Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni.[22][23] The second and third largest sects, Shia and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%,[24][98] and 1%[26] respectively.

With about 1.9 billion followers (2019), almost a quarter of earth's population,[99] Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world.[100] due primarily to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims,[101] with Muslim having a rate of (3.1) compared to the world average of (2.5). According to the same study, religious switching has no impact on Muslim population, since the number of people who embrace Islam and those who leave Islam are roughly equal.[101]

A Pew Center study in 2016 found that Muslims have the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (or 34% of the total Muslim population) of any major religion, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). According to the same study, Muslims have the highest fertility rates (3.1) of any major religious group.[102] The study also found that Muslims (tied with Hindus) have the lowest average levels of education with an average of 5.6 years of schooling, though both groups have made the largest gains in educational attainment in recent decades among major religions.[102] About 36% of all Muslims have no formal schooling,[102] and Muslims have the lowest average levels of higher education of any major religious group, with only 8% having graduate and post-graduate degrees.[102]

Culture

Muslim culture or Islamic culture are terms used to describe the cultural practices common to Muslims and historically Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture, from the Rashidun Caliphate to early Umayyad period, were predominantly Arab, Byzantine, Persian and Levantine. With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires, Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the Persian, Egyptian, Caucasian, Turkic, Mongol, South Asian, Malay, Somali, Berber, Indonesian, and Moro cultures.

See also

Notes

References

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    • Who Gets To Narrate the World "The Sunnis (approximately 80%)"
    • A world theology N. Ross Reat "80% being the Sunni"
    • Islam and the Ahmadiyya jama'at "The Sunni segment, accounting for at least 80% of the world's Muslim population"
    • A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"
  23. ^ a b From Sunni Islam: See:
    • Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia "some 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"
    • "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population
    • Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim population"
    • Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population"
    • A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"
    • "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2010. Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims.
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    • "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite.
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    • Juan Eduardo Campo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The total size of the Ahmadiyya community in 2001 was estimated to be more than 10 million
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    • A figure of 10–20 million represents approximately 1% of the Muslim population. See also Ahmadiyya by country.
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  91. ^ "Muslimite". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  92. ^ Abbas, Tahir (2005). Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure. pp. 50.
  93. ^ Musalman Archived 4 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Internet Encyclopedia of Religion
  94. ^ Commentary on the Qur'an, Razi, I, p. 432, Cairo, 1318/1900
  95. ^ a b "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population" (PDF). Pew Research Center. October 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Of the total Muslim population, 30%-40% are Shia Muslims and 60-70% are Sunni Muslims.
  96. ^ "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  97. ^ Esposito, John L. (15 October 2002). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. and Esposito, John (2005). Islam : the straight path (Rev. 3rd ed., updated with new epilogue. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 2, 43. ISBN 978-0-19-518266-8.
  98. ^ "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population... Shia Islam represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide...
  99. ^ "The Changing Global Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center. 5 April 2017.
  100. ^ Burke, Daniel. "The fastest growing religion in the world is ..." CNN. Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  101. ^ a b The Future of the Global Muslim Population (PDF) (Report). Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  102. ^ a b c d "Religion and Education Around the World" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 13 December 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.

External links

  • Ritual Prayer: Its Meaning and Manner – The Islamic Supreme Council of America.
  • Muhammad and the First Muslim Ummah – University of Chicago
  • Islamophobia Today Newspaper – An Islamophobia news clearing house
  • Sammy Aziz Rahmatti, Understanding and Countering Islamophobia
  • WikiSaurus:Muslim
  • "Understanding Islam". Susan Headden. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  • "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
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