Mundari language

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Mundari
Native to India, Bangladesh, Nepal
Ethnicity Munda
Native speakers
1.6 million (2001 census)[1]
Austroasiatic
Dialects
  • Bhumij
Mundari Bani, Devanagari, Eastern Nagari script, Oriya script, Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 unrinclusive code
Individual code:
unx – "Munda" (Killi; duplicate code)
Glottolog mund1320[2]

Mundari (Muɳɖa) is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken by the Munda people, and is closely related to Santali and Ho. Mundari is primarily spoken by Munda tribal people in eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Mundari Bani, a script specifically to write Mundari, was invented by Rohidas Singh Nag.[3][4] Ho and Mundari are ethnically and linguistically close but the regional identities of the speakers are distinct. Ho and Mundari have been called two sister languages by some researchers and scholars[5][6] and the Ho is a sister tribe of the Munda tribe.[7] It is believed that Ho speakers were originally "Mundas". In the course of time, from the fourteenth to seventeenth century A.D., they separated for unknown reasons and migrated from the Bandhgaon-Khunti region to the Singhbhum or Kolhan region.[8] Therefore, Ho and Mundari are linguistically similar.[9]

Dialects

Toshiki Osada (2008:99), citing the Encyclopaedia Mundarica (vol. 1, p. 6), lists the following dialects of Mundari, which are spoken mostly in Jharkhand state.

Bhumij, listed in many sources as a separate language, may in fact be a variety of the Latar (Tamaria) dialect of Mundari. It is spoken across Jharkhand state and in Mayurbhanj district, Odisha (Anderson 2008:196). There may be around 50,000 Bhumij speakers. [10]

Counting

Mundari Transliteration Translation
मिसा Missa Once
बरसा Birsa Twice
अपिसा Apisa Thrice
उपनुसा Upnisa four times
मोंड़ेसा Mondesa Five times
तुरिसा Turisa Six times
ए'सा Eh sa Seven times
इरलसा Erklsa Eight Times
अरे-सा Are sa Nine times
गेलसा Gelsa Ten times

Relations

Mundari Transliteration Translation
ऐंन्गा Enga Mother
आपूम Apum Father
हग्गा Hagga Brother
मिस्सी Missi Sister
गुया Guya Sister/brother of sister/brother in law
गतिंग Gatin Friend

Verb

Mundari Transliteration Translation
रिकाएआ-करेगा Rikā'ē'ā Does
ओलेआ Ol'ē'ā Write
जगरेआ Jagor'ē'ā Talk
पढ़वएआ Padv'ē'ā Read
लेलेआ Lel'ē'ā Look/ See
सेनेआ Sen'ē'ā Come along with
नमेआ Nem'ē'ā Found
निरेआ Nir'ē'ā Run
सबेआ Sab'ē'ā Hold
लेका एआ Leka'ē'ā Count
मुकाएआ Muka'ē'ā Measure
रिका एआ Rika'ē'ā Cut

Samples

Mundari Transliteration Translation
सिंगी बोंगा मरांग बोंगा । Singi bonga marang bonga Sun is almighty.
अमा नुतुम चिकना ? Amā lutum kanā What is your name?
अियन नुतुम रिमिल तना । A̔iy lutum Rimil tanā. My name is Rimil.
अम कोते सेनो तना? Am kōtēm sēnō tanā Where are you going?
नेते हुजू में Nētē hijū mē Come here.
अम चिल्का मेना ? Am cilkā mēnāme How are you?
आलोम नाक खुजाओ में Ālama nāka khujā'ō maiṁ Don't scratch your nose.
जागर लाई पैसा लॉगो। Jāgar natin paisā lagawa Talking costs money.
अम सिनेमा लाई सेनो तना चि का ? Ām cinēmā lel sēnō tanā cī . Will you go to Cinema?
अम चिकम चिका ताना ? Am kanam cekā tānā? What are you doing?
एमके चिकना मेना ? Ēmakē cikanā mēnā? you have any problem
अम कोते ते हिजु ताना ? Ām kōtēm senoh tānā? Where did you go?
अम कोते ते हिजु ताना ? Koteyam hijuh tan Where are you coming from?
थड़ीआ Thaṛī'ā Utensils.
बहा Baā Flower.

References

  1. ^ Mundari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    "Munda" (Killi; duplicate code) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mundari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ http://www.oneindia.com/2006/05/15/bms-to-intensify-agitation-on-mundari-language-1147760918.html
  4. ^ [https://web.archive.org/web/20161108183956/http://www.stscodisha.gov.in/pdf/June-Dec-2012-Vol-1-2.pdf "Adivasi. Volume 52. Number 1&2. June&December 2012".}} Page 22
  5. ^ livingtongues
  6. ^ Anderson, edited by Gregory S. (2008). The Munda languages (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X. 
  7. ^ Bradley (2012) notes, MK in the wider sense including the Munda languages of eastern South Asia is also known as Austroasiatic
  8. ^ Houlton, Sir John, Bihar: The Heart of India, 1949, pp. 132, 138-139, 166-169, Orient Longmans, Kolkata.
  9. ^ Anderson, Gregory D. S., Toshiki Osada and K. David Harrison. "Ho and the other Kherwarian Languages" In Gregory Anderson (ed.) Munda Languages. (2008). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32890-6
  10. ^ http://www.punemirror.in/pune/civic/Keeping-Munda-in-mind/articleshow/54369782.cms
  • Anderson, Gregory D.S (ed). 2008. The Munda languages. Routledge Language Family Series 3.New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X.
  • Osada Toshiki. 2008. "Mundari". In Anderson, Gregory D.S (ed). The Munda languages, 99–164. Routledge Language Family Series 3.New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X.

Further reading

  • Evans, Nicholas & Toshki Osada. 2005a. Mundari: the myth of a language without word classes. In Linguistic Typology 9.3, pp. 351–390.
  • Evans, Nicholas & Toshki Osada. 2005b. Mundari and argumentation in word-class analysis. In Linguistic Typology 9.3, pp. 442–457
  • Hengeveld, Kees & Jan Rijkhoff. 2005. Mundari as a flexible language. In Linguistic Typology 9.3, pp. 406–431.
  • Newberry, J. (2000). North Munda dialects: Mundari, Santali, Bhumia. Victoria, B.C.: J. Newberry. ISBN 0-921599-68-4

Texts

  • Johann Hoffmann (1903). Mundari grammar. Bengal Secretariat Press. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  • J. C. Whitley (1873). A Mundári Primer. Bengal Secretariat Press. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  • Carl Gustav R.E. Alfred Nottrott (1882). Grammatik der Kolh-Sprache. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  • Four gospels in Mundari. Bible Society. 1881. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 

External links

  • Mundari Bibliography at Department of Linguistics, University of Osnabrueck, Germany
  • Detailed language map of eastern Nepal, see language #68 in green along eastern border
  • http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage)
  • http://hdl.handle.net/10050/[email protected] Mundari language in RWAAI Digital Archive


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