Chaudhry Mohammad Ali

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Chaudhry Mohammad Ali
چوہدری محمد علی
Chaudhry Mohammad Ali.jpg
4th Prime Minister of Pakistan
In office
12 August 1955 – 12 September 1956
Monarch Elizabeth II
(1955–56)
President Iskander Mirza
Governor General Iskander Mirza
(1955–56)
Preceded by Mohammad Ali
Succeeded by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Minister of Defence
In office
12 August 1955 – 12 September 1956
Deputy Akhter Husain
(Defence Secretary)
Preceded by Lt-Gen. Ayub Khan
Succeeded by H. S. Suhrawardy
Minister of Finance
In office
24 October 1951 – 11 August 1955
Deputy Mumtaz Hasan
(Finance Secretary)
Preceded by Ghulam Muhammad
Succeeded by Amjad Ali
Federal Secretary
In office
14 August 1947 – 24 October 1955
Finance Secretary of Pakistan
In office
14 August 1947 – 12 September 1948
Serving with Sir Victor Turner
Minister Ghulam Muhammad
Finance Secretary
In office
2 September 1946 – 14 August 1947
Minister Liaquat Ali Khan
Preceded by Ghulam Muhammad
Succeeded by Sir Victor Turner
(as Finance Secretary)
President of Pakistan Muslim League
In office
12 August 1955 – 12 September 1956
Preceded by Mohammad Ali
Succeeded by I. I. Chundrigar
Personal details
Born Chaudhry Muhammad All
(1905-07-15)15 July 1905
Jullunder, Punjab, British India
(Present-day, Jalandhar, Punjab, India)
Died 2 December 1980(1980-12-02) (aged 75)
DHA Karachi, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Cause of death cardiac arrest
Citizenship British Raj British India
(1905–47)
 Pakistan
(1947–80)
Political party Muslim League
(1936-1980)
Children 2 including sons: Khalid and Amjad
Alma mater Punjab University
(BSc and MSc in Chem.)
Profession Civil servant, politician
Website Muhammad Ali
Official website

Chaudhry Muhammad Ali (Urdu: چوہدری محمد علی‎  15 July 1905 – 2 December 1980), best known as Muhammad Ali, was the fourth Prime Minister of Pakistan , appointed on 12 August 1955 until being removed through a successful passage of vote of no confidence motion in the National Assembly on 12 September 1956.:110[1]

His credibility is noted for promulgating the first set of the Constitution of Pakistan lost political endorsement from his party when failing to investigate the allegations on vote rigging and the secret defections in favor of the Republican Party.[2]

Biography

Muhammad Ali was born in Jullundar, Punjab in India on 15 July 1905.[3] His family were Arain clan having Arab ancestry.:4[4]:157[5][6] The prefix, Chaudhry, added before his name to represent his family's land holding status.[7]

After his matriculation, Muhammad Ali showed great aptitude for science, first moving to attend the Punjab University in Lahore where he read and graduated with BSc degree in Chemistry in 1925.:106[8] In 1927, Muhammad Ali attained MSc in Chemistry from Punjab University, and lectured at the Islamia College until 1928.:294[9]:106[8][2][10]

In 1928, Muhammad Ali went to join the Indian Civil Service, first working as an accountant at the Audit and Accounts Service and was deputed to audit the Bahawalpur state.[3] In 1936, Muhammad Ali was moved as Private Secretary to James Grigg, the Finance minister of India, who later appointed him as the First Indian financial adviser when Grigg was appointed as the War Secretary in 1945.[3] In 1946-47, Muhammad Ali was selected to serve as one of two secretaries to the Partition Council presided over by Lord Mountbatten, later appointed as Finance Secretary at the Ministry of Finance.[3] Over this issue of partition, Muhammad Ali worked with H.M. Patel and Walter Christir to prepare a document titled The Administrative Consequences of Partition.:95-102[11]

By the time of the India's partition in 1947, Muhammad Ali was one of the senior Indian civil service officer in India, and decided to opted for Pakistan on 15 August 1947.:9-10[12]

After the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, Muhammad Ali was moved as the Finance Secretary under Finance Minister Sir Ghulam Muhammad, alongside with Victor Turner, but this appointment lasted until 1948 due a cabinet reshuffle.[3] He was appointed as the Federal Secretary at the Establishment Division, and aided greatly in setting up the civil bureaucracy and preparing the nation's first federal budget presented by Finance Minister Sir Ghulam Muhammad in 1951.[3]

Prime Minister of Pakistan (1955-56)

In 1951, Muhammad Ali was appointed as the Finance Minister by Prime Minister K. Nazimuddin and was announced to be kept in the Finance ministry in Bogra's Talent ministry in 1953.:405[13]

On 11 August 1955, Muhammad Ali was appointed as the Prime Minister of Pakistan by then-Governor-General Iskandar Mirza, upon the dismissal of the Bogra's Talent administration.[2] After taking oath from the Chief Justice M. Munir, Prime Minister Ali placed a great emphasis on drafting of the Constitution of Pakistan, and supported Bogra's One Unit scheme despite the opposition.:178[14]

He favored French architect Michel Ecochard over Greek architect Constantinos Doxiadis over the planning of new capital in 1955, though the project nonetheless went Doxiadis in 1960s.:72[15]

It was during his term when the first set of the Constitution of Pakistan was promulgated on 23 March 1956 where the nation-state was declared as Islamic Republic with a parliamentary form.[16] His premiership was endorsed by President Iskandar Mirza and the three-party coalition government composing of Awami League, Muslim League and the Republican Party at the National Assembly.[2] In 1955, Prime Minister Ali took over the party presidency.[2]

Despite his feat, Prime Minister Muhammad Ali proved to be a poor politician who failed to maintain control over his party when he reached a compromise to dismissed the cabinet members of his own party in favor of appointing the cabinet composing of Republican Party and Awami League in 1955-56.[2] After appointing Abdul Jabbar Khan as the Chief minister of West-Pakistan who subsequently helped in secret trading in favor of Republican Party that made the Republicans in majority in the National Assembly, the Muslim League demanded its president to investigate the matter but Prime Minister Ali refused to support the parliamentary resolution in the National Assembly by believing that "he was responsible only to the Cabinet and the Parliament, not the party."[2]

On 8 September 1956, the parliamentary leaders of the Muslim League under A.Q. Khan, successfully brought the motion of no confidence at the National Assembly that effectively removed him from the party's presidency.[2] Despite support from the Republican Party and President Mirza, Prime Minister Ali eventually resigned from the Office of Prime Minister of Pakistan when Huseyn S. Suhrawardy had gained support from the Muslim League for the premiership.:9-10[12]

After his resignation, Ali went to corporate sector and joined the National Bank as an economist but tried playing a role in national politics in 1960s but was ostracized by the Muslim League due to his political role played in 1950s.:9-10[12]

His son, Khalid Anwer, is a well-known lawyer and constitutional expert, who served as the Law and Justice minister in Sharif's administrations while his younger son is Dr. Amjad Ahsan Ali is well known medical doctor. In 1967, he wrote his memoirs and passed away due to a cardiac arrest on 2 December 1980 in estate in Karachi where he was buried.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hasanie, Ali Abbas (2013). "§Timeline". Democracy in Pakistan: Crises, Conflicts and Hope for a Change (google books) (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: AuthorHouse. p. 126. ISBN 9781481790680. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h et.al., staff writers (1 June 2003). "Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Becomes Prime Minister" (html). www.storyofpakistan.com. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f et.al., staff writers (1 June 2003). "Chaudhry Muhammad Ali–Former Prime Minister of Pakistan" (html). www.storyofpakistan.com. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 
  4. ^ Burki, Shahid Javed; Baxter, Craig; LaPorte, Robert; Azfar, Kamal (1991). Pakistan Under the Military: Eleven Years of Zia Ul-Haq (google books, snippet view). New York, U.S.: Westview Press. p. 212. ISBN 9780813379852. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  5. ^ Naz, Huma (1990). Bureaucratic Elites & Political Developments in Pakistan, 1947-58. National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  6. ^ https://m.facebook.com/arainfamilyonly/posts/499345896743103
  7. ^ The Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, Volume 51. Anthropology Survey of India. p. 204. 
  8. ^ a b Kumarasingham, H. (2016). "§Bureaucratic Statism". Constitution-making in Asia: Decolonisation and State-Building in the Aftermath of the British Empire (google books). Cambridge, UK: Routledge. p. 197. ISBN 9781317245100. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  9. ^ Blattner, Elwyn James; Blattner, James Elwyn (1955). Who's who in U.A.R. and the Near East (in French). Paul Barbey Press. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  10. ^ et.al., Britannica. "Chaudhri Mohammad Ali—prime minister of Pakistan" (html). www.britannica.com. London, Eng. U.K.: Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  11. ^ John Christie Morning Drum BACSA 1983 ISBN 0-907799-04-3 pp95-102
  12. ^ a b c Lyon, Peter (2008). "Ali, Choudhry Mohammad)". Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia (google books) (1st ed.). U.S.: ABC-CLIO. p. 277. ISBN 9781576077122. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  13. ^ Khuhro, Hamida (1998). Mohammed Ayub Khuhro: a life of courage in politics. Karachi, Pakistan: Ferozsons. p. 576. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  14. ^ Wynbrandt, James (2009). "§Chaudhry Muhammad Ali and the First Constitution". A Brief History of Pakistan (google books). Infobase Publishing. p. 285. ISBN 9780816061846. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  15. ^ Bates, Crispin; Mio, Minoru (2015). "Islam and Urban space". §Cities in South Asia (google books). Routledge. ISBN 9781317565130. 
  16. ^ "The Constitution of 1956". www.storyofpakistan.com. Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  17. ^ Asian Recorder. K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press. 1981. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 

External links

  • Chronicles Of Pakistan
  • Ali, Chaudhri Mohammad (1967). The emergence of Pakistan. New York, U.S.: Columbia University Press. p. 427. ISBN 978-0231029339. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Malik Ghulam Muhammad
Minister of Finance
1951–1955
Succeeded by
Amjad Ali
Preceded by
Muhammad Ali Bogra
Prime Minister of Pakistan
1955–1956
Succeeded by
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Preceded by
Ayub Khan
Minister of Defence
1955–1956
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