Muhammad Alam

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Muhammad Alam
محمد عالم
22nd Sultan of Brunei
Reign 1826-1828
Predecessor Muhammad Kanzul Alam
Successor Omar Ali Saifuddin II
Died 1828
Pulau Chermin, Brunei
Spouse Pengiran Raja Isteri Nurlana Abdullah

Pengiran Anak Nur Alam
Pengiran Anak Salama

Pengiran Muda Muhammad Omar Jaya
Father Muhammad Kanzul Alam
Mother Pengiran Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha
Religion Islam

Muhammad Alam was the 22nd Sultan of Brunei who ruled from 1826 to 1828. He was also known as "Raja Api" or the Fire King.[1]


His Highness was the son of Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei. He was the brother of Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Nur Alam, the mother of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.

Ascension to the throne

When Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam died, the throne was supposed to be succeeded by the legitimate heir, Omar Ali Saifuddin II, the son of Muhammad Jamalul Alam I who suddenly died in 1804. Vying for power, Muhammad Alam revoked Omar Ali Saifuddin II's claim to the throne.[2] Later on, he usurped the throne for himself.

Internal struggle

Sultan Muhammad Alam was known as a ruthless ruler thus bearing the name 'Raja Api' or the Fire King. As he ascended to the throne without legitimacy, members of the Royal Court were discontented including his sister Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Nur Alam who strongly opposed his rule. She asserted her son's claim to the throne. His rule was also opposed by the Chief of Kampung Burong Pingai, Mentri Abdul Hak, who rebelled against him.[3] Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Nur Alam was able to gather more supporters in order to spark a revolt against Sultan Muhammad Alam. The instigators had successfully overthrown Raja Api and the illegitimate ruler soon after fled to Pulau Chermin.[2]


Muhammad Alam was sentenced to death by strangulation at Pulau Chermin.[2] Muhammad Alam was succeeded by his nephew, Omar Ali Saifuddin II.

His date of death remains debatable as there are varying sources to suggest. D.E. Brown (1970), citing the sources of Hugh Low (1880) and James Brooke (Mundy,1848), assumes that the Sultan died in or around 1824.[1] Nevertheless, the Brunei Royal Family Tree places the end date of his reign in 1828 presumably his death.


  1. ^ a b Saunders, Graham (1994). A History of Brunei (first ed.). Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 967-65-3049-2.
  2. ^ a b c "brunei8".
  3. ^ Low, Hugh (1880). Selesilah (Book of the Descent) (first ed.). JRASSB. p. 5.
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