Monument and memorial controversies in the United States

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Monuments or memorials dealing with the Confederate States of America do not go here. They go either under List of Confederate monuments and memorials, or if removed, under Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials.
The French Quarter's Joan of Arc statue prior to its defacement.

Structure of this list:

  • The first two sections deal with monuments and menorials on which some action has already taken place (removal, defacement, destruction and the like).
  • These are arranged chronologically. 2017 is used as a dividing point because that is when the issue began to receive widespread publicity in the United States. (See Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials.)
  • The final section is arranged alphabetically by state, and includes proposals on which no action, authorized or not, has taken place.[1]

Prior to 2017

Pulling Down the Statue of King George III, painting ca. 1859

Statue of King George III (1776)

The following month another statue by Wilton, this one of William Pitt, a British politician very popular in the Americas for being responsible for the repeal of the much-hated Stamp Act of 1765 was erected. As with the King George statue, Pitt is portrayed in Roman clothes and was also located in New York.
On July 9, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was first read in New York City, and to celebrate it a group of patriots pulled down the statue, and eventually melted it down, making bullets to fight the British with. When the British troops arrived in November of that year they retaliated by destroying the Pitt statue.[3]

Haymarket statues (1900)

  • The Haymarket affair statues. On May 3, 1886 police in Chicago, feeling threatened by a crowd, fired into it, killing six people. A rally was called the next day, held near Haymarket Square at which time an unknown person threw a bomb into a group of policemen, killing eight. Although it was never learned who threw the bomb, eight labor leaders were arrested, all were tried and found guilty and, after one committed suicide the day before he was to be executed, four others were hanged.[4] Several years later, after winning an 1887 competition, a monument by Johannes Gelert portraying a "robust policeman, in his countenance frank, kind, and resolute," was created. On the base were the words "In the name of the people of Illinois I command peace" though a reporter at the event had the policeman saying, "In the name of the law I command you to disperse."[5] The monument, a policeman standing with his arm upraised, for which the sculptor had used a policeman directing traffic as his inspiration, was dedicated May 30, 1889. At the dedication the Mayor of Chicago, DeWitt Cregier, had said, "May it stand here unblemished so long as the metropolis shall endure" words that were amazingly unprophetic.[6] In 1900, after it had been frequently vandalized and defaced and "unmistakable traces" of an attempt to blow it up were discovered, the statue was moved to near Randolph and Ogden streets in Union Park.[7][6] On May 4, 1927, on the fourth-first anniversary of the Haymarket affair, a "streetcar traveling at full speed jumped the tracks and rammed the statue." [8] The monument was moved again, further into the park.[6] In October 1969 and again exactly one year later attempts were made to blow up the statue. Chicago Mayor Richard Daley placed the statue under 24-hour police guard. [7] In 1972 the statue was moved into the Central Police Headquarters, and then moved again in 1976 into the garden of the Police Training center.[9]
In 1893 the Haymarket Martyrs' Monument by Albert Weinert was unveiled in the German Waldheim Cemetery, where the four men executed, August Spies, Adolph Fischer, Albert Parsons, and George Engel, and Louis Lingg who committed suicide the day before the hanging, are buried.
On September 14, 2004, another monument was unveiled, this one by Mary Brogger. Historian Kara Kvaran quotes Chicago city historian Tim Samuelson as saying, "The unifying theme is it's a tragedy – a human tragedy of people under difficult circumstances reacting to something beyond their control."[10]

Pioneer Woman's Statue

  • By October 1936, plans for a Pioneer Woman statue to be placed at the Texas Woman's University (TWU) in Denton, Texas, were moving forward by "inviting a group of leading American sculptors, about 80 in number, to submit photographs of their work and from this group several sculptors are to be chosen who will be required to submit models of the proposed statue to the Centennial Commission of Control and if the first model submitted is not acceptable other models will be submitted until an accepted group is submitted."[11][12]
Among the artists who entered the competition was the Texas sculptor Waldine Tauch, who had entered seven different competitions conducted by the Commission. She was to win three of them (memorials to Moses Austin, Isaac and Frances Van Zandt and First Shot Fired For Texas Independence monument) but she was not able to win the Pioneer Woman statue. However, she was to play a part in the ensuing drama.[12]
It is not yet clear how many plaster models were submitted, but a "jury of professionals" unanimously chose the one submitted by William Zorach, a sculptor from New York, which included not just a pioneer woman, or a woman and child as did Tauch's model, but the entire family: mother, father, son and daughter. And they were all nude.[13] Nudity was seen, by some, as being appropriate for Classical, allegorical or symbolical portrayals but was unacceptable for Texas pioneer women. Upon learning of the commission's decision, Tauch "wasted no time telephoning and writing letters to many friends throughout the state to report the incident."[14]
"Anguished protests from Texans swelled into a controversy dwarfing all previous ones (in Zorach's career). One astute observer noted the woman had no wedding ring .... while a chapter of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas declared it, 'the greatest insult that could be offered to these women who believed and practiced the virtue of modesty' ."[15] Zorach wrote "The newspapers said that if a Texas pioneer had gone around in such a state of nudity he would have been strung to the nearest tree. ... Gutzon Borglum was down there at the time and I was told that he said my figures looked like a bunch of apes,"[16] a remark that was widely quoted by opponents of the statue at the time. Eventually the commission was turned over to sculptor Leo Friedlander, who had not even entered the competition. He, along with the Piccirilli Brothers[17] carvers, executed the work.[12]

Bust of United States Senator Joseph McCarthy

The Races of Mankind (1969)

  • The Races of Mankind is a series of 104[20] sculptures created for the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago by sculptor Malvina Hoffman, representing the various races of humankind, and unveiled in 1933. Most of the sculptures are life-sized. The works were initially housed in Hall 3, the Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall ("The Hall of the Races of Mankind").[21] In the 1960s such a portrayal of race became viewed negatively, as racist, and in February 1969 the Hall was dismantled and the statues were either spread around the museum or placed in storage. The museum stated that the Hall was "scientifically indefensible and socially objectionable."[22] The Field Museum had previously allowed the Hammond World Atlas Corporation to use pictures of the statues in their March of Civilization; A Historical Atlas."[23] This permission was withdrawn in the late 1960s or early 1970s because it contained "outdated historical, linguistic and racial data." [22]

Vietnam Veteran's Memorial

  • Vietnam Veterans Memorial. In the late 1970s a group was formed to create a memorial to the American veterans of the Vietnam War.[24] A site for the memorial was approved unanimously by the U.S. Senate on June 30, 1980.[25] Shortly thereafter a competition to design the memorial, which had to include the names of all Americans killed in the war or were still missing. The anonymous competition drew the largest number of submissions ever, 1,141, for such a competition in the United States.[26] Shortly after the winner, Ohio native[27] Maya Lin, a twenty-year-old female student of Chinese descent, was announced, controversy began. "The debate became increasingly bitter, threatening to end the project."[28] At one point the monument was said to look like "a black gash of shame."[29] "Lin maintains, entirely accurately, that there's no way her design would have been chosen if candidates had been identified by name."[30]
Eventually the problem of what to build was resolved by adding the Frederick Hart bronze statue of three soldiers near the Memorial. [31]
Bill Moyers, in an interview with Lin, stated," 'Course the bigotry and the hatred and the racism did not have the last word. The monument was the last word."[32]
The monument is now the most frequently visited memorial in Washington D.C. [33]

Captain John Mason and the Pequot massacre (1996)

  • In 1996, an 1889 statue of Captain John Mason was removed from the intersection of Pequot Avenue and Clift Street in Mystic, Connecticut at the request of the Pequot Tribal Council. Mason led the Pequot massacre of 1637. The plaque on the statue was removed and given to the Mystic Historical Society. The statue itself was relocated to Palisado Green in Windsor, Connecticut (41°51′29″N 72°38′11″W), which is where John Mason lived at the time of the Pequot War. A new plaque was made, without mention of the Pequots. In 1859, a Founders Monument, containing a statue of Mason and the names of the 38 original settlers of Norwich, Connecticut, was erected at the original burial grounds at Bean Hill in Norwich. This monument is also referred to as the Mason Monument.
There is a life-sized stone carving of Major John Mason on the Connecticut State Capitol building, as he was a preeminent founder of the Colony.

Juan de Oñate (1997)

  • The right foot of a bronze statue of Juan de Oñate at the Northern Rio Grande National Heritage Center (until 2017 the Oñate Monument and Visitor Center) in Alcalde, New Mexico was cut off on December 29, 1997. (Oñate cut off or ordered cut off the right foot of Acoma Native Americans; he was convicted of excessive cruelty and banished for life from New Mexico.) It has since been repaired by the artist, at a taxpayer cost of $10,000, but there is a seam. The unidentified possessor of the original foot spoke, 20 years later, with a local filmmaker, Chris Eyre, about the affair, and said he had melted part of the foot down "to make medallions for Pueblo leaders." Eyre is working on a documentary about the incident "and what it reveals about racism in New Mexico."
In 2017, the statue's left foot was painted red and the words "Remember 1680" — the year of the Pueblo revolt — were written on the monument's wall.[34]

Ludlow Monument (2003)

Civic Virtue (2011)

Ten Commandments

  • The display of the Ten Commandments on public property has been controversial as a perceived violation of the Establishment Clause. The US Supreme Court ruled in favor of such monuments in 2005's Van Orden v. Perry.
  • In 2009, Oklahoma State Representative Mike Ritze sponsored a bill to have a monument to the Ten Commandments installed at the capitol. His family supplied $10,000 to fund the monument, which was installed in late 2012.[38] The monument since has been labeled "a lightning rod of controversy."[39] It has been destroyed and re-erected once, and been the subject of both state and federal litigation.[citation needed]
  • In June 2017 a monument with the Ten Commandments carved on it, that had been "plagued with controversy,"[citation needed] was knocked down by a car and destroyed within 24 hours of being erected on the Arkansas State Capitol grounds.[40]
  • A Ten Commandments monument, placed "to recognize important documents that influenced the governing of the city," was ordered removed from Bloomfield City Hall in Bloomfield, New Mexico by the courts. The US Supreme Court refused to hear the case (grant certiorari) in 2017.[41]

Squaw Peak (2013)

Statue of Tom Watson removed (2013)

  • A statue of Tom Watson (U.S. Senator) removed from the Georgia Capitol steps, 2013. He used magazines and newspapers which he owned to launch attacks against blacks,[43] Jews, and Catholics.[44]

Charles Aycock buildings renamed (2014 and 2015)

Junípero Serra (2015)

  • In 2015, immediately after his canonization, the statue of Saint Junípero Serra at California's Carmel Mission was defaced with paint, as were surrounding graves and a basilica; Carmel's Police Sergeant Luke Powell said that the vandalism is being investigated as a hate crime because the perpetrators targeted "specifically the headstones of people of European descent, and not Native American descent."[46] Another statue of Serra in Monterey, California was decapitated the same year;[when?] its head was rediscovered and reattached months later.[47] A third statue of Serra is set to be removed and replaced as of September 2017 from the Santa Barbara Mission after being decapitated and doused in red paint that month.[48] In August, 2017, a statue "was splashed with red paint and defaced with the word 'murderer' in white."[34]
Stanford University announced in 2018 "that it would rename several buildings memorializing Junipero Serra.... Stanford eliminated its own Indian mascot in the 1970s over concerns of insensitive cultural appropriation."[49]

Byrd Stadium (2015)

  • The stadium at the University of Maryland, College Park was named for Harry Clifton "Curley" Byrd, University President 1936–1954. According to a coalition of student groups, which requested the stadium be renamed, Byrd was "a racist and a segregationist", and "he barred blacks from participating in sports and enrolling into the University until 1951."[50] In 2015 the Board of Regents of the University voted to change the name to Maryland Stadium.

Seal of the Harvard Law School (2016)

Woodrow Wilson (2016)

Andrew Jackson on $20 bill

  • Decision made in 2016 to replace him with Harriet Tubman. "'Where Jackson represented the worst side of American history, Tubman represents the best ideals of American democracy,' said Kari Winter, a professor who studies slavery and dissent at the University at Buffalo."[54]

Harney Peak (2016)

2017 and later

Christopher Columbus (2017)

  • In August 2017, the 1792 monument to Christopher Columbus in Baltimore, the oldest in the United States, was destroyed by a sledgehammer, and the perpetrators posted a video online of themselves destroying it.[55] Holding signs in the video saying "The future is racial and economic justice" and "Racism: Tear it down," the narrator said that "Christopher Columbus symbolizes the initial invasion of European capitalism into the Western Hemisphere. Columbus initiated a centuries-old wave of terrorism, murder, genocide, rape, slavery, ecological degradation and capitalist exploitation of labor in the Americas."[56][57]
  • The monument to Christopher Columbus in New York City's Columbus Circle, whose hands were defaced with red paint on September 12, 2017.[58][not in citation given] It is currently (2017) under police guard.[57] The Speaker of the City Council, Melissa Mark-Viverito, has suggested its removal because "Columbus's journeys to the Western Hemisphere led to the genocide of native peoples."[59] In January 2018 de Blasio announced that based on a recommendation of a special commission after public hearings, it will not be moved.[60]
  • Also in September, 2017, the hands of a statue of Columbus in New York City's Central Park were covered with red paint, and the hashtag #somethingscoming and "Hate will not be tolerated" were written on the pedestal.[61][62]

Thomas Jefferson (2017)

Calhoun College (2017)

Francis Scott Key (2017)

Colonel William Crawford (2017)

Charging Bull statue (New York) (2017)

Joan of Arc (2017)

Abraham Lincoln (2017)

Napoleon Bonaparte Broward (2017)

A local lawyer found his racist remarks in documents only recently (2011) posted online, and posted them on a county blog September 21, 2017. The County Mayor said she would be receptive to attempts to rename the county,[72] although she said shortly afterward that "we're not considering that at this time" and "I don't even want to go down that road."[73]
The statue was removed during the night of October 18–19, 2017, and placed in storage.[71]

Theodore Roosevelt (2017)

J. Marion Sims (2017)

  • J. Marion Sims, a physician called "the father of modern gynecology", performed experiments on slave women and children, up to 30 times on one woman, without anesthesia (at the time, medical anesthesia had only recently been invented, and was not in widespread use), "under the racist belief that black patients did not feel pain the same way as their white counterparts".[77] In August, 2017, a statue of him in New York's Central Park, at Fifth Avenue and 103 St., opposite the New York Academy of Medicine (which twice called for its removal), was defaced with the word "Racist",[78] and women wearing bloodied hospital gowns staged a protest. An editorial in "Science's most elite magazine, Nature," opposing the removal as "whitewashing history," generated "outrage."[79] Alan Singer, a professor at Hofstra University, called him "the American equivalent of Josef Mengele."[80] The inscription at the monument reads:

    Surgeon & philanthropist founder of the Women's Hospital, State of New York his brilliant achievement carried the fame of American surgery throughout the world. Born 1814

    J. Marion Sims. M.D. L.L.D.

    In recognition of his services in the cause of science & mankind awarded the highest honors by his countrymen & decorations from the governments of Belgium France – Italy – Spain & Portugal Died 1883[76]

In January, 2018, mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the statue would be moved to Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, where he is buried.[60] The statue was removed from Central Park on April 17, 2018.[77]
Another statue of Sims is on the grounds of the South Carolina State House. The mayor of Columbia, Stephen K. Benjamin, has called for its removal,[81] as have other protestors.[82] A statue of Sims also stands on the capitol grounds in Montgomery, Alabama; in April 2018 (when Silent Sam was doused with red ink and blood) the statue had ketchup thrown on it while a skit about Sims was performed.[83] In 2005, a painting entitled 'Medical Giants of Alabama' that depicted Sims and other white men standing over a partially clothed black patient was removed from the University of Alabama at Birmingham's Center for Advanced Medical Studies because of complaints from people offended by it."[84][85]

William McKinley (2018)

Stephen Foster (2018)

  • The city of Pittsburgh decided to remove a statue of the composer Stephen Foster from its prominent place at the entrance to Schenley Park. "Commissioned in 1900 by Andrew Mellon and other wealthy industrialists, the sculpture depicts Foster sitting high above a black man who is positioned sycophantically playing the banjo at his feet."[37]

Eugene Talmadge (2018)

  • "After asking the Legislature and Gov. Nathan Deal to consider its request to rename the Talmadge Bridge, the port city (Savannah, Georgia) put up signs last month [June, 2018] that refer to the span as the "Savannah Bridge". While the name change is not official, the city decided to take matters into its own hands after the state did not act. The late Eugene Talmadge, a Georgia governor, was a staunch segregationist."[87]

Early Days (2018)

  • The statue Early Days (1894), in San Francisco, California, depicted "a Native American on his back, defeated, a Catholic priest above him pointing to the heavens, and an anglicized vaquero bestriding the scene in triumph. The statue is part of the Pioneer Monument celebrating the state’s origins."[88] Native Americans found it ethnically offensive as well as inaccurate. ("The Native American depicted in Early Days, for example, was from the Plains but native people of the Bay Area were Ohlone."[88]) Objections to the statue went back "decades". According to a report from the San Francisco Arts Commission, "At the core of the repeated requests for removal is the allegorical sculpture's depiction of the degradation and genocide of Native American peoples, utilizing visual stereotypes common at the turn of the twentieth century to depict all Native Americans which are now universally viewed as disrespectful, misleading, and racist."[89]. A "contextualizing plaque" was added in 1994, but its language was itself contentious and viewed by some as offensive. ("Political pressure resulted in language that reeked of false objectivity."[88]) It was vandalized with red paint.[90] The statue was removed in the middle of the night of September 13–14, 2018.[91]

Prospector Pete (2018)

  • The decision to remove Prospector Pete, a statue at California State University, Long Beach, was made in 2018 "after years of activism and a formal committee inquiry.... The cartoonish Prospector Pete costume mascot used at athletic games, which has been slowly phased out in recent years, will also be formally retired." According to Jane Conoly, President of the university, "We came to know that the 1849 California gold rush was a time in history when the indigenous peoples of California endured subjugation, violence and threats of genocide."[49]

Removal of other monuments or changes of names proposed

California

District of Columbia

  • J. Edgar Hoover Building, the national headquarters of the FBI, because he was a "racist, anti-communist zealot who, in the name of God and the American flag, set out to destroy Martin Luther King Jr."[93]
  • On the former Italian embassy building at 16th and Fuller Sts. NW, now (2018) being developed as Mill Creek Residential luxury apartments, a workman uncovered an unknown plaque that had been defaced and then covered up. The building was built in 1925, three years after Mussolini took office. It contains fasci, symbols of Italian fascism. They had been smashed before the panel was covered up. The building now is a historic landmark, and the fate of the panel has not been decided.[94]
  • Senate minority leader Charles Schumer has called for the renaming of the Russell Senate Office Building, named for Georgia Senator Richard Russell Jr., a "notorious segregationist", with the name of recently deceased Senator John McCain.[95]

Hawaii

Illinois

  • "In Chicago, a campaign is underway to remove a monument to Italo Balbo, an Italian air marshal, which the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini presented to the city in 1933. Balbo Drive is a well-known street in the heart of downtown."[1]

Louisiana

Massachusetts

  • "In Boston, there are calls for renaming historic Faneuil Hall because Peter Faneuil, who donated the building to the city in 1743, was a slave owner and trader."[1]

Mississippi

New Mexico

  • A statue of Diego de Vargas, a symbol of Spanish conquest and rule, is located in a city park in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Elena Ortiz, a tribal member of Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo, called for its removal, saying that "activist groups have been emboldened by the removal of Confederate monuments across the United States."[34]

New York

Pennsylvania

Texas

Washington state

Wyoming

  • Native American leaders have called for the renaming of two geological features in Yellowstone National Park, because they commemorate "individuals [who] have been involved with genocide, where elders and children have been killed":[42]
    • Mount Doane, named for Army officer Gustavus Cheyney Doane, who "led a massacre that killed around 175 Blackfeet people, and he continued to brag about the incident throughout his life".[42]
    • Hayden Valley, named for Ferdinand V. Hayden, a geologist and surveyor. "He also advocated for the extermination of tribal people who refused to comply with federal dictates."[42]

See also

Further reading

  • Cohen, Richard (October 30, 2017). "Martin Luther hated Jews. Does he deserve a splash of red paint?". Washington Post. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  • Invernizzi-Accetti, Carlo (December 6, 2017). "A small Italian town can teach the world how to defuse controversial monuments". The Guardian. Retrieved December 7, 2017.

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d Trip, Gabriel, "Far From Dixie, Outcry Grows Over a Wider Array of Monuments," Washington Post, August 25, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/25/us/monuments-confederacy-remove-rename.html
  2. ^ Post, Chandler Rathfon, A History of European and American Sculpture: From the Early Christian Period to the Present Day, Volume ll, Harvard University Press, London, 1921
  3. ^ Reynolds, Donald Martin, Monuments and Masterpieces: Histories and Views of Public Sculpture in New York City, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1988, pp.26–27
  4. ^ The Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Illinois, "The WPA Guide to Illinois, Pantheon Books, New York, 1983 pp.82–83
  5. ^ Riedy 1981, p. 182.
  6. ^ a b c Bach & Gray 1983, p. 230.
  7. ^ a b Riedy 1981, p. 184.
  8. ^ Bach & Gray 1983, p. 230-231.
  9. ^ Bach & Gray 1983, p. 232.
  10. ^ Burghart, Tare, "New Memorial Commemorates Bloody 1886 Labor Rally in Chicago, "Chicago Sun Times, September 16, 2004
  11. ^ Texas Woman's University Board of Regents meeting, October 3, 1936, Book 34, page 4
  12. ^ a b c "Pioneer Woman at Texas Women's University". pioneerwomen.blogspot.ca. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2018. CC-BY icon.svg This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) license and the GFDL.
  13. ^ Thurman, Nita, "Original TWU pioneer statue caused a statewide hoopla", Denton Record-Chronicle, February 15, 2006
  14. ^ Hutson, Alice, From Chalk to Bronze: A Biography of Waldine Tauch, Shoal Creek Publishers, Austin, Texas 1978 pp. 96–97
  15. ^ Baur, John I., William Zorach, Published for the Whitney Museum of American Art by Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1959 p.33
  16. ^ Zorach, William, Art is My Life: The Autobiography of William Zorach, The World Publishing Company, Cleveland,Ohio, 1967 p. 112
  17. ^ Little, Carol Morris, A Comprehensive Guide to Outdoor Sculpture in Texas, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1996 p. 195
  18. ^ 60 years later, Joseph McCarthy in the conversation
  19. ^ Wisconsin Historical Society: Photograph-Joseph R. Raymond Memorial
  20. ^ "'Races of Mankind' Sculptures Displayed Again, in a New Light, at the Field". Chicago Tribune. 2016-01-14.
  21. ^ Field, Henry (1933). "The Races of Mankind: An Introduction to Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall". Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
  22. ^ a b Kinkel 2011, p. 189.
  23. ^ Hammond's March of Civilization; A Historical Atlas, C.S. Hammond & Co., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1963 pp. D1 – D 12
  24. ^ Rawls, Walton, editor, Offerings at the Wall: Artifacts from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection, Crawford Barnett, Assistant Editor, photographs by Claudo Vazquez and Taren Z, Turner Publishing, Inc., Atlanta,1995 pp. 9–10
  25. ^ Wright, David K., The Story of the Vietnam veterans Memorial, Children's Press, Chicago,1989 p.13
  26. ^ Fish 1987.
  27. ^ Lin & Rogers-Lafferty 1994, p. 7.
  28. ^ Fish 1987, p. 4.
  29. ^ Lopes, Sal, introduction by Michael Norman, The Wall: Images and Offerings from the Vietnem Veterans Memorial, Collins Publishers, Inc., New York, 1987 p. 16
  30. ^ "Laying Some History On You: Maya Lin and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial – this ain't livin'". meloukhia.net. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  31. ^ Fish 1987, p. 5.
  32. ^ "Becoming American: The Chinese Experience. Maya Lin Transcript – PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  33. ^ Lin & Rogers-Lafferty 1994, p. 12.
  34. ^ a b c Romero, Simon (30 September 2017). "Statue's Stolen Foot Reflects Divisions Over Symbols of Conquest". New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  35. ^ "Vandalized memorial to Ludlow Massacre victims restored". summitdaily.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  36. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (July 21, 2012). "Little-Loved Statue May Be Exiled to a Brooklyn Cemetery". New York Times.
  37. ^ a b Bellafante, Ginia (April 18, 2018). "Statue of Doctor Who Did Slave Experiments Is Exiled. Its Ideas Are Not". New York Times.
  38. ^ McNutt, Michael (15 November 2012). "Ten Commandments monument is installed at Oklahoma state Capitol". The Oklahoman. Retrieved 2015-03-13.
  39. ^ "Panel orders Ten Commandment monument removed from OK Capitol grounds". Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  40. ^ Hauser, Christine (28 June 2017). "Arkansas Man Topples Ten Commandments Monument" – via NYTimes.com.
  41. ^ "Ten Commandments monument outside Bloomfield City Hall will be moved".
  42. ^ a b c d e Begay, Jason (July 5, 2018). "Native Americans seek to rename Yellowstone peak honoring massacre perpetrator". The Guardian.
  43. ^ "Thomas E. Watson (1856-1922)". New Georgia Encyclopedia.
  44. ^ Torres, Kristina (November 30, 2013). "Tom Watson statue removed from Georgia's Capitol steps". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  45. ^ Baccellieri, Emma (February 23, 2015). "ECU renames its own Aycock Residence Hall". Duke Chronicle.
  46. ^ Linthicum, Kate (September 28, 2015). "Shock after Junipero Serra statue vandalized days after sainthood declared". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  47. ^ Herrera, James (February 28, 2017). "Head reattached to St. Junipero Serra statue in Monterey". 'The Mercury News. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  48. ^ Pereira, Alyssa (February 28, 2017). "Junipero Serra statue beheaded, splashed with red paint in Central California". SF Gate. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  49. ^ a b Del Real, Jose A. (October 3, 2018). "An Icon or Insensitive Relic? Prospector Pete Is on Its Way Out". New York Times.
  50. ^ Svrluga, Susan (April 8, 2015). "U-Md. student government endorses demand that Byrd stadium be renamed, citing racist legacy". Washngton Post. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  51. ^ Johnson, Antuan; Clayborne, Alexander; Cuddihy, Sean (November 20, 2015). "Royall Must Fall". Harvard Crimson.
  52. ^ Coughlan, Sean (March 4, 2016). "Harvard Law School scraps official crest in slavery row". BBC.
  53. ^ Hui, Mary; Svrluga, Susan (April 27, 2016). "Princeton to remove 'overly celebratory' mural of Woodrow Wilson". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
  54. ^ Swanson, Ana; Ohlheiser, Abby (April 20, 2016). "Harriet Tubman to appear on $20 bill, while Alexander Hamilton remains on $10 bill". Washington Post.
  55. ^ Wood, Pamela (August 21, 2017). "Christopher Columbus monument vandalized in Baltimore". Baltimore Sun.
  56. ^ Manchester, Julia (August 21, 2017). "Christopher Columbus statue smashed in Baltimore". The Hill. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  57. ^ a b Hendrix, Steve (9 October 2017). "The Columbus Day holiday is under attack, and so are statues honoring the famed explorer". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  58. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin; Mays, Jeffery C. (12 September 2017). "Christopher Columbus Statue in Central Park Is Vandalized". New York Times. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  59. ^ a b The Editorial Board (October 7, 2017). "Robert E. Lee, Christopher Columbus ... and Pétain?". New York Times.
  60. ^ a b c Neuman, William (January 12, 2018). "No Traveling for New York's Columbus Statue, Mayor Decides". New York Times. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  61. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin; Mays, Jeffrey C. (September 12, 2017). "Christopher Columbus Statue in Central Park Is Vandalized". New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  62. ^ a b Viola, John (October 9, 2017). "Tearing Down Statues of Columbus Also Tears Down My History". New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  63. ^ Troug, Debbie (September 13, 2017). "Thomas Jefferson statue at U-Va. shrouded in black". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  64. ^ "Yale to change Calhoun College's name to honor Grace Murray Hopper". YaleNews. February 11, 2017.
  65. ^ Campbell, Colin; Welsh, Sean (September 13, 2017). "Baltimore to keep, clean defaced Francis Scott Key statue". Baltimore Sun.
  66. ^ "Vandals Decapitate Statue Of A Revolutionary War Colonel In Ohio". dailycaller.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  67. ^ "Blue paint is dumped on Wall Street 'Charging Bull' statue's head". Los Angeles Times. September 14, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
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Sources

  • Bach, Ira; Gray, Mary Lackritz (1983). Chicago's Public Sculpture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Fish, Lydia (1987). The Last Firebase: A Guide to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Shippensburg, PA: White Mane.
  • Kinkel, Marianne (2011). Races of Mankind: The Sculptures of Malvina Hoffman. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  • Lin, Maya Ying; Rogers-Lafferty, Sarah J. (1994). Maya Lin: Public/Private. Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University.
  • Riedy, James L. (1981). Chicago Sculpture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
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