Monday

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Galileo's 1616 drawings of the Moon and its phases. Monday is named after the Moon in many languages.

Monday is the day of the week between Sunday and Tuesday. According to the international standard ISO 8601 it is the first day of the week. The name of Monday is derived from Old English Mōnandæg and Middle English Monenday, originally a translation of Latin dies lunae "day of the Moon".

Names

A depiction of Máni, the personified moon, and his sister Sól, the personified sun, from Norse mythology (1895) by Lorenz Frølich

The names of the day of the week were coined in the Roman era, in Greek and Latin, in the case of Monday as ἡμέρᾱ Σελήνης, diēs Lūnae "day of the Moon".

Most languages use terms either directly derived from these names, or loan-translations based on them. The English noun Monday derived sometime before 1200 from monedæi, which itself developed from Old English (around 1000) mōnandæg and mōndæg (literally meaning "moon's day"), which has cognates in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian mōnadeig, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch mānendag, mānendach (modern Dutch Maandag), Old High German mānetag (modern German Montag), and Old Norse mánadagr (Swedish and Norwegian nynorsk måndag, Icelandic mánudagur. Danish and Norwegian bokmål mandag). The Germanic term is a Germanic interpretation of Latin lunae dies ("day of the moon").[1] Japanese and Korean share the same ancient Chinese words '月曜日' (Hiragana:げつようび, Hangul:월요일) for Monday which means "day of the moon". In many Indo-Aryan languages, the word for Monday is Somavāra or Chandravāra, Sanskrit loan-translations of "Monday".[2]

In some cases, the "ecclesiastical" names are used, a tradition of numbering the days of the week in order to avoid the "pagan" connotation of the planetary names, in which Monday is the "second day" (Greek Δευτέρα ἡμέρα, Latin feria secunda). In many Slavic languages the name of the day translates to "after Sunday/holiday". Russian понедельник (ponyedyelnik), Croatian ponedjeljak, Serbian понедељак (ponedeljak), Ukrainian понеділок (ponedilok), Bulgarian понеделник (ponedelnik), Polish poniedziałek, Czech pondělí, Slovak pondelok, Slovenian ponedeljek. In Turkish it is called pazartesi, which also means "after Sunday".

Position in the week

Historically, the Greco-Roman week began with Sunday (dies solis), and Monday (dies lunae) was the second day of the week. It is still the custom to refer to Monday as feria secunda in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. Quakers also traditionally referred to Monday as "Second Day".[3] The Portuguese and the Greek (Eastern Orthodox Church) also retain the ecclesiastical tradition (Portuguese segunda-feira, Greek Δευτέρα "devtéra" "second"). Likewise the Modern Hebrew name for Monday is yom-sheni (יום שני).

In modern times, it has become more common to consider Monday the first day of the week. The international ISO 8601 standard places Monday as the first day of the week, and this is widely used on calendars in Europe and in international business. Monday is xīngqīyī (星期一) in Chinese, meaning "day one of the week". Modern Western culture usually looks at Monday as the beginning of the workweek.

Religious observances

In Judaism Mondays are considered auspicious days for fasting. The Didache warned early Christians not to fast on Mondays to avoid Judaizing, and suggests Wednesdays instead.

In Judaism the Torah is read in public on Monday mornings, one of three days the Torah is read each week (the other two days being Thursday and Saturday). Special penitential prayers are recited on Monday, unless there is a special occasion for happiness which cancels them.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church Mondays are days on which the Angels are commemorated. The Octoechos contains hymns on this theme, arranged in an eight-week cycle, that are chanted on Mondays throughout the year. At the end of Divine Services on Monday, the dismissal begins with the words: "May Christ our True God, through the intercessions of his most-pure Mother, of the honorable, Bodiless Powers (i.e., the angels) of Heaven…". In many Eastern monasteries Mondays are observed as fast days; because Mondays are dedicated to the angels, and monks strive to live an angelic life. In these monasteries the monks abstain from meat, fowl, dairy products, fish, wine and oil (if a feast day occurs on a Monday, fish, wine and oil may be allowed, depending upon the particular feast).

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints spend one evening per week called Family Home Evening (FHE) or Family Night usually Monday, that families are encouraged to spend together in study, prayer and other family activities. Many businesses[who?] owned by Latter-Day Saints close early on Mondays so they and their customers are able to spend more time with their families.

Cultural references

This postcard, sent in 1907 and captioned "Monday Morning in N. Y. City", reflects the tradition of Monday as a day for washing clothes

A number of popular songs in Western culture feature Monday, often as a day of depression, anxiety, hysteria, or melancholy (probably because of its association with the first day of the work week). For example, "Monday, Monday" (1966) from the Mamas & the Papas, "Rainy Days and Mondays" (1971) from the Carpenters, "I Don't Like Mondays" (1979) from the Boomtown Rats, and "Manic Monday" (1986) from the Bangles (written by Prince).

There is a band named the Happy Mondays and an American pop punk band Hey Monday.

The popular comic strip character Garfield by Jim Davis is well known for his disdain for Mondays.[4]

More people in England and Wales commit suicide on Mondays than other days of the week;[5] more people in the United Kingdom call in sick;[6] and more people worldwide surf the web.[7]

During July 2002, the consulting firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting announced that it would rename itself to Monday, and spend $110 million over the next year to establish that brand.[8]

Named days

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Barnhart (1995:485).
  2. ^ Turner (1962). "sōmavāra 13610". A comparative dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages. London: Oxford University Press. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. p. 784. Retrieved 21 February 2010. sōmavāra 13610 sōmavāra masculine 'Monday' inscription [sṓma the plant, vāra 2 meaning day] 
  3. ^ "Guide to Quaker Calendar Names". Iowa Yearly Meeting (Conservative) Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Retrieved 30 March 2017. In the 20th Century, many Friends began accepting use of the common date names, feeling that any pagan meaning has been forgotten. The numerical names continue to be used, however, in many documents and more formal situations." 
  4. ^ Minow, Neil (3 November 2014). "Jim Davis Explains Why Garfield Loves Lasagna and Hates Mondays and Why People Love Garfield". Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Carvel, John (26 August 2005). "Monday is most common day for suicide". The Guardian. London. 
  6. ^ "Monday is 'the most popular sick day'". Blog.taragana.com. 10 November 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  7. ^ "OneStat Website Statistics and website metrics - Press Room". Onestat.com. 9 April 2003. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Blakely, Beth. "Monday: PwC Consulting's new name creates controversy, cackles | TechRepublic". Articles.techrepublic.com.com. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 

References

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