Moderate Party (Italy)

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Moderate Party
Partito Moderato
Leaders Vincenzo Gioberti,
Massimo d'Azeglio,
Cesare Balbo,
Camillo Benso di Cavour
Founded 1848 (1848)
Dissolved 1861 (1861)
Succeeded by Historical Right,
Historical Left
Headquarters Turin, Piedmont-Sardinia
Ideology Italian nationalism
Liberal nationalism
Market liberalism
Federalism (minority)

The Moderate Party (Italian: Partito Moderato), collectively called Moderates (Italian: Moderati), was an Italian political group, active during the Risorgimento (1815–1861). The Moderates were never a formal party, only a totality of moderate patriots from politics, literature and philosophy.


Since the Congress of Vienna, inside the Italian Peninsula was diffused a reformist and Romantic moment, inspired from Jacobonism and Bonapartism and explosed in the revolutions of 1820 against the reactionary Congress System. Many patriots, soldiers and intellectuals who took part to the revolutions were definited "moderates".[clarification needed]

The Moderates, with time, demarcated themselves from radical and republican organizations like Giuseppe Mazzini's Young Italy, Carboneria and others. The moderates and radicals disputed mainly for the methods to unified Italy: the Moderates supported secret pacts and strategic alliances between the patriotic movement and the other European powers, whereas the Mazzini's supportes called a popular revolution to establish a democratic Republic. After the failure of the Italian Revolutions of 1848, attempted by Mazzinians and republicans, the republican ideas declined for the Moderates' agenda. During this time, several politicians of other Italian states are members of the group: in the Kingdom of Sardinia, the leaders were Massimo d'Azeglio and Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, representing the parliamentary Right, and Urbano Rattazzi, representing the Left; in the Papal States the reform movement was headed by Terenzio della Rovere and Pellegrino Rossi, the last murdered by a republican plot in 1848; in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies prominent moderates were brothers Bertrando and Silvio Spaventa. When the Kingdom of Italy was founded in 1861, the moderates merged in the Historical Right and Left, the two Piedmontese parliamentary group that monopolized the politics of the new Italian state for almost half-century.

Ideas and platform

Despite the democrats and the republicans, the Moderates were only circles of intellectuals, aristocrats, soldiers and businessmen with patriotic tendencies. However, the Moderate Party wasn't cohesive, because its members were of different political ideologies, from continental liberalism to soft conservatism. Initially, the party wasn't too nationalist, preferring a federation or coalition between the several Italian states, and support both reformist and law and order policies,[1] different by the republicans like Mazzini. When the possibility of an unified Italian state became real, a new question of division was the form that the new Italian State would have. Someone, like Vincenzo Gioberti, supported a confederation of states, led by the Pope;[1] other simply claimed for a centralized state headed by a monarch, without differences if a Savoy or other.

Prominent members

Sardinia and Lombardy-Venetia:

Papal States:

Two Sicilies:


  1. ^ a b "Partito Moderato". Encilopedia Treccani. 

See also

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