Chilean devil ray

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Chilean devil ray
Mobula tarapacana.png
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Mobulidae
Subfamily: Myliobatidae
Genus: Mobula
Species: M. tarapacana
Binomial name
Mobula tarapacana

The Chilean devil ray (Mobula tarapacana), also known as the box ray, greater Guinean mobula, sicklefin devil ray or the spiny mobula, is a species of ray in the family Mobulidae.[1] It is found worldwide in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate oceans, and mainly occurs offshore, only occasionally appearing near the coast.[1] These fish have been discovered to feed at depths up to 1,848 metres (6,063 ft) during deep dives, and are among the deepest-diving ocean animals.[2][3] There are two distinct deep dive patterns; the first, which is usually only performed once every 24 hours, is diving to the maximum depth and resurfacing after 60 to 90 minutes; the second, which is less frequent, is dives up to 1,000 meters for a maximum of 11 hours.[4] The latter pattern may be associated with traveling rather than feeding.[2] It can reach a disc width of up to 3.7 m (12 ft).[5]


  1. ^ a b c Clark, T.B.; Smith, W.D. & Bizzarro, J.J. (2006). "Mobula tarapacana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-07-27. 
  2. ^ a b Thorrold, S. R.; Afonso, P.; Fontes, J.; Braun, C. D.; Santos, R. S.; Skomal, G. B.; Berumen, M. L. (2014-07-01). "Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean". Nature Communications. 5 (4274): 4274. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4274T. doi:10.1038/ncomms5274. PMC 4102113Freely accessible. PMID 24983949. 
  3. ^ Webb, J. (2014-07-01). "Deep dives of devil rays solve 'mystery' of warm brain". BBC. Archived from the original on 2014-07-09. 
  4. ^ "Study: Devil Rays are Deepest-diving Ocean Animals". July 22, 2014. 
  5. ^ White; Corrigan; Yang; Henderson; Bazinet; Swofford; and Naylor (2017). "Phylogeny of the manta and devilrays (Chondrichthyes: mobulidae), with an updated taxonomic arrangement for the family". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: zlx018. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx018. 

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