Military Intelligence Directorate (Syria)

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Military Intelligence Directorate
شعبة المخابرات العسكرية أو الأمن العسكري
Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya
Agency overview
Formed 1969
Preceding agency
Jurisdiction President of Syria
Headquarters Defense Ministry headquarters, Umayyad Square, Damascus, Syria
33°30′50.58″N 36°16′42.58″E / 33.5140500°N 36.2784944°E / 33.5140500; 36.2784944Coordinates: 33°30′50.58″N 36°16′42.58″E / 33.5140500°N 36.2784944°E / 33.5140500; 36.2784944
Agency executive
Parent agency Military of Syria

The Military Intelligence Directorate (Arabic: شعبة المخابرات العسكرية‎, Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya) is the military intelligence service of Syria.[1] Although its roots go back to the French mandate period (1923–1943), its current organization was established in 1969.[2][3] Its predecessor organisation was called the Deuxième Bureau (the Second Bureau).[2][3] It is headquartered at the Defense Ministry headquarters in Damascus.

The military intelligence service, or the Mukhabarat in Arabic, is very influential in Syrian politics and is controlled by the President.[4][5] It is suspected of providing support to different radical groups.[6] Additionally, the service monitors dissidents of the government outside Syria.[7] During the Syrian occupation of Lebanon, the Mukhabarat exercised political authority in Lebanon.

Late Assef Shawqat, the brother-in-law of Bashar Al-Assad, became director in 2005 replacing General Hassan Khalil.[8] From 2009 to 2012, the military intelligence service was headed by Abdel-Fatah Qudsiyeh.[9][10]

Heads of Military Intelligence

  • Deputy director: Hassan Khalil (1993–2000)[14]
  • Hassan Khalil (2000–2005)[13]
  • Deputy director: Assef Shawkat (2000–2005)[14][15]

Regional Heads of Military Intelligence

  • Damascus (branch 215): Brig. Gen. Sha’afiq (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Damascus (branch 235): Brig. Gen. Muhammad Khallouf (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Damascus (branch 291): Brig. Gen. Yousef Abdou (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Damascus (branch 291): Brig. Gen. Burhan Qadour (past–2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Hama city branch: Mohammad Mufleh (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being involved in the crackdown on demonstrators during the Syrian uprising.[19]
  • Deir ez-Zor branch: Jami Jami (2011), the European union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Dayr az-Zor and Alboukamal during the Syrian uprising.[19]
  • Idlib (branch 271): Brig. Gen. Nawful Al-Husayn (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Idlib province during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Homs branch: Muhammed Zamrini (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Homs during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Daraa (branch 245): Col. Lu’ai al-Ali (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being responsible for the violence against protesters in Daraa during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Suwayda branch: Wafiq Nasser (2011), head of regional branch assumed position after Brig. Gen. Suheir Ramadan.[22]

Paramilitary units

Other Syrian intelligence agencies

References

  1. ^ "Syria Intelligence and Security Agencies". Global Security. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Wege, Carl Anthony (2011). "Hizbollah–Syrian Intelligence Affairs: A Marriage of Convenience". Journal of Strategic Security. 4 (3): 1–14. doi:10.5038/1944-0472.4.3.1. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Conflict Studies Journal at the University of New Brunswick. Lib.unb.ca. Retrieved on 19 October 2010.
  4. ^ Robert G. Rabil Syria, the United States, and the war on terror in the Middle East, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-99015-X p.214
  5. ^ TFJD990-01-210480.tex Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. (PDF). Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  6. ^ Syria, Intelligence and Security. Espionageinfo.com. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  7. ^ Paul Todd, Jonathan Bloch Global intelligence: the world's secret services today, Zed Books, 2003 ISBN 1-84277-113-2 p. 167
  8. ^ Print - ESISC : European Strategic Intelligence & Security Center. ESISC (22 October 2005). Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  9. ^ Ahed Al Hendi (3 May 2011). "The Structure of Syria's Repression". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Black, Ian (28 April 2011). "Six Syrians who helped Bashar al-Assad keep iron grip after father's death". The Guardian. London. 
  11. ^ McConville, Maureen; Seale, Patrick (1990). Asad of Syria: The Struggle for the Middle East. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520069763. 
  12. ^ Moubayed, Sami (2005). Steel & silk: Men and women who shaped Syria 1900-2000. Seattle, Wash: Cune. p. 83. ISBN 1885942400. 
  13. ^ a b c Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview" (PDF). Comparative Strategy. 25: 424. doi:10.1080/01495930601105412. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  14. ^ a b MEIB (July 2000). "Syria's Intelligence Services: A Primer". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. 2 (6). Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  15. ^ Gambil, Gary (February 2002). "The Military-Intelligence Shakeup in Syria". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. 4 (2). Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  16. ^ "The List: The Middle East's Most Powerful Spooks". Foreign Policy. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  17. ^ Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview" (PDF). Comparative Strategy. 25: 390. doi:10.1080/01495930601105412. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  18. ^ Rainer, Hermann (26 April 2011). "Geheimdienste in Syrien: Teile, herrsche, morde". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "Joint Proposal for a COUNCIL REGULATION concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011". EuroLex. 52011PC0887. 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "Assad reshuffles top security posts after bombing that killed four senior officials". The Times of Israel. Damascus. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "Torture Archipelago". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  22. ^ "By All Means Necessary" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  23. ^ Vince Beshara (17 April 2017). "New small loyalist group formed earlier this month, Military Security Falcons, formed in Homs, Syria. Led by Sheikh Mohamed al-Milham". Syria Comment. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  24. ^ Beshara, Vince (25 April 2017). "Another new #Syria loyalist group formed this week, Southern Shield Brigade. Based in #Qunietra, it is being sponsored by Military Intel.pic.twitter.com/erv2tzf1yx". 
  25. ^ Yakovlev, Ivan (20 December 2016). "The fall of Palmyra: Chronology of the events". 
  26. ^ "Usud Al-Cherubim: A Pro-Assad Christian Militia". 15 December 2016. 
  27. ^ Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (2 April 2017). "Quwat Muqatili al-Asha'ir: Tribal Auxiliary Forces of the Military Intelligence". Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  28. ^ Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (10 August 2017). "Suqur al-Furat: A Pro-Assad Sha'itat Tribal Militia". Retrieved 31 August 2017. 

External links

  • Syria's Intelligence Services: Origins and Development, Andrew Rathmell, J. Conflict Studies, 1996.
  • Human Rights in Syria, James A. Paul, Middle East Watch, 1990.
  • Syria's Intelligence Services, Agentura.
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