Mesannepada

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Mesannepada
King of Sumer
In office
ca. 26th century BC – ca. 26th century BC
Preceded by Lugal-kitun
Succeeded by Mesh-ki-ang-Nuna
Ensi of Ur
In office
ca. 26th century BC – ca. 26th century BC
Preceded by Meskalamdug
Succeeded by Mesh-ki-ang-Nuna
Personal details
Born ca. 26th century BC
Ur, Ancient Mesopotamia
Died ca. 26th century BC
Ur, Ancient Mesopotamia
Children Aannepadda

Mesannepada (Mesh-Ane-pada or Mes-Anne-pada, "youngling chosen by An") was the first king listed for the first dynasty of Ur (ca. the 25th century BC) on the Sumerian king list,[1] king of Eannatum and king of Lagash.[2] He is listed to have ruled for 80 years, having overthrown Lugal-kitun of Uruk.[3]

Mesannepada represented a diplomatic relationship with Ur.[4][5] Mesannepada gave gifts to the kings of Mari, and according to a lapis lazuli bead inscription found there, his father was Meskalamdug. Seals from the royal cemetery at Ur have also been found bearing the names of Mesannepada and his predecessors Meskalamdug and Akalamdug, along with Queen Puabi.

Mesannepada, and his son and successor Meskiag-Nanna, who reigned 36 years,[3] are both named on the Tummal Inscription as upkeepers of the main temple in Nippur along with Gilgamesh of Uruk and his son Ur-Nungal, verifying their status as overlords of Sumer. Judging from the inscriptions, Mesannepada then assumed the title "King of Kish",[2] to indicate his hegemony.[6] In the tablet to the goddess Ninhursag, found in Tell el-Obeid, has the words "A-Anne-pada king of Ur, son of Mes-Anne-pada king of Ur, has built a temple for Ninhursag.[3] Truly it's impossible which a king inherit a throne in his childhood and reign thereafter for 80 years.[3] The reason will be accepted because the length of the son's reign added to the father.[3]

Another son of Mesannepada, named Aannepadda, (Aja-ane-pada or A-Anne-pada, "father chosen by An"), whose years of reigned are unknown,[3] is known for having the temple of Ninchursang constructed (at modern Ubaid) near el-Obed, though he is not named on the kinglist.[1]

Ur-Nammu's structure probably was built on top of a smaller ziggurat which may have been as old as the time of Mes-Anne-pada.[7]

In the 1950s, Edmund I. Gordon conjectured that Mesannepada, and an archaeologically attested early "king of Kish", Mesilim, were one and the same, as their names were interchanged in certain proverbs in later Babylonian tablets; however this has not proved conclusive. More recent scholars tend to regard them as distinct, usually placing Mesilim in Kish before Mesannepada.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Romano García, Vicente (1965). Ur, Asur y Babilonia. Tres milenios de cultura en Mesopotamia. Madrid: Ediciones Castilla. p. 33.
  2. ^ a b Katz 1993, p. 16.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Finegan 2015, p. 33, Mesopotamian Beginnings.
  4. ^ Matthews 1997, p. 1, Introduction.
  5. ^ Matthews 1997, p. 2, Introduction.
  6. ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah (1963). "History: Heroes, Kings and Ensi's". The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. University of Chicago Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780226452388.
  7. ^ Finegan 2015, p. 43, Mesopotamian Beginnings.

Bibliography

Preceded by
Lugal-kitun of Uruk
King of Sumer
ca. 26th century BC
Succeeded by
Mesh-ki-ang-Nuna
Preceded by
Meskalamdug
Ensí of Ur
ca. 26th century BC
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