Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria

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Maximilian III
Henseiller Maximilian III of Austria.jpg
Portrait by Hans Henseiller, 1590s, National Museum in Warsaw
Archduke of Further Austria
Reign 1612–1618
Predecessor Matthias
Successor Ferdinand III
Born 12 October 1558
Died 2 November 1618
House House of Habsburg
Father Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria of Spain

Maximilian III of Austria, also known as Maximilian the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618) was the Archduke of Further Austria from 1612 until his death.

Biography

Born in Wiener Neustadt, Maximilian was the fourth son of the emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. He was a grandson of Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter and heiress of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, who himself was the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland from the Jagiellonian Dynasty.

From 1585 Maximilian became the Grandmaster of the Teutonic Order; thanks to this he was known by the epithet der Deutschmeister ("the German Master")[1] for much of his later life.

In 1587 Maximilian stood as a candidate for the throne of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, following the death of the previous king, Stefan Batory. A portion of the Polish nobility elected Maximilian king, but, as a result of the rather chaotic nature of the election process, another candidate, Sigismund III Vasa, prince of Sweden, grandson of Sigismund I the Old, was also elected. Maximilian attempted to resolve the dispute by bringing a military force to Poland – thereby starting the war of the Polish Succession. His cause had considerable support in Poland, but fewer Poles flocked to his army than to that of his rival. After a failed attempt to storm Kraków in late 1587, he was defeated in January 1588, at Pitschen in Silesia (Battle of Byczyna) by the supporters of Sigismund III (who had since been formally crowned), under the command of Polish hetman Jan Zamojski. Maximilian was taken captive at the battle and was only released a year and half later after the intervention of Pope Sixtus V in the aftermath of the Treaty of Bytom and Będzin. In 1589, he formally renounced his claim to the Polish crown.[2] The inactivity of his brother, the emperor Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor in this matter contributed to Rudolf's poor reputation.[citation needed]

From 1593 to 1595 Maximilian served as regent for his young cousin, Ferdinand, Archduke of Inner Austria. In 1595 he succeeded their uncle Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria in his territories, including Tyrol, where he proved to be a solid proponent of the Counter-Reformation. He also worked to depose Melchior Khlesl, and to ensure that Archduke Ferdinand of Inner Austria, his former charge, succeed as Holy Roman Emperor.

Today, Maximilian is perhaps best remembered for his baroque archducal hat, exhibited in the treasury of the monastery of Klosterneuburg and was used for ceremonial purposes as late as 1835.

He died at Vienna in 1618, and is buried in the canopied tomb in Innsbruck Cathedral.

Ancestors

References

  1. ^ In fact, originally the titles Hochmeister ("Grandmaster") and Deutschmeister ("German Master") were different: while Grandmaster was the highest order dignitary, the German Master was the third highest and territorially restricted to area of the Holy Roman Empire (apart from Prussia and Livonia) where he administered its respective bailiwicks. But after 1561 those ranks were united and the Deutschmeister became Grandmaster.
  2. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski (January 2008). Jan Zamoyski – hetman i polityk (in Polish). Bellona. pp. 111–118. GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81. 
  3. ^ a b Press, Volker (1990), "Maximilian II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 16, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 471–475 ; (full text online)
  4. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Spanien" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 19. 
  5. ^ Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 112. 
  6. ^ a b c Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Joanna". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  7. ^ Cazacu, Matei (2017). Reinert, Stephen W., ed. Dracula. Brill. p. 204. 
  8. ^ a b Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. ^ a b c d Stephens, Henry Morse (1903). The story of Portugal. G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 125, 139, 279. Retrieved 11 July 2018. 
  10. ^ Wikisource Holland, Arthur William (1911). "Maximilian I. (emperor)". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  11. ^ Wikisource Poupardin, René (1911). "Charles, called The Bold, duke of Burgundy". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ a b Vladislas II, King of Bohemia and Hungary at Encyclopædia Britannica
  13. ^ Boureau, Alain (1995). The Lord's First Night: The Myth of the Droit de Cuissage. Translated by Cochrane, Lydia G. The University of Chicago Press. p. 96. 
  14. ^ Noubel, P., ed. (1877). Revue de l'Agenais [Review of the Agenais]. 4. Société académique d'Agen. p. 497. 
  15. ^ a b Harris, Carolyn (2017). Raising Royalty: 1000 Years of Royal Parenting. Dundurn Press. p. 78. 
Preceded by
Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria
Archduke Mathias, his elder brother
Governor of Tirol
Archduke of Further Austria

1612–1618
Succeeded by
Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria
his first cousin
Preceded by
Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria
Regent of Styria
1593–1595
Succeeded by
Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria
Preceded by
Heinrich von Bobenhausen
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
1590–1618
Succeeded by
Archduke Charles III of Austria
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