Manus Island

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Manus
Admiralty Islands Topography with labels.png
Admiralty Islands
Manus is located in Papua New Guinea
Manus
Manus
Geography
Coordinates 2°5′37.28″S 146°58′17.33″E / 2.0936889°S 146.9714806°E / -2.0936889; 146.9714806Coordinates: 2°5′37.28″S 146°58′17.33″E / 2.0936889°S 146.9714806°E / -2.0936889; 146.9714806
Archipelago Admiralty Islands
Area 2,100 km2 (810 sq mi)
Length 100 km (60 mi)
Width 30 km (19 mi)
Highest elevation 718 m (2,356 ft)
Highest point Mt. Dremsel
Administration
Papua New Guinea (PNG)
Province Manus Province
Largest settlement Lorengau (pop. 5,829)

Manus Island is part of Manus Province in northern Papua New Guinea and is the largest of the Admiralty Islands. It is the fifth-largest island in Papua New Guinea, with an area of 2,100 km2 (810 sq mi), measuring around 100 km × 30 km (60 mi × 20 mi). According to the 2000 census, the whole Manus Province had a population of 43,387, rising to 50,321 as of 2011 Census.[1] Lorengau, the capital of Manus Province, is located on the island. Momote Airport, the terminal for Manus Province, is located on nearby Los Negros Island. A bridge connects Los Negros Island to Manus Island and the province capital of Lorengau. In addition to its resident population, asylum seekers have been relocated here from Australia between 2001–2004 and since 2012.[2][3]

Manus Island is covered in rugged jungles which can be broadly described as lowland tropical rain forest. The highest point on Manus Island is Mt. Dremsel 718 metres (2,356 ft) above sea level at the centre of the south coast. Manus Island is volcanic in origin and probably broke through the ocean's surface in the late Miocene, 8–10 million years ago. The substrate of the island is either directly volcanic or from uplifted coral limestone.

Manus Island is home to the emerald green snail, whose shells were harvested to be sold as jewellery; this continues, albeit at a lesser scale, as due to the snail's status as a threatened species, its sale for this purpose is now illegal in many jurisdictions.

History

The first recorded sighting of Manus Island by Europeans was by Spanish explorer Álvaro de Saavedra on board the carrack Florida on 15 August 1528, while trying to return to New Spain from the Maluku Islands. Saavedra circled Manus Island, and landed possibly on Murai islet to the south west. Murai was found to be inhabited and some natives came out in canoes, attacking with bows and arrows. Three of these men were captured by the Spaniards, and were returned by Saavedra to the same island, on his second attempt to return to North America the following year. Manus Island was charted as Urays la Grande or Big Urays, which is probably a projection of Murai to signify "big Murai".[4]

In World War II Manus Island was the site of an observation post manned by No. 4 Section, 'B' Platoon, 1st Independent Company, Australian Imperial Force,[5] who also provided medical treatment to the inhabitants.[6] Manus was first bombed by the Japanese on 25 January 1942, the radio mast being the main target.[5] On 8 April 1942 an Imperial Japanese force consisting of the light cruiser Tatsuta, destroyer Mutsuki and a troop transport ship Mishima Maru entered Lorengau harbour and several hundred Japanese soldiers of the 8th Special Base Force swarmed ashore onto the Australian-mandated island. The vastly outnumbered Australians withdrew into the jungle.[5]

Later in 1942, Japan established a military base on Manus Island. This was attacked by United States forces in the Admiralty Islands campaign of February–March 1944.[7] An Allied naval base was established at Seeadler Harbor on the island and it later supported the British Pacific Fleet.

In 1950–51 the Australian government conducted the last trials against Japanese war criminals on the island.[8] One case heard was that of Takuma Nishimura, who faced an Australian military court. He had already been tried by a British military court in relation to the Sook Ching massacre in Singapore and sentenced to life imprisonment. While on a stopover in Hong Kong he was intercepted by Australian Military Police. Evidence was presented stating that Nishimura had ordered the shootings of wounded Australian and Indian soldiers at Parit Sulong and the disposal of bodies so that there was no trace of evidence. In this trial he was found guilty and was hanged on 11 June 1951.

American anthropologist Margaret Mead lived on Manus Island before and after the war, and gave detailed accounts in Growing up in New Guinea and New Lives for Old.

Detention centre

Australia set up the Manus Regional Processing Centre on Manus Island in 2001 as part of its Pacific Solution. The last inmate in that period was Aladdin Sisalem, who was kept as a lone inmate from July 2003 until he was finally granted asylum in Australia in June 2004. In August 2012, the Australian Government controversially[9] announced it would resume offshore processing; in November 2012 the relocation of asylum-seekers to Manus Island resumed.[10]

The Australian government's decision to resume offshore processing has met with domestic political opposition from the Greens,[11] and a controversial decision by the Australian government in July 2015 to make reporting of abuse within the centre illegal prompted staff at those centres to begin a campaign of civil disobedience.[12]

On 26 April 2016, the Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea ruled that the detention of asylum seekers on Manus Island was illegal.[13] Prime Minister Peter O'Neill announced that the centre would be closed.[14]

Australia's immigration minister, Peter Dutton, confirmed on 17 August 2016 that the centre was to be closed, but no timescale was given.[15] The Centre was formally closed on 31 October 2017.[16] However, nearly 600 men refused to leave the centre claiming ".., to fear for their safety...", according to Minister Dutton.[17] A notice posted during the night by PNG Immigration authorities said "The Manus RPC will close at 5 pm today" (31 October), and that all power, water and food supply would cease.[18] The PNG military took control of the area.[19] On 22 November 2017, Papua New Guinea Police moved in to try to get the more than 350 men remaining in the centre to leave.[20]

Alternative accommodation was provided at the East Lorengau Refugee Transit Centre and West Lorengau Haus.[21] On 23 November 2017, all remaining men were removed to their new accommodations.[22][23]

Naval bases

On September 20, 2018, The Australian reported that Australia and Papua New Guinea were discussing providing port facilities to Australian Navy on Manus Island.[24] Australia would help expand Lombrum Naval Base, so there would be facilities for Australian naval vessels there. The newspaper reported that Australia was countering interest China had placed in expanding Papua New Guinea's port facilities at Wewak, Kikori, Vanimo and Manus Island. Manus Island is the most important of these four ports, as it is a deep-water port near important shipping lanes.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Papua New Guinea". citypopulation.de. 
  2. ^ Matt Siegel: "Australia Adopts Tough Measures to Curb Asylum Seekers", in The New York Times, 19 July 2013
  3. ^ Refuge prisons in Manus Roger Cohen, NYTimes, December 9, 2016
  4. ^ Sharp, Andrew (1960). The discovery of the Pacific Islands. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 19, 20. 
  5. ^ a b c Klemen, L (1999–2000). "Manus Island, experience of No. 4 Section, 'B' Platoon, First Independent Company, Australian Imperial Force". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  6. ^ Klemen, L (1999–2000). "Medical Patrol on Manus Island, 1941". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  7. ^ Video: Americans Win New Airbases In South Pacific Etc. (1944). Universal Newsreel. 1944. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  8. ^ Piccigallo, Philip; The Japanese on Trial; Austin 1979; ISBN 0-292-78033-8, ch.: "Australia".
  9. ^ "United Nations rejects Australia's off-shore processing plans - Asia Pacific". radioaustralia.net.au. 
  10. ^ "Subscribe - theaustralian". www.theaustralian.com.au. 
  11. ^ "End Cruel Refugee Detention". Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  12. ^ Farrell, Paul. "Detention centre staff speak out in defiance of new asylum secrecy laws". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  13. ^ "Papua New Guinea's Supreme Court rules detention of asylum seekers on Manus Island is illegal". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  14. ^ Stephanie Anderson (27 Apr 2016). "Manus Island detention centre to be shut, Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Peter O'Neill says". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  15. ^ Doherty, Ben (2016-08-17). "Manus Island detention centre to close, Australia and Papua New Guinea agree". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  16. ^ Manus refugees given ultimatum as Turnbull government comes under pressure
  17. ^ "Refugees 'scared' to leave Australia camp". www.bbc.com. 31 October 2017. 
  18. ^ Fox, Liam (31 October 2017). "Manus Island detention centre to permanently close today, 600 men refusing to leave". ABC News. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  19. ^ Riordan, Primrose; Brown, Greg. "Manus Island detention centre closure sets off 'looting' and protests". The Australian. News Corp Australia. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  20. ^ "PNG police move in to Manus Island detention centre". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  21. ^ Fox, Liam; Yaxley, Louise (1 November 2017). "PNG army prepares to enter Manus Island centre, 600 men still inside". ABC News. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  22. ^ Baxendale, Rachel. "Manus Island: last of asylum seekers removed from detention centre". www.theaustralian.com.au. News Limited. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  23. ^ Davidson, Helen; Wahlquist, Calla (31 October 2017). "Power shut off to final Manus compounds as 600 men refuse to leave". British Broadcasting Corporation – via www.theguardian.com. 
  24. ^ "Move to head off China with Australian base in PNG". The Australian. 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2018-09-20. Australian officials have expressed concerns over Chinese interest in the redevelopment of four PNG ports, at Wewak, Kikori, Vanimo and Manus Island, fearing the Asian superpower is working towards gaining a military foothold in the region. 

External links

  • ManusIsland.com
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