Manukau (New Zealand electorate)

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Manukau is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the south Auckland Region. It existed from 1881 to 1978, with a break from 1938 to 1954. It was represented by nine Members of Parliament. Two by-elections were held in the electorate.

Population centres

The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–76 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed, including Manukau, and two electorates that had previously been abolished to be recreated. This necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries.[1]

The First Labour Government was defeated in the 1949 election and the incoming National Government changed the Electoral Act, with the electoral quota once again based on total population as opposed to qualified electors, and the tolerance was increased to 7.5% of the electoral quota. There was no adjustments in the number of electorates between the South and North Islands, but the law changes resulted in boundary adjustments to almost every electorate through the 1952 electoral redistribution; only five electorates were unaltered.[2] Five electorates were reconstituted (including Manukau) and one was newly created, and a corresponding six electorates were abolished; all of these in the North Island.[3] These changes took effect with the 1954 election.[4]

The electorate was in the southern section of greater Auckland, and was centred on Manukau.

History

The electorate existed from 1881 to 1938[5] and then from 1954 to 1978. It was represented by nine Members of Parliament.

Matthew Kirkbride was elected to the Manukau electorate in the 1902 general election, and held the electorate until he died in 1906.[6] His death caused the 6 December 1906 Manukau by-election, which was won by Frederic Lang.[7]

William Joseph Jordan was first elected in the 1922 general election and was confirmed in the next four elections.[8] When the Labour Party won the 1935 general election and formed the First Labour Government of New Zealand, Jordan expected a cabinet position. Instead, he was appointed to the post of New Zealand High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, which had until that point been traditionally a retirement post for former cabinet ministers.[9] His resignation from Parliament caused the 30 September 1936 Manukau by-election, which was won by Arthur Osborne.[7]

Members of Parliament

Key  Independent    Conservative    Liberal    Reform    Labour    National  

Election Winner
1881 election Maurice O'Rorke
1884 election
1887 election
1890 election William Buckland
1893 election Maurice O'Rorke
1896 election
1896 election
1902 election Matthew Kirkbride
1905 election
1906 by-election Frederic Lang
1908 election
1911 election
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election William Jordan
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election
1936 by-election Arthur Osborne
(Electorate abolished 1938–1954; see Onehunga)
1954 election Leon Götz
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election Colin Moyle
1966 election
1969 election Roger Douglas
1972 election
1975 election
(Electorate abolished in 1978; see Manurewa)

Election results

1975 election

General election, 1975: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Roger Douglas 7,495 47.7 -9.5
National B R Leaming 6,817 43.3
Social Credit R J McKee 760 4.8
Values C B M Jackson 626 4.0
Socialist Unity A L Marston 18 0.2
Liberal R Te Rite Pahi 10 0.1
Majority 678 4.4 -15.8
Turnout 20,366 77.8 -9.3

1972 election

General election, 1972: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Roger Douglas 7,830 57.2 +7.7
National R O Price 4,986 36.4
Social Credit Frederick Coles Jordan 774 5.7 +0.3
New Democratic C E Inglis 100 0.7
Majority 2,844 20.8 +16.0
Turnout 15,850 87.1 -1.1

1969 election

General election, 1969: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Roger Douglas 8,404 49.5
National Ronald Alfred Walden 7,529 44.3
Social Credit Frederick Coles Jordan 921 5.4 -4.2
Independent Labour Barry Moss 140 0.8
Majority 875 4.8
Turnout 19,802 88.2 +1.2

1966 election

General election, 1966: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Colin Moyle 8,796 52.5 +2.6
National Max Louis Peers 6,068 36.2
Social Credit Frederick Coles Jordan 1,609 9.6 +5.6
Independent Simon Michael Mill 207 1.2
Communist Rita Smith 86 0.5
Majority 2,728 16.3 +11.2
Turnout 19,284 87.0 -4.6

1963 election

General election, 1963: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Colin Moyle 7,798 49.9
National H C Pryor 7,009 45.0
Social Credit Frederick Coles Jordan 629 4.0
Communist R B Gough 173 1.1
Majority 759 4.9
Turnout 17,093 91.6 -1.4

1960 election

General election, 1960: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Leon Götz 9,723 48.7 +0.8
Labour Cyril Stamp 9,478 47.4 +0.5
Social Credit Thomas Higham 778 3.9 -1.3
Majority 245 1.3 +0.3
Turnout 21,581 93.0 -1.2

1957 election

General election, 1957: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Leon Götz 7,480 47.9 -8.5
Labour Cyril Stamp 7,321 46.9 +10.0
Social Credit Thomas Higham 820 5.2
Majority 159 1.0 -18.5
Turnout 16,638 94.2 +3.8

1954 election

General election, 1954: Manukau[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Leon Götz 8,918 56.4
Labour Cyril Stamp 5,846 36.9
Social Credit Douglas Lance Henderson 1,057 6.7
Majority 3,072 19.5
Turnout 17,628 90.4

1936 by-election

Manukau by-election, 1936[11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arthur Osborne 8,593 68.24
National Frederick Doidge 3,998 31.75
Informal votes 22 0.17
Majority 4,595 36.49
Turnout 12,591


1935 election

General election, 1935: Manukau[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour William Joseph Jordan 9,345 70.22 +5.34
Reform Herbert Jenner Wily 2,943 22.11
Democrat Herbert Thornley 1,020 7.66
Informal votes 76 0.57 +0.35
Majority 6,402 48.10 +18.35
Turnout 13,308 89.79 +13.04
Registered electors 14,821

1931 election

General election, 1931: Manukau[13][14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour William Joseph Jordan 7,401 64.88
Reform Stanley Rickards 4,007 35.12
Majority 3,394 29.75
Informal votes 48 0.42
Turnout 11,456 76.75
Registered electors 14,927

1906 by-election

Manukau by-election, 1906[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Frederic Lang 2,514 66.50
Liberal George Ballard 1,266 33.49
Majority 1,248 33.01
Turnout 3,780

1899 election

General election, 1899: Manukau[16][17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Sir Maurice O'Rorke 1,967 50.28
Independent John Edward Taylor 936 23.93
Conservative Frank Buckland 516 13.19
Conservative Francis Hull 493 12.60
Majority 1,031 26.35
Informal votes 38 0.96
Turnout 3,950 74.00
Registered electors 5,338

1890 election

General election, 1890: Manukau[18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Frank Buckland 786 52.50
Liberal Sir Maurice O'Rorke 706 47.16
Independent A Grant 5 0.33
Majority 80 5.34
Turnout 1,497 63.48
Registered electors 2,358

Notes

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 43–48.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 99f.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 95–100.
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 99.
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 160.
  6. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
  7. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 119.
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  9. ^ Templeton, Malcolm. "Jordan, William Joseph - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Norton 1988, pp. 269.
  11. ^ "Final Figures". Auckland Star. LXVII (237). 6 October 1936. p. 9. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  12. ^ The General Election, 1935. National Library. 1936. pp. 1–35. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  13. ^ "Election Results". Auckland Star. LXII (290). 8 December 1931. p. 3. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  14. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 3. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  15. ^ "Manukau by-election". Wairarapa Daily Times. LVI (8626). 7 December 1906. p. 5. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  16. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 1. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "Electoral District of Manukau". Observer. XVIII (1094). 16 December 1899. p. 19. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  18. ^ "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 

References

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8. 
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