Mankiyali language

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Native to Pakistan
Region Mansehra District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Ethnicity Trawara
Language codes
ISO 639-3 nlm

Mankiyali is an endangered Dardic language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northern Pakistan.[1] It is spoken by the Trawara community [2] in the secluded village of Danna (or Dana) located in the Badi Shungli union council of Mansehra District.[3] The whole community has been reported to be bilingual in Hindko, the language of wider communication in the area.[3] The language is still being passed on to the next generation, but overall it is losing ground to Hindko.[4] The first study documenting the existence of the language was published only in 2015. The name Mankiyali is of recent origin, having been coined by members of the community to replace the older terms Tarawara and Tarawari, which are now seen as stigmatising.[5]

Mankiyali is not mutually intelligible with any of the surrounding languages. Lexical similarity tests have revealed that it shares a little over a third of its core vocabulary with the local varieties of Hindko and Gojri, and a slightly higher percentage (41–42%) with the Kohistani languages Gowro and Bateri.[6] The slightly higher similarity with Bateri could indicate a common origin, which would be consistent with the oral traditions of the community.[7]

Mankiyali has been influenced by Hindko and Gojri, particularly in the development of phonemic tone: a preliminary analysis indicated that its tonal system is of the Punjabi type, shared with Hindko and Gojri and contrasting with the systems found in northern Dardic languages.[8] The voiced aspirates have been lost, conditioning a low rising tone on the following vowel.[9] There are contrasting dental (/ts/) and palatal (/tʃ/ /tʃʰ/) affricates.[10]


  1. ^ "Mankiyali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  2. ^ Pronounced [t̪rɑʋɽɑ].
  3. ^ a b Anjum & Rehman 2015, p. 177.
  4. ^ Anjum & Rehman 2015, pp. 177, 179.
  5. ^ Munshi 2017.
  6. ^ Anjum & Rehman 2015, pp. 179–81. The lexical similarity percentages are as follows: 34% with Ushojo, 41% with Gowro, 42% with Bateri, 39% with Hazara Gojri and 36% with Sherpur Hindko.
  7. ^ Anjum & Rehman 2015, p. 181.
  8. ^ Anjum & Rehman 2015, pp. 181, 185.
  9. ^ Anjum & Rehman 2015, pp. 182, 185.
  10. ^ Anjum & Rehman 2015, pp. 182–83.


  • Anjum, Uzma; Rehman, Khawaja (2015). "A First Look at Mankiyali Language: An Endangered Language". Journal of Asian Civilizations. 38 (1): 177–90.
  • Munshi, Sadaf (2017). Request for change to ISO 639-3 language code 2017-028 (Report).

Further reading

  • Anjum, Uzma (2016). Language shift and the speech community: A sociolinguistic study of Tarawara community in Bandi Shungli (PhD). National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad.
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