Manikchak

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Manikchak
Community development block
Manikchak is located in West Bengal
Manikchak
Manikchak
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 25°03′45″N 87°54′33″E / 25.0624410°N 87.9091110°E / 25.0624410; 87.9091110Coordinates: 25°03′45″N 87°54′33″E / 25.0624410°N 87.9091110°E / 25.0624410; 87.9091110
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Malda
Government
 • Type Representative democracy
Area
 • Total 316.39 km2 (122.16 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 269,813
 • Density 850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN 732202
STD/telephone code 03512
Lok Sabha constituency Maldaha Dakshin
Vidhan Sabha constituency Manikchak
Website malda.nic.in

Manikchak is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Malda Sadar subdivision of Malda district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Geography

Manikchak is located at 25°03′45″N 87°54′33″E / 25.0624410°N 87.9091110°E / 25.0624410; 87.9091110

Manikchak CD Block is part of the Diara, one of the three physiographic sub-regions of the district. “The Diara is a relatively well drained flat land formed by the fluvial deposition of newer alluvium in the transitional zone between the Barind upland and the marshy Tal tract. The soil is light with sandy appearance and is very fertile. Mango gardens are common and mulberry is also grown in this natural division.” It covers 32.16% of the total area of the district. 42.81% of the population of the district live in this sub-region. The Ganges enters the district at Gaduri of Bhutni Char in Manikchak CD Block.[1][2]

Gopalpur, Dharampur, Manikchak, Dakshin Chandipur, Hiranandapur and Nazirpur gram panchayats in Manikchak CD Block are vulnerable to floods from the adjoining Ganges and Fulahar rivers.[3]

Left bank erosion of the Ganges upstream of Farakka Barrage has rendered nearly 4.5 lakh people homeless in Manikchak, Kaliachak I, II and III and Ratua blocks over the last three decades of the past century. The worst hit area is between Bhutnidiara and Panchanandapore in Kaliachak II block. According to the Ganga Bhangan Pratirodh Action Nagarik Committee, 750 km2 area was lost in 30 years in the Manikchak and Kalichak areas.[4]

See also - River bank erosion along the Ganges in Malda and Murshidabad districts

Manikchak is bounded by Amdabad CD Block of Katihar district in Bihar and Ratua I CD Block on the north, Ratua II CD Block and English Bazar CD Block on the east, Kaliachak II CD Block on the south and Sahibganj CD Block and Rajmahal CD Block of Sahibganj district in Jharkhand, across the Ganges, on the west.[2][5][6]

Manikchak CD Block has an area of 316.39 km2.[7]It has 1 panchayat samity, 11 gram panchayats, 162 gram sansads (village councils), 89 mouzas and 72 inhabited villages. Manikchak police station serves this block.[8] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Manikchak.[9][10]

Gram panchayats of Manikchak bloc/ panchayat samiti are: Nurpur, Nazirpur, Hiranandapur, Mathurapur, Gopalpur, Manikchak, Chowki Mirdadpur, Uttar Chandipur, Dakshin Chandipur, Dharampur and Enayetpur.[11]

Demographics

Population

As per 2011 Census of India, Manikchak CD Block had a total population of 269,813, all of which were rural. There were 139,593 (51%) males and 130,220 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 43,282. Scheduled Castes numbered 74,816 (27.73%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 40,125 (14.87%).[12]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Manikchak CD Block were (2011 population in brackets): Uttar Chandipur (10.549), Chandipurmal (6,799), Paschim Chandipur (9,522), Harachandapur (8,191), Naobarar Jagir (6,632), Dakshin Chandipur (5,804), Paschim Narayanpur (5,544), Narayanpur (4,072), Ugritola (7,088), Kamalpur (6,519), Mathurapur (12,755), Talim Nagar (4,023), Chandipur (16,017), Nurpur (14,066), Lalbathani (4,067), Nawada (7,516), Enayetpur (14,729), Purba Saidpur (6,883), Salabatganj (4,744), Chauki Mirdadpur (8,493), Khanpur (7,463), Manikchak (4,038) and Gopalpur (9,867).[12]

Other villages in Manikchak CD Block included (2011 population in brackets): Nazirpur (3,466).[12]

Decadal Population Growth Rate (%)

Note: The CD Block data for 1971-1981, 1981-1991 and 1991-2001 is for Manikchak PS

The decadal growth of population in Manikchak CD Block in 2001-2011 was 26.01%.[13] The decadal growth of population in Manikchak PS covering Manikchak CD Block in 1991-2001 was 20.59%. The decadal growth of population in Manikchak PS in 1981-91 was 18.40% and in 1971-81 was 18.36%.[14]The decadal growth rate of population in Malda district was as follows: 30.33% in 1951-61, 31.98% in 1961-71, 26.00% in 1971-81, 29.78% in 1981-91, 24.78% in 1991-2001 and 21.22% in 2001-11.[15]The decadal growth rate for West Bengal in 2001-11 was 13.93%.[16] The decadal growth rate for West Bengal was 13.93 in 2001-2011, 17.77% in 1991-2001.[17]24.73% in 1981-1991 and 23.17% in 1971-1981.[18]

Malda district has the second highest decadal population growth rate, for the decade 2001-2011, in West Bengal with a figure of 21.2% which is much higher than the state average (13.8%).[19]Uttar Dinajpur district has the highest decadal growth rate in the state with 23.2%.[20]Decadal growth rate of population is higher than that of neighbouring Murshidabad district, which has the next highest growth rate.[21]

Population density in the district has intensified from 162 persons per sq km in 1901 to 881 in 2001 (i.e., around five times), which is highest amongst the districts of North Bengal. However, unlike the densely populated southern regions of West Bengal, urbanisation remains low in Malda district. North Bengal in general, and Malda in particular, has been witness to large scale population movement from other states in India, as well as from outside the country. The District Human Development Report for Malda notes, “Malda district has been a principal recipient of the human migration waves of the 20th century.”[14]

There are reports of Bangladeshi infiltrators coming through the international border. Only a small portion of the border with Bangladesh has been fenced and it is popularly referred to as a porous border.[22][23][24][25]

Literacy

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Manikchak CD Block was 130,874 (57.77% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 75,340 (64.18% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 55,534 (50.89% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 13.29%.[12]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion

Information about mother-tongue is available only at the district level and above. In 2001, Bengali was the mother tongue of 88.1% of the population of Malda district followed by Santali (4.5%) Khortha/Khotta (4.4%), Hindi (1.2%), Bhojpuri (0.4%), Telugu (0.3%), Kurukh/ Oraon (0.2%) and Koda/ Kora (0.1%). While the percentage of population reporting Bengali as a mother tongue has increased from 83.6 in 1961 Census to 88.1 in 2001 Census, the percentage of population reporting Santali as mother tongue has decreased from 7.2 in 1961 Census to 4.5 in 2001 Census. [26]

There is a discrepancy in the data for religion in Malda district. According to Table C1: Population by religious community in 2011, Malda district was a Muslim-majority district in 2011, but it did not present any progressive picture from earlier years.[27]The 2011 District Census Handbook: Maldah presents a different progressive picture, which we are presenting below. Incidentally, both are part of the official census operations.

Religion in Manikchak CD Block
Hindu
57.28%
Muslim
42.68%
Christian
0%
Others
0.04%

According to the 2011 District Census Handbook: Maldah, during 2011 census, majority of the population of the district were Hindus constituting 51.3% of the population and up from 49.3% in 2001, followed by Muslims with 48.0%, down from 49.7% in 2001. The proportion of the Hindu population of the district had a decreasing trend from 56.7% in 1971 to 49.3% in 2001 then the trend took a reverse turn and increased in 2011. On the other hand, the Muslim population has increased from 46.2% in 1961 to 49.7% in 2001 but in 2011 census it shrunk to 48.0%. Only 0.3% population were Christians.[28]

As per 2014 District Statistical Handbook: Malda (quoting census figures), in the 2001 census, Hindus numbered 122,657 and formed 57.28% of the population in Manikchak CD Block. Muslims numbered 91,384 and formed 42.68% of the population. Christians numbered 5. Others numbered 81 and formed 0.04% of the population.[29]

The Census Commission published another set of data for 2011 census with basic fundamental differences. Those who are interested may view the reference.[27]We are not sure which one is right. It is up to the Census Commission to clarify.

Rural poverty

As per the Human Development Report for Malda district, published in 2006, the percentage of rural families in BPL category in Manikchak CD Block was 33.8%. Official surveys have found households living in absolute poverty in Malda district to be around 39%.[30]

According to the report, “An overwhelmingly large segment of the rural workforce depends on agriculture as its main source of livelihood, the extent of landlessness in Malda has traditionally been high because of the high densities of human settlement in the district… Although land reforms were implemented in Malda district from the time they were launched in other parts of West Bengal, their progress has been uneven across the Malda blocks… because of the overall paucity of land, the extent of ceiling-surplus land available for redistribution has never been large… The high levels of rural poverty that exist in nearly all blocks in Malda district closely reflect the livelihood crisis… “[30]

Economy

Livelihood

Livelihood
in Manikchak CD Block

  Cultivators (9.27%)
  Agricultural labourers (47.18%)
  Household industries (10.44%)
  Other Workers (33.11%)

In Manikchak CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 9,053 and formed 9.27%, agricultural labourers numbered 46,068 and formed 47.18%, household industry workers numbered 10,195 and formed 10.44% and other workers numbered 32,330 and formed 33.11%.[31] Total workers numbered 97,646 and formed 36.19% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 172,167 and formed 63.81% of the population.[32]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person’s land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[33]

Infrastructure

There are 72 inhabited villages in Manikchak CD Block. All 72 villages (100%) have power supply. 70 villages (97.22%) have drinking water supply. 23 villages (31.54%) have post offices. 66 villages (91.67%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 27 villages (37.5%) have a pucca (paved) approach road and 26 villages (36.11%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 10 villages (13.89%) have agricultural credit societies. 10 villages (13.89%) have banks.[34]

Agriculture

“Large parts of the Diara, now the most intensely settled region within Malda, began to attract a new population from the early 20th century, after the alluvial chars exposed by the Ganga’s westward migration were opened for revenue settlement… Agricultural land in the Tal and Diara is mostly irrigated and intensively cropped and cultivated… Rainfall in the district is moderate…”[35]

Manikchak CD Block had 76 fertiliser depots, 14 seed stores and 51 fair price shops in 2013-14.[36]

In 2013-14, Manikchak CD Block produced 2,750 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 1,143 hectares, 3,949 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 1,094 hectares, 392 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 202 hectares, 17,669 tonnes of wheat from 7,418 hectares, 3,024 tonnes of maize from 801 hectares, 22,991 tonnes of jute from 1,717 hectares, 3,136 tonnes of potatoes from 97 hectares and 46,575 tonnes of sugar cane from 493 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[36]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Manikchak CD Block was 7,284 hectares, out of which 701 hectares were irrigated by river lift irrigation, 482 hectares by deep tube wells, 5,546 hectares by shallow tube wells and 555 hectares by other means.[36]

Mango

25,500 hecatres of land in Malda district produces mango varieties such as langra, himasagar, amrapali, laxmanbhog, gopalbhog and fazli. The core area of mango production is Old Malda, English Bazar and Manikchak CD Blocks, from where it has spread to Kaliachak I & II, Ratua I & II and Chanchal I CD Blocks.[37]

Backward Regions Grant Fund

Malda district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[38][39]

Transport

In 2013-14, Manikchak CD Block had 10 ferry services and 1 originating/ terminating bus route.[36]

State Highway 10 connects Manickchak to National Highway 12 (old number NH 34) at Malda and National Highway 131A at Ratua.[40]

Education

In 2013-14, Manikchak CD Block had 152 primary schools with 29,064 students, 9 middle schools with 1,813 students, 6 high schools with 10,513 students and 16 higher secondary schools with 36,315 students. Manikchak CD Block had 367 institutions for special and non-formal education with 22,586 students.[36]

As per the 2011 census, in Manikchak CD Block, amongst the 72 inhabited villages, 5 villages did not have a school, 37 villages had more than 1 primary school, 30 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 21 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[41]

Healthcare

In 2014, Manikchak CD Block had 1 rural hospital, 3 primary health centres and 1 nursing home with total 53 beds and 9 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 35 family welfare subcentres. 5,160 patients were treated indoor and 311,405 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[36]

Manikchak Rural Hospital at Manikchak with 30 beds is the main medical facility in Manikchak CD Block. There are primary health centres at Bhutni (with 10 beds), Mathurapur (with 4 beds) and Nurpur (with 4 beds).[42]

External links

  • Malda travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Gour-Pandua travel guide from Wikivoyage

References

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Pages 13-15: Physiography. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Page 603: Map of Manikchak CD Block. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Foreword" (PDF). Areas vulnerable in respect of flloods. Malda district administration. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  4. ^ Banerjee, Manisha. "A Report on the Impact of Farakka Barrage on the Human Fabric, November 1999" (PDF). The social impact of erosion, pp 13-14. South Asia Network On Dams, Rivers and People, New Delhi: 110 088 India. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  5. ^ "Katihar CD Block/ Tehsil Map". Maps of India. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Sahibganj CD Block/ Tehsil Map". Maps of India. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  7. ^ "Manikchak at a Glance". Maldah District. District administration. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  8. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Malda". Table 2.1. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  9. ^ "District Census Handbook: Maldah, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Maldah with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  10. ^ "BDO Offices under Malda District". Deoartment of Mass Education Extension & Library Services, Government of West Bengal. West Bengal Public Library Network. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  11. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Malda district - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  13. ^ "District Census Handbook: Maldah, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page 50. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  14. ^ a b "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 11-14. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  15. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". Malda - Table 2.3 Growth of Population by sex on different census years in the district of Malda. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  16. ^ "Census of India 2011: Provisional Totals for West Bengal". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Provisional population totals Paper I: West Bengal". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  18. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Page 40, Table 3.2.1. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook Maldah" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 15. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  20. ^ "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook Uttar Dinajpur" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  21. ^ "Census of India 2011 District Census Handbook Murshidabad" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  22. ^ "Bangladeshi Govt warns India of increased infiltration by jihadis". the quint. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  23. ^ "Infiltration decreasing through India Bangla border". Sunday Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  24. ^ "Why BSF wants 81.7 km of Indo-Bangla border fenced urgently". Rediff.com. 21 August 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  25. ^ "Bangladeshi Infiltrators – the Reality Check". The Pioneer, 27 June 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  26. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Pages 47-48: Mother tongue. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  27. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  28. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Page 47: Religion. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  29. ^ "District Statistical Handbook Malda 2014". Table 2.10 (a). Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  30. ^ a b "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 102-104. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  31. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories ofEconomic Activity in Sub-district 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  32. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 30: Number and percentage of Main workers, Marginal workers and Non workers by Sex, in Sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  33. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 31. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  34. ^ "District Census Handbook, Maldah, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 80-81 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities,2011. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  35. ^ "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 91-100. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  36. ^ a b c d e f "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Malda". Tables 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  37. ^ "District Census Handbook, Maldah, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 20-21: A short note on mango production in the district. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  38. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  39. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  40. ^ Google maps
  41. ^ "District Census Handbook, Malda, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 720-21, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  42. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
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