Magic item (Dungeons & Dragons)

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In the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, a magic item is any object that has magical powers inherent in it. These may act on their own or be the tools of the character in whose hands they fall into. Magic items have been prevalent in the game in every edition and setting, from the original edition in 1974 until the modern fifth edition. In addition to jewels and gold coins, they form part of the treasure that the players often seek in a dungeon.[1] Magic items are generally found in treasure hoards, or recovered from fallen opponents; sometimes, a powerful or important magic item is the object of a quest.[2]

Artifacts

Major artifacts include the ones in the following table. They are generally unique and exist for a specific purpose. Less powerful or potent artifacts, or ones that are not unique, are generally called minor artifacts.

Artifact Campaign/Source Reference books
Acorn of Wo Mai Forgotten Realms: The Horde Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Al-Azid's Ghostly Palace Al-Qadim: Secrets of the Lamp Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
All-Knowing Eye of Yasmin Sira Al-Qadim Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Andrathath's Mask Forgotten Realms City of Splendors, Waterdeep (2005 or 2006)
Ankh of Life Forgotten Realms: FR10 Old Empires Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Antennae of Triangulation Spelljammer: SJR2 Realmspace? Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
The Apparatus Ravenloft: I10 The House on Gryphon Hill Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Apparatus of Dreadful Construction Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Arm of Doom Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Armet by Wayland D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Helmet")
Artifurnace Spelljammer box set Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1995, under "Helm")
Axe of the Dwarvish Lords Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry[3] Dungeon Master's Guide (1979),[4] Book of Artifacts (1993),[5] Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994),[6] Axe of the Dwarvish Lords (module, 1999)[7]
Axe of the Emperors Dragon Lance: DLR2 Taladas - The Minotaurs Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Baba Yaga's Hut Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Beacon of Light Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide to All Things Magical (1996)
Blackjammer's Cutlass Dragon Magazine #159 Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Sword")
Blackrazor Greyhawk: White Plume Mountain Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Sword")
Blood of Lathander Forgotten Realms: Volo's Guide to the Dalelands Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Blue Staff Dragon Lance: Leaves from the Inn of the Last Home
Book of Amon Hollow World: HWR2 Kingdom of Nithia Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Book of Zargos Hollow World: HWR3 The Milenian Empire Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Spellbook")
Book With No End Dungeon Magazine #3 Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995, under "Spellbook")
Bringer of Doom Monstrous Compendium: MC8 Outer Planes Appendix Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994, under "Box")
Bracers of Invulnerability Spelljammer: SJR2 Realmspace? Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Calvan's Bell Forgotten Realms: LC4 Port of Ravens Bluff Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Percussion Instrument")
Carven Oak Mystara: GAZ7 The Minrothad Guilds Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Chariot of Re Forgotten Realms: FR10 Old Empires Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Chessmen of Ultham-Urre Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Claw of Mighty Simurgh D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Codex of the Infinite Planes Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry[3] Dungeon Master's Guide (1979),[4] Book of Artifacts (1993),[5] Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Libram")[8]
Coin of Jisan the Bountiful Al-Qadim Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Comb of the Korrigans D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Crenshinibon Forgotten Realms: The Crystal Shard novel Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Crown of Horns Forgotten Realms: City of Splendors (1994) Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Crown of Souls Ravenloft: RA1 Feast of Goblyns Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Crystal of the Ebon Flame Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Crystal Warrior Kara-Tur Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Cup of Al-Akbar Greyhawk: Dungeon Master's Guide, I9 Day of Al'Akbar Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Cyrinishad Forgotten Realms: Prince of Lies novel, Ruins of Zhentil Keep Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Daoud's Wondrous Lanthron Greyhawk: Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, "Lamp")
Dawnstone Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Death Moon Orb Forgotten Realms: Spellbound Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Death Rock Kara-Tur Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Delzoun's Fist Forgotten Realms: FR5 Savage Frontier Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Hammer")
Demonbane Dragon Magazine #91, Forgotten Realms: FR4 Magister Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Sword" as "Fiendbane")
Diamond Orb of Tyche D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Dragonking's Eye Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Ebonbane Dungeon Magazine #31 Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Sword")
Egg of the Phoenix I12 Egg of the Phoenix Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Eye of Vecna Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry[3] Dungeon Master's Guide (1979),[4] WGA4 - Vecna Lives! (1990),[9] Book of Artifacts (1993),[5] Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)[8]
Fiery Brand of Massauwu D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Torch")
Font of Time Forgotten Realms: FR10 Old Empires Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Fountain")
Fork of Mephistopheles Monster Manual II (1982) Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995, under "Polearm")
Fountain of Tomorrow Hollow World: HWR3 The Milenian Empire Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Galley of the Gods Forgotten Realms: FR10 Old Empires Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995, under "Ship")
Gatekeeper's Crystal Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
The Gauntlet Greyhawk: UK3 The Gauntlet Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Ghearufu Night Masks by R.A.Salvatore The Cleric Quintet
Girdle of Armida D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Girdle of De'Rah M2 Vengeance of Alphaks Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Golden Circlet Dragon Lance: Tales of the Lance Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Gryylph Discoon's Fingers Lankhmar: LNR1 Wonders of Lankhmar Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Guardian's Tear Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Hammer of Gesen Forgotten Realms: The Horde Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Hammer of Kharas Dragon Lance: Tales of the Lance Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Hand of Vecna Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry[3] WGA4 - Vecna Lives! (1990),[9] Book of Artifacts (1993),[5]
Helm of Halav Hollow World: HWR3 The Milenian Empire Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Helmet")
Helm of Petra Hollow World: HWR3 The Milenian Empire Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Helmet")
Herald of Mei Lung Kara-Tur? Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Tome")
Heward's Mystical Organ Greyhawk: Dragon Magazine #29 Dungeon Master's Guide (1989), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Wind Instrument")
Horn of Change Dungeon Master's Guide (1979) Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Wind Instrument")
Horn of Geryon Monster Manual (1977)
Horn of the Sacred Grove Ravenloft: Castles Forlorn Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Wind Instruments")
Humbaba's Glaring Eye D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Hymir's Steaming Cauldron D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Icon of Halav Hollow World: HWQ1 The Milenian Scepter Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Icon of Petra Hollow World: HWQ1 The Milenian Scepter Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Ild's Astral Tome Dungeon Magazine #10
Invulnerable Coat of Arnd Greyhawk: Dungeon Master's Guide (1979) Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Iron Bow of Gesen Forgotten Realms: The Horde Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Iron Flask of Tuerny the Merciless Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Iron Helm of Heroes Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Ivory Chain of Pao Kara-Tur? Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Ivory Plume of Maat D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994, under "Brooch")
Jacinth of Inestimable Beauty Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Joyhdee's Mask Greyhawk: Dungeon Master's Guide (1979) Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Kuroth's Quill Greyhawk: Dungeon Master's Guide (1979) Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Lens of Transformation Temple of Elemental Evil Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Living Gem Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Mace of Cuthbert Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry,[3] Dragon Magazine #100[10] Book of Artifacts (1993),[5] Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)[8]
Machine of Lum the Mad Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Mask of Bachraeus D&D Rules Cyclopedia Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Master Plan Hollow World: HRW2 Kingdom of Nithia Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Mighty Servant of Leuk-o Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Milenian Scepter Hollow World: HWQ1 The Milenian Scepter Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Military Fork of Pain Monster Manual II (1982) Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995, under "Polearm")
Mirror-Shield of Rheddrian Mystara: Wrath of the Immortals Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Moloch's Whip Monster Manual II (1982) Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Monacle of Bagthalos Forgotten Realms? Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Monkey Fist of Ha'chao Kara-Tur Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Necklace of Lilith Imagine Magazine #20 Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Necklace of Ulutiu Forgotten Realms: FR16 The Great Glacier Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Obsidian Man of Urik Dark Sun Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Orb of Golden Death Greyhawk: Temple of Elemental Evil Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Orbs of Dragonkind Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Ortnit's Lance of Doom D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Palm Sign I4 Oasis of the White Palm Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994, under "Amulet")
Peaceful Periapt of Pax M5 Talons of the Night Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Pileus D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994, under "Cap")
Porpherio's Garden Pool Greyhawk: UK1 Beyond the Crystal Cave Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Psychometron of Nerad Dark Sun Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Pyramid Energy Hollow World: HRW2 Kingdom of Nithia Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Queen Ehlissa's Marvelous Nightengale Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Queen's Eye Spelljammer: SJA1 Wildspace Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Rainbow Scarf of Sinbad D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Recorder of Ye-Cind Greyhawk: Dungeon Master's Guide (1979) Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Wind Instrument")
Regalia of Might Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Rift Spanner Ravenloft: Monstrous Compendium 2:Children of the Night Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Ring of Gaxx Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Ring of Winter Forgotten Realms: Heroes' Lorebook Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Rod of Seven Parts Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry[3] Dungeon Master's Guide (1979),[4] Dungeon Master's Guide (1989),[11] Book of Artifacts (1993),[5] Rod of Seven Parts boxed set,[12] Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995),[13] Arms and Equipment Guide (2003)[14]
Rod of Teeth Book of Artifacts (1993) Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Ruby Rod of Asmodeus Monster Manual (1977) Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Scepter of Savras Forgotten Realms: Heroes' Lorebook? Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Scepter of the Sorcerer-Kings Forgotten Realms Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Scimitar of Souls Forgotten Realms: FA1 Halls of the High King Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Sword")
Seal of Jafar al-Samal Al-Qadim Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
The Sentinel Greyhawk: UK3 The Sentinel Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Glove")
Shadow Belt M4 Five Coins for a Kingdom Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994)
Shard of Sakkrad D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 1 (1994, under "Crystal")
Sibylline Book D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995, under "Spellbook")
Silencer of Bodach Dark Sun Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Sword
Staff of Fraz-Urb'luu Greyhawk: Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth Monster Manual II (1982), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995), Dragon Magazine #333
Staff of the Lower Planes Monster Manual II (1982)
Starym Moonblade Forgotten Realms: FOR5 Elves of Evermeet Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Stone of Gul Dungeon Magazine #30 Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Stone Scepter of Shih Black Courser Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995)
Sword of Kas Greyhawk: Eldritch Wizardry[3] WGA4 - Vecna Lives! (1990),[9] Book of Artifacts (1993),[5] Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)[15]
Talisman of Al-Akbar Greyhawk: Dungeon Master's Guide, I9 Day of Al'Akbar Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Tear of Selune Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Teeth of Dahlvar-Nar Greyhawk: Dungeon Master's Guide (1979) Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995, under "Tooth")
Thakorsol's Seat Forgotten Realms: Spellbound Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Throne of the Gods Eldritch Wizardry Dungeon Master's Guide (1979), Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Timepiece of Klorr Ravenloft: Forbidden Lore Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Tome of Ssu-Ma D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Triad of Betrayal Dragon Lance: Tales of the Lance Book of Artifacts (1993), Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Tree of Life Mystara: GAZ5 The Elves of Alfheim Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Underworld Scepter Dungeon Magazine #12
Verthandi's Invincible Hourglass D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995)
Wand of Orcus Eldritch Wizardry[3] Monster Manual (1977),[16] Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)[15]
Wave Greyhawk: White Plume Mountain Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (1995, under "Polearm")
Well of All Heals Greyhawk: Treasures of Greyhawk Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Whelm Greyhawk: White Plume Mountain Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (1995, under "Hammer")
Wife of Ilmarinen D&D Master Set Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Windwalker Forgotten Realms: Heroes' Lorebook Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
World-Shield Ore Hollow World: HWA2 Nightrage Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4 (1995)
Wyvern Crown of Cormyr Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Yuthla the Eye of the Beholder Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)
Zeladazar the Ghost Sword Forgotten Realms Volo's Guide To All Things Magical (1996)

Overview of magic items by edition

1st edition AD&D

In the first edition, all artifacts are classed as miscellaneous magic items, even ones that are weapons, armor, or rings. Each artifact has a certain number of Minor, Major, and Prime Powers, and of Minor, Major, and Side Effects which trigger when the item is acquired, or its Major and Prime Powers are used. The powers and effects are selected by the DM from a set of lists, so that players cannot predict the artifact's powers.[17]

4th edition

Ritual scrolls are single use consumable items, each of which contains a specific ritual (4th edition's equivalent of non-combat spells), halves the time required to perform that ritual and allows it to be performed without a ritual book. After it has been expended, a ritual scroll crumbles to dust. Unlike the scrolls of previous editions, 4th edition's scrolls are not classified as magical items.[18]

Examples

Ioun stones (pronounced EYE-oon[19]) are based on similar artifacts from Jack Vance's Dying Earth series.[20] When functioning, they float in a circular pattern around their bearer's head, and grant various benefits based on their color and shape. Two stones of the same type will repel each other, and when drained of power, a stone becomes a dull grey, but still possesses the characteristic floating. While useless to a mage, burned out stones can still yield a single psionic power point to a psionic character in 3rd and 3.5 editions. In the original Jack Vance stories Ioun stones are highly prized by arch-magicians, and are acquired from a race known as the archveults, who mine them from remnants of dead stars (in his book Rhialto the Marvellous). In 2E Dungeons & Dragons it had been conjectured in Dragon magazine that Ioun stones instead come from the Positive Material Plane. Dragon #174 featured an article that included many dozens of new types of ioun stone,[21] as well as an article about an elemental lord who hoards ioun stones on his home plane of radiance.[22] Under 3.0/3.5 editions of the rules they are instead manufactured by spellcasters in the same manner as other magical items.

References

  1. ^ Fine, Gary Alan (1983). Shared Fantasy: Role-playing Games as Social Worlds. University of Chicago Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-226-24944-1. 
  2. ^ Livingstone, Ian (1982). Dicing with Dragons. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 0-7100-9466-3. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Gygax, Gary; Brian Blume (1976). Eldritch Wizardry. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, Inc. 
  4. ^ a b c d Gygax, Gary (1979). Dungeon Master's Guide: Essential Reference Information for Gamemastering Advanced D&D. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, Inc. p. 156. ISBN 0-935696-02-4. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Cook, David (1993). Book of Artifacts. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, Inc. ISBN 1-56076-672-7. 
  6. ^ Henson, Dale; Doug Stewart (1994). Encyclopedia Magica, Volume 1. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, Inc. pp. 115–116. ISBN 1-56076-842-8. 
  7. ^ Williams, Skip (1999). Axe of the Dwarvish Lords. Renton, WA: TSR, Inc. ISBN 0-7869-1347-9. 
  8. ^ a b c Henson, Dale, and Doug Stewart, eds. Encyclopedia Magica Vol 2 (TSR, 1995)
  9. ^ a b c Cook, David. Vecna Lives! (TSR, 1990)
  10. ^ Schroeck, Robert. "The City Beyond the Gate". Dragon #100 (TSR, 1985)
  11. ^ Cook, David. Dungeon Master's Guide (TSR, 1989)
  12. ^ Williams, Skip (1996), The Rod of Seven Parts, Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, ISBN 0-7869-0418-6 
  13. ^ Henson, Dale, and Doug Stewart, eds. Encyclopedia Magica Vol 3 (TSR, 1995)
  14. ^ Cagle, Eric, Jesse Decker, Jeff Quick, and James Wyatt Arms and Equipment Guide (Wizards of the Coast, 2003)
  15. ^ a b Henson, Dale, and Doug Stewart, eds. Encyclopedia Magica Vol 4. (TSR, 1995)
  16. ^ Gygax, Gary. Monster Manual (TSR, 1977)
  17. ^ "This prevents players from gaining any knowledge of these items, even if they happen to own or read a copy of this volume, and it also makes each artifact and relic distinct from campaign to campaign." from Dungeon Master's Guide (first edition)
  18. ^ http://www.wizards.com/dnd/Article.aspx?x=dnd/4ex/20080528a
  19. ^ "Dungeons & Dragons FAQ". Wizards of the Coast. Archived from the original on 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  20. ^ "The idea and name for the ioun stone originally appeared in a series of books written by Jack Vance. Collectively, these works are referred to as the Dying Earth novels. They include: The Dying Earth, Eyes of the Overworld, Cugel’s Saga, and Rhialto the Marvelous." (Hargenrader 1991, "Bazaar", p 90)
  21. ^ Hargenrader, Matthew P. (October 1991). "Bazaar of the Bizarre: Ioun stones: Where do you go if you want some more?". Dragon Magazine (174). TSR, Inc. pp. 90–94. 
  22. ^ Hargenrader, Matthew P. "The Dragon's Bestiary" Dragon #174. (TSR, 1991).
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