Madonna videography

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Madonna videography
Madonna 8 (24527553849) (2) (cropped).jpg
Madonna performing "Bitch I'm Madonna" at the Rebel Heart Tour (2015–2016). The song's music video became her first video to cross 100 million views on platform Vevo.[1]
Music videos 68
Concert tour videos 11
Documentary videos 2
Music video compilations 4
Music video box sets 2
Promotional videos 4
Video singles 5

American entertainer Madonna has released 68 music videos, 11 concert tour videos, 2 documentary videos, 4 music video compilations, 2 music video box sets, 4 promotional videos, and 5 video singles. In 1982, Madonna signed a recording contract with Sire Records and released her first two singles before launching her eponymous debut album.[2] Her first video to receive attention on MTV was "Borderline", followed by "Lucky Star" and "Like a Virgin", which popularized Madonna's image and fashion among younger generation.[3][4] Her early videos were released commercially on Madonna (1984), which became the best-selling videocassette of 1985.[5] With the title track from her third studio album True Blue (1986), Madonna's impact on MTV and popular music was established when a contest entitled Making My Video, was held to create a music video for the song.[6] "La Isla Bonita" and "Who's That Girl", both released in 1987, showed Madonna's fascination with Hispanic culture and religious symbolism.[7] In 1989, the video of "Like a Prayer" portrayed her dancing in front of burning crosses, receiving stigmata, kissing a black saint and having sex with him in a church altar. It faced strong reaction from religious groups and media.[8] "Express Yourself" released the same year was critically appreciated for its positive feminist themes.[9]

In 1990, Madonna released the video for the song "Vogue", showing the underground gay subculture dance routine called voguing, and the glamorous look of golden era Hollywood.[10] She released her second video compilation, The Immaculate Collection (1990) to accompany the greatest hits album of the same name. She featured overtly sexual undertones with the videos of "Justify My Love" (1990) and "Erotica" (1992), which met with huge backlash.[11] A toned down image of the singer appeared in the video for "Secret" from Bedtime Stories (1994).[12] "Bedtime Story", from the same album, showed a dream sequence, inspired by paintings of Frida Kahlo and Remedios Varo, while incorporating new age surrealistic images.[13] Madonna incorporated Asian culture on the videos of "Frozen" and "Nothing Really Matters" from her 1998 album Ray of Light.[14] The video for its title track was a high-speed one, portraying Japanese people going through their daily lives, interspersed with Madonna in black denim dancing to the music.[15] Most of her 1990s videos were released on The Video Collection 93:99.

Madonna reinvented her image as a cowgirl on the videos for "Music" and "Don't Tell Me" from her eighth studio album, Music (2000).[16] Violence and vandalism were the themes of subsequent few releases, "What It Feels Like for a Girl" (2001), "Die Another Day" (2002) and "American Life" (2003), the latter being pulled from release due to the Iraq war of 2003.[17][18][19] "Hung Up", lead single from Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005) was a tribute to John Travolta and his movies.[20] Madonna's recent videos for "Celebration" (2009), "Girl Gone Wild" (2012), and "Living for Love" (2015) were received favorably for paying homage to her past videos and a return to her dance roots.[21][22]

Madonna's music videos are considered by critics as works of art. They have depicted controversial subjects such as teen pregnancy, racism, religion, sex, and violence. In their book, The Madonna Companion, authors Allen Metz and Carol Benson explained that more than any other pop star, Madonna had used MTV and music videos to establish her popularity and to enhance her recorded work.[23] Madonna has been honored with 20 MTV Video Music Awards—the second most for any artist—including the Video Vanguard Award in 1986.[24] In 2003, MTV named her "The Greatest Music Video Star Ever" and said that "Madonna's innovation, creativity and contribution to the music video art form is what won her the award."[25]

Music videos

1980s

Title Year Director(s) Description Ref.
"Everybody" 1982 Ed Steinberg An in-house video featuring Madonna singing with a group of dancers against a neon-lit background [26]
[27]
"Burning Up" 1983 Steve Barron The video portrays Madonna, in a white dress, writhing on a road, singing the song about her lover, who drives a car around. [26]
[28]
"Lucky Star" 1984 Arthur Pierson The video portrays Madonna in her boy-toy image, dancing in front of a white background, flanked by two dancers. [26]
[29]
"Borderline" 1984 Mary Lambert The video portrays Madonna as a young woman who is dancing in the streets when she catches the eye of a professional photographer. She leaves her boyfriend and goes with the photographer. After accidentally spray painting the photographer's car during a photo shoot, he yells at her and she returns to her boyfriend. [26]
[30]
"Like a Virgin" 1984 Mary Lambert In the video, Madonna roams around the streets of Venice and through marble-pillared rooms wearing a white wedding dress; this clip is interspersed by images of a lion and a man wearing a lion mask. [26]
[31]
"Material Girl" 1985 Mary Lambert Pictured as a video-within-a-video, Madonna sings the song dressed up in a pink sleeveless gown, flanked by boys in black coats. The video imitated Marilyn Monroe's version of "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. [26]
[32]
"Crazy for You" 1985 Harold Becker The music video consists of scenes from the film, Vision Quest. [26]
[33]
"Into the Groove" 1985 Susan Seidelman The music video consists of scenes from the film, Desperately Seeking Susan. [26]
"Gambler" 1985 Harold Becker The music video consists of scenes from the film, Vision Quest. [26]
[33]
"Dress You Up" 1985 Danny Kleinman The music video consists of scenes from the live performance of the song on The Virgin Tour. [26]
[33]
"Live to Tell" 1986 James Foley The video portrays Madonna with a new pale and subtle look, her shoulder-length hair is wavy and golden blond.[34] Footage from the movie At Close Range is interspersed, with Madonna appearing to speak for the character. [35]
[36]
"Papa Don't Preach" 1986 James Foley In this video, Madonna adopts the gamine look portrayed by Shirley MacLaine and Audrey Hepburn during the 1950s.[37] She portrays a tomboy who wants to tell her father about her pregnancy. Interspersed with scenes of a sexier Madonna with a toned body, wearing a black bustier. [35]
[38]
"True Blue" 1986 James Foley The American version from MTV's Make My Video Contest was directed by Ángel Gracia and Cliff Guest, where Madonna does not appear. The international release directed by Foley portrays Madonna and her friends in an all-blue diner. [35]
[39]
"Open Your Heart" 1986 Jean-Baptiste Mondino The video pays homage to actresses Liza Minnelli and Marlene Dietrich. Madonna plays an exotic dancer in a peep-show club who befriends a little boy and escapes from there. [40]
[41]
"La Isla Bonita" 1987 Mary Lambert Madonna plays a woman living in a Spanish barrio. She portrays two characters: a boyishly-dressed Catholic woman and a colorful Flamenco dancer. The video portrays Madonna's fascination with Hispanic culture and the inclusion of religious symbolism. [42]
"Who's That Girl" 1987 Peter Rosenthal The video portrays Madonna dressed in Spanish style as a young lady in search of a treasure. It includes scenes from the film of the same name. [43]
"Like a Prayer" 1989 Mary Lambert The video portrays Madonna to be a witness of an interracial murder and goes to pray in a church. Various scenes like Madonna kissing a black saint, receiving stigmata, scantily dressed and dancing in front of burning crosses are shown. In the end, she helps to free the man who is falsely accused of murder. [44]
[8]
"Express Yourself" 1989 David Fincher Inspired by the film Metropolis, the video portrays Madonna as the leader of a company, and later as a glamorous lady and chained masochist. Muscular men act as her workers. In the end, Madonna picks one of them to be her date. The music video for "Express Yourself" was the most expensive video at the time of its release with production cost of $5 million. [45]
[46]
"Cherish" 1989 Herb Ritts Madonna plays on the beach with mermen and merchild. In the end she falls in love with one of the mermen. [47]
"Dear Jessie" 1989 Derek Hayes An animated video featuring Madonna as an animated fairy. The video was released only outside the United States. [48]
"Oh Father" 1989 David Fincher A black-and-white video portraying the death scene of a young mother and the tempestuous relationship that ensues between the husband and the daughter. Years later Madonna, as the grown-up daughter, reconciles with the father at the woman's grave. [49]

1990s

Title Year Director(s) Description Ref.
"Vogue" 1990 David Fincher Black-and-white video recreating the glamorous look of old Hollywood with men in suits and Madonna dressed in gowns. It also displays the dance form called vogue. [10]
[50]
"Justify My Love" 1990 Jean-Baptiste Mondino Black-and-white video portraying Madonna coming to a hotel room to satisfy her sexual fantasy. Scenes of sadomasochism, voyeurism and bisexuality are also portrayed. [51]
"This Used to Be My Playground" 1992 Alek Keshishian The video is a walk-through of Madonna singing about the old days, as the viewer flips through a photo album which feature moving images of a singing Madonna as well as images from the film A League of Their Own. [52]
"Erotica" 1992 Fabien Baron Madonna is portrayed as a masked dominatrix with a golden tooth and a whip. Montages of sexual imagery are shown that are shot during the photography of Madonna's Sex book. It is a montage of sexually charged images, designed to shock the audience. [11]
"Deeper and Deeper" 1992 Bobby Woods Madonna portrays Warhol protégé Edie Sedgwick. She goes to a disco and looks for something which ends with a man releasing the balloons she is carrying. Interspersed with scenes of Madonna being photographed and she and her friends watching a man dancing in underwear. [53]
"Bad Girl" 1993 David Fincher The video opens and closes with shots of a murdered Madonna, who, having lived a life of promiscuous sex, presumably joins her dead lover and guardian angel, portrayed by actor Christopher Walken. [54]
"Fever" 1993 Stéphane Sednaoui[26] The video portrays Madonna as a Balinese idol with red hair and another shot of her being silver painted. Interspersed with scenes of a man in thongs, his body painted gold. [55]
"Rain" 1993 Mark Romanek The video portrays Madonna with short cropped, black hair, recording the song in a studio. Interspersed with scenes of Madonna kissing a man behind a glass on which water falls. [56]
[57]
"I'll Remember" 1994 Alek Keshishian Madonna singing the song in a recording studio, while being directed by an androgynous version of herself. Interspersed with clips from the film With Honors. [58]
"Secret" 1994 Melodie McDaniel Black-and-white video featuring Madonna as a blues singer singing in a club. Scenes of rebirth, transvestites and damnation are interspersed with Madonna walking down a street to her home. [12]
"Take a Bow" 1994 Michael Haussman Madonna portrays the mistress of a Spanish bullfighter. Their affair ends after Madonna is being abused by the fighter. Religious imagery forms the backbone of the video. [59]
"Bedtime Story" 1995 Mark Romanek A surreal dream sequence arising from some sort of controlled experiment on a prostrate Madonna, lying in a blue spaceship-like room. The production cost of the video was $5 million, making it one of the costliest videos. [60]
[61]
[62]
"Human Nature" 1995 Jean-Baptiste Mondino Madonna and her dancers in front of a white background, wearing black, PVC catsuits, perform a number of S&M-inspired dance moves. [60]
"I Want You"
(featuring Massive Attack)
1995 Earle Sebastian Madonna in an apartment and on a bed, longing for whomever, but not daring to phone him. A very slow b/w-video. Madonna's only video to date for a non-single song. [60]
"You'll See" 1995 Michael Haussman Sequel to the music video of "Take a Bow". Madonna leaves the bullfighter but he still chases her around the world. Ultimately she sets herself free from him. [59]
"Love Don't Live Here Anymore" 1996 Jean-Baptiste Mondino Single-shot sepia-colored video showing Madonna in the middle of an empty suite of an abandoned hotel. [63]
"You Must Love Me" 1996 Alan Parker Madonna was pregnant with her daughter Lourdes at the time of shooting the video. Her stomach was hidden behind a piano in the video. [33]
"Don't Cry for Me Argentina" 1996 Alan Parker The music video for "Don't Cry for Me Argentina" is an excerpt from the film Evita. [33]
"Another Suitcase in Another Hall" 1996 Alan Parker The music video for "Another Suitcase in Another Hall" is an excerpt from the film Evita. [33]
"Frozen" 1998 Chris Cunningham An all-blue video shot in the middle of Mojave Desert. Dressed in black clothing from head to foot, her long hair colored black and straight and mehndi on her hands, Madonna portrays a mystical creature and a witchy persona who sometimes turns into a dog, sometimes into a bird and sometimes levitates from the ground. [64]
"Ray of Light" 1998 Jonas Åkerlund A high-speed video, showing ordinary people doing their daily routines. In between Madonna, dressed in casual jeans and flowing golden hair, dances to the song, ultimately falling asleep on a dance floor. [59]
[15]
"Drowned World/Substitute for Love" 1998 Walter Stern Portrays Madonna running away from the paparazzi in a car. After reaching home she takes her daughter in her arms. [54]
"The Power of Good-Bye" 1998 Matthew Rolston Madonna and her lover play chess, and Madonna wins. After her lover reprimands her, Madonna goes out to the beach and starts walking along the shore, where she possibly commits suicide. [65]
"Nothing Really Matters" 1999 Johan Renck Japanese-themed video, featuring Madonna as a geisha wearing a red kimono and white clad Swedes of Asian heritage performing butoh dance moves. [66]
"Beautiful Stranger" 1999 Brett Ratner Shot for the film, Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me (1999), the video features Madonna dancing in a club and actor Mike Myers as Austin Power trying to seduce her; his plan ultimately backfiring. [67]

2000s

Title Year Director(s) Description Ref.
"American Pie" 2000 Philip Stolzl Madonna sings the song in front of a giant Flag of the United States. Interspersed with scenes which are characteristic of the American life. Actor Rupert Everett makes an appearance. [68]
"Music" 2000 Jonas Åkerlund Madonna and her friends board a limousine which takes them to a strip-club and disco. The strippers are brought over in the limousine by Madonna and her friends. An animated section is present where Madonna fights with some goons. [69]
"Don't Tell Me" 2000 Jean-Baptiste Mondino The video shows Madonna walking on a conveyor belt in front of a video screen where cowboys are shown dancing. They join Madonna in front of the screen near the end of the video. [70]
"What It Feels Like for a Girl" 2001 Guy Ritchie Madonna picks up an old woman from an old-age home and speeds down the streets with her in a car. While driving she commits a number of crimes, including theft, destruction of property and murder. The audio used in the video is the Above & Beyond remix instead of the original album version. [17]
"Die Another Day" 2002 Traktor Features a heavily beat-up Madonna being brought to be executed in a gas chamber. Interspersed with scenes of a white-dressed and black-dressed Madonna sword fighting. In the end Madonna escapes from the execution. The former's video was the second most expensive video, production cost being around $6 million. [71]
[18]
"American Life" 2003 Jonas Åkerlund Original video showed Madonna among military-garbed models at a fashion show. Interspersed with shots of the catwalk was footage of explosions and planes dropping bombs. The video ends with Madonna throwing what appears to be a grenade into the lap of a George W. Bush lookalike. However, due to its controversy, Madonna cancelled the premiere and made the edited version of the video that features her singing in front of the world's flags. [72]
[19]
"Hollywood" 2003 Jean-Baptiste Mondino Madonna portrays some of Hollywood's former actresses and the upheaval of a glamorous life. [73]
"Me Against the Music"
(Britney Spears featuring Madonna)
2003 Paul Hunter Britney Spears and Madonna are shown in a club, playing opposite characters with Britney in the dark and Madonna in the white. A cat-and-mouse like chase ensues; Spears catches up to Madonna in the end. [74]
"Love Profusion" 2003 Luc Besson Madonna walks on the sky and on the water with fairies, fishes, flowers and clouds surrounding her. [75]
"Hung Up" 2005 Johan Renck The video portrays Madonna clad in a pink leotard dancing alone in a ballet studio and concludes at a gaming parlour where she dances with her backup troupe. Interspersed are scenes of people displaying their dancing skills in a variety of settings. [20]
"Sorry" 2006 Jamie King A continuation from the "Hung Up" music video. Madonna and her troupe go around the town in a white van and dance in a skating arena. [76]
"Get Together" 2006 Logan The video shows Madonna singing the song among graphical visuals portraying volcanoes erupting and a cityscape. [77]
"Jump" 2006 Jonas Åkerlund The video features Madonna in a blond bob wig and singing the song in front of several neon signs. The video also features dancers performing the physical discipline parkour. [78]
"4 Minutes"
(featuring Justin Timberlake and Timbaland)
2008 Jonas & François Madonna and Timberlake sing and run away from a giant black screen that devours everything in its path. At the end of the video, Madonna and Timberlake are consumed by the screen. [79]
"Give It 2 Me" 2008 Tom Munro
Nathan Rissman
Madonna in retro-makeup look dancing in a photography studio in various garments. Cameo appearance by Pharrell Williams. [80]
"Miles Away" 2008 Nathan Rissman Live footage from the Sticky & Sweet Tour in Buenos Aires, mostly footage of the fans and stadium before and during the show. Originally unreleased, but finally included on the Celebration: The Video Collection DVD. [81]
"Celebration" 2009 Jonas Åkerlund A simple dance video featuring Madonna and her dancers doing the popping and locking style of dancing against black-and-white backgrounds. The audio used in the video is the Benny Benassi remix instead of the original album version. [21]

2010s

Title Year Director(s) Description Ref.
"Give Me All Your Luvin'"
(featuring Nicki Minaj and M.I.A.)
2012 Megaforce The video shows Nicki Minaj and M.I.A (who are featured in the song), in cheerleader outfits cheering on Madonna, who wears a black outfit for most of the video. It then leads into a scene where Madonna, Minaj, and M.I.A are all dressed as Marilyn Monroe. [82]
[83]
"Girl Gone Wild" 2012 Mert and Marcus The black-and-white video opens with Madonna with a retro-glam look, followed by scenes of her against a stark white background, erotic scenes with shirtless / nude male models (Sean O'Pry, Simon Nessman, Jon Kortajarena), and a dance sequence with heeled male dancers (Kazaky). [84]
[85]
"Turn Up the Radio" 2012 Tom Munro After a successful escape from the paparazzi, Madonna rides through Florence, Italy, picking up the best looking men on the roadside. [86]
"Living for Love" 2015 J.A.C.K. Madonna dressed as a bullfighter performs a battle inspired choreography where she confronts and tames a number of male minotaurs. [87]
"Ghosttown" 2015 Jonas Åkerlund Set in a post-nuclear destroyed city, the video shows Madonna as a survivor searching through the destruction, when she meets another man, played by actor Terrence Howard. [88]
"Bitch I'm Madonna"
(featuring Nicki Minaj)
2015 Jonas Åkerlund The "one-shot" colorful music video shows Madonna in a party, dancing and interacting with the partygoers. Many celebrities appear in the video, some in the real footage (Rita Ora, Diplo, Chris Rock, Alexander Wang and Madonna sons Rocco and David), while others (Katy Perry, Miley Cyrus, Beyoncé and Kanye West) were added separately. Nicki Minaj appears on a screen at the party while she's rapping. [89]

Video albums

Concert tour videos

Title Release details Peak chart positions Certifications
US
[90]
AUS
[91]
BRA
[92]
FRA
[93]
GER
[94]
NLD
[95]
SPA
[96]
SWE
[97]
SWI
[98]
UK
[99]
Madonna Live: The Virgin Tour
  • Released: November 1985
  • Studio: Boy Toy, Inc.
  • Label: Warner Music Video
  • Format: VHS · Laserdisc
1
Who's That Girl: Live in Japan[101]
Ciao Italia: Live from Italy
  • Released: June 1988
  • Studio: Boy Toy, Inc.
  • Label: Warner Reprise Video
  • Format: VHS · Laserdisc · DVD · VCD
1
Blond Ambition: Japan Tour 90[102]
  • Released: July 1990
  • Studio: Music Guide, Inc.
  • Label: Warner-Pioneer Japan
  • Format: VHS · Laserdisc
Blond Ambition World Tour Live[103]
  • Released: December 1990
  • Studio: Boy Toy, Inc.
  • Label: Pioneer Artists
  • Format: Laserdisc
The Girlie Show: Live Down Under
  • Released: April 1994
  • Studio: Music Tours, Inc.
  • Label: Warner Reprise Video · Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS · DVD · Laserdisc · VCD
3 1
Drowned World Tour 2001
  • Released: November 2001
  • Studio: Cream Cheese Films, Tadpole Films
  • Label: Warner Reprise Video · Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS · DVD · VCD
1 1 3 6 5
The Confessions Tour
  • Released: January 2007
  • Studio: Semtex Films
  • Label: Warner Bros.
  • Format: CD+DVD · DVD · Digital download
1 1 1 1 1 1
Sticky & Sweet Tour
  • Released: March 2010
  • Studio: Semtex Films
  • Label: Warner Bros.
  • Format: CD+DVD · Blu-ray · Blu-ray+CD · Digital download
1 3
MDNA World Tour
  • Released: September 2013
  • Studio: Semtex Films
  • Label: Live Nation · Interscope
  • Format: DVD · DVD+2CD · Blu-ray · Digital download
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rebel Heart Tour
  • Released: September 2017
  • Studio: Semtex Films
  • Label: Eagle Vision
  • Format: DVD · Blu-ray · DVD+CD · Blu-ray+CD · Digital download
2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

Documentary videos

Title Release details Peak chart positions Certifications
US
[90]
AUS
[91]
BRA
[92]
FRA
[93]
GER
[94]
NLD
[111]
SPA
[96]
SWE
[97]
SWI
[98]
UK
[112]
Truth or Dare (aka In Bed with Madonna) 6
I'm Going to Tell You a Secret
  • Released: June 2006
  • Studio: Maverick Films · River Road · Lucky Lou
  • Label: Warner Bros. · Warner Music Vision
  • Format: CD+DVD · DVD+CD · Digital download
1 1 2 1 1 1

Music video compilations

Title Release details Peak chart positions Certifications
US
[90]
AUS
[114]
BRA
[92]
FRA
[93]
GER
[94]
NLD
[115]
SPA
[96]
SWE
[97]
SWI
[116]
UK
[117]
Madonna
  • Released: November 1984
  • Label: Warner Music Video
  • Format: VHS · Laserdisc
1
  • US: 1× Multi-Platinum[100]
The Immaculate Collection
  • Released: November 1990
  • Label: Warner Reprise Video · Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS · Laserdisc · DVD · VCD
1 9
The Video Collection 93:99
  • Released: October 1999
  • Label: Warner Reprise Video · Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS · DVD · VCD
3 1
Celebration: The Video Collection
  • Released: September 2009
  • Label: Warner Bros.
  • Format: DVD · Digital download
1 1 1 1 1 1 23

Music video box sets

Title Release details Peak positions Certifications
SWI
[119]
UK
[120]
The Ultimate Collection
  • Contains: The Immaculate Collection and The Video Collection 93:99
  • Released: September 2000
  • Label: Warner Reprise Video · Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS · DVD
4 4
The Madonna Collection[121]
  • Released in Japan as Madonna: Millennium Giants 3-Video Box Set[122]
  • Contains: Madonna Live: The Virgin Tour, The Immaculate Collection and The Girlie Show: Live Down Under
  • Released: September 2000
  • Label: Warner Reprise Video · Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS

Promotional videos

Title Release details
It's That Girl[123]
  • Released: September 1987
  • Label: Sire · WEA Records UK
  • Format: VHS · Cassette
She's Breathless[124]
  • Released: July 1990
  • Label: Sire · WEA Records UK
  • Format: VHS · Cassette
Rays of Light[125]
GHV2[126]
  • Released: November 2001
  • Label: Maverick · Warner Music UK
  • Format: VHS

Video singles

Title Release details Peak positions Certifications
US
[127]
UK
[128]
"Justify My Love"
  • Released: December 1990
  • Label: Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS
2
"Ray of Light"
  • Released: June 1998
  • Label: Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS
4
"Music"
  • Released: September 2000
  • Label: Warner Music Vision
  • Format: DVD
3 1
"What It Feels Like for a Girl"
  • Released: April 2001
  • Label: Warner Music Vision
  • Format: VHS · DVD
2 1
"Music"/"Nobody Knows Me" (Live)[129]
  • Released: June 2006
  • Label: Warner Bros.
  • Format: Digital download

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Bitch I'm Madonna – Madonna". Vevo. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  2. ^ Caulfield, Keith (March 18, 2009). "Madonna Plans New Tracks For Hits Collection". Billboard. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  3. ^ Cross 2007, p. 30
  4. ^ Cross 2007, p. 32
  5. ^ "Top Music Videocasettes 1985". Billboard. 97 (52). December 28, 1985. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved August 25, 2010. 
  6. ^ Clerk 2002, p. 99
  7. ^ Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 67
  8. ^ a b Hand, John (March 5, 2009). "Madonna's banned advert". BBC. Retrieved December 16, 2009. 
  9. ^ Taraborrelli 2002, p. 56
  10. ^ a b Cagle, Jess (May 4, 1990). "What, me vogue?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  11. ^ a b Taraborrelli 2002, p. 227
  12. ^ a b Miklitsch 1998, p. 124
  13. ^ Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 56
  14. ^ Metz & Benson 1999, p. 168
  15. ^ a b Cardwell, Annette (September 12, 1998). "Madonna's 'Ray of Light' shines at MTV awards". Boston Herald. Retrieved December 9, 2009. 
  16. ^ Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 94
  17. ^ a b Fonseca, Nicholas (March 22, 2001). ""What It Feels Like for a Girl" – DVD". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 9, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b "Die teuersten Musikvideos aller Zeiten". Die Welt (in German). Axel Springer AG. April 27, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  19. ^ a b Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 123
  20. ^ a b Vineyard, Jennifer (August 25, 2006). "With No Director And Broken Ribs, Madonna Was 'Hung Up'". MTV. Retrieved December 10, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b Montogomery, James (September 1, 2009). "Madonna Returns To Her Dark Era With 'Celebration' Video". MTV. Retrieved December 10, 2009. 
  22. ^ Vena, Jocelyn (May 20, 2012). "Madonna Owns 'Girl Gone Wild' Title In New Video". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved April 25, 2014. 
  23. ^ Metz & Benson 1999, p. 161
  24. ^ "Beyonce Passes Madonna With the Most VMAs Ever". Billboard. August 29, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  25. ^ Landrum 2007, p. 258
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Morton 2002, p. 332
  27. ^ Cross 2007, p. 26
  28. ^ Allen 1987, p. 281
  29. ^ Metz & Benson 1999, p. 162
  30. ^ Kellner 1995, p. 327
  31. ^ Whiteley 2000, p. 136
  32. ^ Metz & Benson 1999, p. 277
  33. ^ a b c d e f Metz & Benson 1999, p. 310
  34. ^ Voller 1999, p. 24
  35. ^ a b c Metz & Benson 1999, p. 309
  36. ^ Butler 2002, p. 232
  37. ^ Voller 1999, p. 25
  38. ^ Mansour 2005, p. 352
  39. ^ Clerk 2002, p. 49
  40. ^ Bordo & Heywood 2004, p. 273
  41. ^ Dirks, Eley & Ortner 1994, p. 471
  42. ^ Rettenmund 1995, p. 98
  43. ^ Canby, Vincent (August 23, 1987). "Film View; In Search of Madonna's Persona". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  44. ^ Taraborrelli 2002, p. 167
  45. ^ Guilbert 2002, p. 120
  46. ^ McIntyre, Hugh (August 24, 2014). "The 5 Most Expensive Music Videos Of All Time". Forbes. Retrieved September 28, 2015. 
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Sources

External links

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