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Ludwigsburg Palace

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This article is about the residential palace. For the other palace on the same grounds, see Schloss Favorite, Ludwigsburg. For the city, see Ludwigsburg. For the porcelain manufactory, see Ludwigsburg porcelain.

Ludwigsburg Palace
Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg
Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg Garten (cropped).jpg
The palace and the Blooming Baroque gardens from the south
Map location and basic information
General information
Location Ludwigsburg, Germany
Coordinates 48°54′0″N 9°11′45″E / 48.90000°N 9.19583°E / 48.90000; 9.19583Coordinates: 48°54′0″N 9°11′45″E / 48.90000°N 9.19583°E / 48.90000; 9.19583
Construction started 1704 (1704)
Completed 1733
Cost 3,000,000 florins
Client House of Württemberg
Owner Baden-Württemberg
Website

www.schloss-ludwigsburg.de/en/home/

Ludwigsburg Palace (Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg), also known as the "Versailles of Swabia",[1] is a 452-room palace complex of 18 buildings located in Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With the gardens, its total area is 32 ha (79 acres) — the largest palatial estate in the country. In 2016, the palace attracted some 330,000 visitors.

Construction lasted from 1704 to 1733 under Philipp Joseph Jenisch, Johann Friedrich Nette, and Donato Giuseppe Frisoni and cost 3,000,000 florins. Modifications by Philippe de La Guêpière and Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret followed from 1750 to 1824. As a result, Ludwigsburg Palace is a combination of the Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, and French Empire styles. In 1918, the palace was opened to the public and was used as a venue during the ratification of the constitution of the Free People's State of Württemberg the next year. It then survived World War II intact, the only palace of its kind to do so, and underwent periods of restoration in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1990s and again for the palace's 300th anniversary in 2004. The palace has hosted the Ludwigsburg Festival every year since 1947.

Surrounding the palace are the Blooming Baroque (Blühendes Barock) gardens, arranged in 1954 as they might have appeared in 1800. Nearby is Schloss Favorite, a hunting lodge built in 1717 by Frisoni. Within the palace itself are two museums operated by the Landesmuseum Württemberg dedicated to fashion and to porcelain.

History

Portrait of Eberhard Louis, in German Eberhard Ludwig circa 1720
Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg, known in German as Eberhard Ludwig, as he appeared in 1720

In the 17th century, the future site of Ludwigsburg Palace was a hunting property called the Erlachhof, which was destroyed by French soldiers in 1692 during the Nine Years' War. Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg tasked Matthias Weiss, a military architect, with replacing it. Weiss planned and began construction of a modest three-story manor house but was interrupted by the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession. Following the Battle of Blenheim,[2] Eberhard Louis spent the remainder of 1705 and early 1706 in Nymphenburg Palace.[3] Inspired by Munich and Versailles,[4][2] and having a pretext for a new palace in the Erlachhof,[5] Eberhard Louis renamed the estate Ludwigsburg (Louis's Castle) in 1705 and began studying the architectural trends of his day.[6] Eberhard Louis sent the theologian Philipp Joseph Jenisch (de) to study architecture abroad in 1703 and made him director of construction on his return the next year.[7]

The massive undertaking of the palace's construction eventually necessitated the building of a town, which would also be known as Ludwigsburg.[8][9] Eberhard Louis decided to cut construction costs, for example by allowing construction workers to settle in the town from 1709 on.[10] He also made offers to potential settlers, such as financing for construction material and land, and 15 years without taxation for the residents of Ludwigsburg.[9][a] To recover some of the cost, the duke commanded the town's residents to either kill several dozen of the sparrows that plagued the town or pay at least six Kreuzer to the duke's construction treasury (Baukasse).[9] Construction and growth of the town stalled from its founding in 1709 until Eberhard Louis granted Ludwigsburg town privileges in 1718 and established it as the capital of the Duchy of Württemberg.[9]

Construction

Jenisch returned to Württemberg and began construction from Weiss's plans in 1704,[4] with Eberhard Louis laying the cornerstone in May,[2] but was only able to finish the first floor of the Alter Hauptbau (Old main building) and some of the southern garden.[4] After staying at the palaces of the Bavarian Electors in 1705–06, Eberhard Louis lost faith in Jenisch's architectural ability. In early 1707, the duke replaced Jenisch with Johann Friedrich Nette (de),[11] now charged with building a complete Baroque palace from Jenisch's central corps de logis, to which an east wing and a west wing were to be added, aligned at 11°. Nette's work was further complicated by the palace's foreman,[4] Johann Ulrich Heim, an ally of Jenisch who opposed the growing number of Italian artists at the palace.[7] Opposition to the palace itself was found at the ducal court because of Ludwigsburg's cost.[12] The populace also chafed at the palace's cost, one pastor in nearby Oßweil (de) saying at his pulpit, "May God spare our land the chastising that the Ludwigsburg brood of sinners conjure."[4]

Photo of the courtyard, looking north
Courtyard, looking north at the corps de logis of the Alter Hauptbau. Nette began and finished most of the structures depicted.

Nette based his plans on those of Jenisch, enabling him to complete his design for a three-wing palace in the same year as his appointment. The galleries of the Alter Hauptbau were completed in 1707, then the corps de logis the next year. The Ordensbau and Riesenbau were constructed from 1709 to 1713, and their interiors were completed in 1714. Meanwhile, Nette began the interior of the Alter Hauptbau, which he would never finish. Construction of the building's pavilions dragged on into 1722.[13][4] Nette made two trips to Prague and his native Brandenburg to expand his pool of talent, in 1708 hiring fresco painter Johann Jakob Stevens von Steinfels (de), stucco workers Tomasso Soldati and Donato Giuseppe Frisoni, then Andreas Quitainner in 1709, then Luca Antonio Colomba, Riccardo Retti and Diego Francesco Carlone. Nette fled to Paris due to an accusation of embezzlement from Jenisch's allies but was ordered back to Ludwigsburg by Eberhard Louis. On his return trip, he died suddenly of a stroke on 9 December 1714 in Nancy at the age of 41. At the time of his death, most of the northern section of the modern palace and its northern garden was complete.[4][14]

Jenisch sought to resume the directorship following Nette's death, and the building authority was aligned with him.[15] However, Eberhard Louis overruled them in 1715 and appointed Frisoni,[16] a plasterer from Laino who had no formal architectural training. An earlier application Frisoni had made for the position had been ignored, but he enjoyed the support of the Court Chamberlain and impressed the duke with his stucco work in the Alter Hauptbau.[4][17] Frisoni began with the palace's churches, the Schlosskapelle in 1716 and the Ordenskapelle in 1720,[b] then finished the East and West Kavaliersbauten (Cavaliers' Buildings) in 1722.[20][21] Frisoni also added the mansard roof to the top of the Alter Hauptbau, as its flat roof was prone to water damage. This had become a common issue with Nette's work because of the pressure the duke placed on him to finish the palace as soon as possible.[22][23] Frisoni's work thus far led him to believe that he did not have a large enough talent pool to satisfy the duke's desires for the palace and town, so Frisoni brought on Giacomo Antonio Corbellini (de) and Paolo Retti, his brother and son-in-law respectively, who were followed by Diego Carlone in 1718.[4]

From 1721, the duke began to run out of room for the functions of his court in the Alter Hauptbau, and Frisoni began planning to enlarge it.[4] Three years later, the duke dismissed the idea and ordered Frisoni to construct what would become the Neuer Hauptbau. Frisoni designed a four story structure, double the height of the existing palace, but plans changed several times after construction began in 1725 atop the first terrace of the south garden. Frisoni settled on a three-story building that still afforded Eberhard Louis six rooms for his suite to the Alter Hauptbau's three. To connect the Neuer Hauptbau to the existing palace, Frisoni built the Bildergalerie and Festinbau on the west side, and the Ahnengalerie and Schlosstheater on the east. The Bildergalerie was decorated in 1731–32, while the Ahnengalerie was likewise decorated from 1731 to 1733. With the exception of the interiors of the Neuer Hauptbau and Schlosstheater, all work was finished in 1733,[24] but Eberhard Louis died that same year.[25] Only a few rooms in the west end of the Neuer Hauptbau had been completed when he died.[19] Construction of the Neuer Hauptbau and its connecting galleries cost 465,000 guilders and was managed by Paolo Retti, who at times had more than 650 stone masons, cutters, and basic laborers working on the facades between 1726 and 1728.[4] Construction of Ludwigsburg Palace cost the Duchy of Württemberg 3,000,000 florins.[26]

Use as a residence

Photograph of the main palace taken from Schloss Favorite.
View of the main palace from Schloss Favorite

Duke Eberhard Louis left no heirs and was succeeded by Karl Alexander.[27] Karl Alexander ended funding for the palace, dismissed its staff, and moved the capital back to Stuttgart in 1733 to modernize Württemberg's army and fortifications.[4][19] As the master builder of what was now decried as the "sin palace", Frisoni and Paolo Retti were arrested in 1733 on fraudulent charges of embezzlement. The two men were acquitted in 1735 after they paid a hefty fine to the ducal treasury, despite attempted intervention by the Margrave of Ansbach to free them earlier. Frisoni died in the city on 29 November 1735.[16][15] Karl Alexander himself died suddenly two years later on 12 March 1737 as he prepared to leave Ludwigsburg Palace to inspect the duchy's fortresses. With his death, the nine-year-old Charles Eugene became Duke, beginning a regency that would last until 1744.[28]

Etching of a bust of Giacomo Casanova, dated to 1883.
In 1760, Casanova was a guest at Charles Eugene's court. During his stay, he praised the performances of the duke's orchestra.[29]

Charles Eugene began the construction of a new ducal residence in Stuttgart in 1746, but continued to use Ludwigsburg as a secret residence until 1775 and brought the Rococo style to Ludwigsburg in 1747. The use of certain rooms at Ludwigsburg changed frequently, such as when Johann Christian David Leger converted the Ordenskapelle to a Lutheran church from 1746 to 1748 for Duchess Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie. Beginning in 1757 and lasting into the next year, the suites of the beletage were extensively modified by Philippe de La Guêpière.[30][31] La Guêpière completed the Schlosstheater from 1758 to 1759,[32] adding a stage, machinery, and the auditorium.[33] A wooden opera hall, adorned with mirrors, was constructed in 1764–65, located east of the Alter Hauptbau.[4] In 1764, Charles Eugene moved the ducal residence back to Stuttgart and made no more modifications to Ludwigsburg from 1770 onward. The palace, which hosted a court that Giacomo Casanova called "the most magnificent in Europe", began a steady decline.[32][29]

In 1793, Charles Eugene died without a legitimate heir and was succeeded by his brother, Frederick II Eugene, who was himself succeeded by his son Friedrich II in 1797. Ludwigsburg Palace had already been the residence of Friedrich II since 1795,[4] who made it his summer residence.[32] On 18 May 1797, Friedrich II married Charlotte, Princess Royal, daughter of King George III, at St James's Palace in Westminster.[34] They used Ludwigsburg as their summer residence, Friedrich II taking a suite of 12 rooms west of the Marble Hall and Charlotte a dozen to its east.[35]

Napoleon's armies occupied Württemberg from 1800 to 1801, forcing the duke and duchess to flee to Vienna. The royals returned when Friedrich II agreed in 1803 to pledge allegiance to Napoleon and part with some territory in exchange for the title of Elector.[34] Friedrich II, now Frederick I, felt that he had to express this accomplishment in architecture, as Eberhard Louis had attempted, and gave his court architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret the task of updating the palace in the Neoclassical style. Thouret began with the Ahengalerie and the Ordensbau, from 1803 to 1806.[36] For two days in October 1805,[37] Napoleon visited Ludwigsburg to coerce Frederick I into joining the Confederation of the Rhine and thus becoming his ally,[38] compensating Württemberg with neighboring territories in the Holy Roman Empire and Frederick I with the title of King.[36] Frederick I again tasked von Thouret with a remodeling, this time the Ordenskapelle and the king's apartment, which lasted from 1808 to 1811. The final modernizations ordered by the king took place from 1812 to 1816 in the Schlosstheater and Marble Hall. During this time, the ceiling frescoes of the Neuer Hauptbau's main staircases and the Guard Room were repainted. By the time Frederick I died in 1816, the majority of the palace had been converted to reflect then-modern tastes.[39]

Following her husband's death, Charlotte continued to reside at Ludwigsburg and received many notable visitors from across Europe, among them some of her siblings.[40] She tasked von Thouret with the renovation of her own apartment, which took place from 1816 to 1824.[41] The dowager queen died at the palace on 5 October 1828 following a bout of apoplexy.[42] Charlotte was the last ruler of Württemberg to reside at Ludwigsburg, as Frederick's son and successor, William I, and future kings did not show any interest in the palace. Members of the House of Württemberg continued to reside at the palace into the early 20th century.[41]

Later history

Image of the American lawyer addressing the court at the Borkum Island Massacre trial, 1945.
Borkum Island Massacre trial, 1946. Pictured is the defense attorney addressing the court, set up in the Ordensbau's Order Hall.

In 1817, ownership of Ludwigsburg Palace passed from the House of Württemberg to the government of the Kingdom of Württemberg, which established offices there the next year.[43] King William I chose the Order Hall, the throne room of his father, for the ratification of the kingdom's constitution in 1819.[44] The first restoration at the palace took place in 1865 in the Alter Hauptbau.[43]

Ludwigsburg Palace was opened to the public in 1918 and the following year was the site of the ratification of the constitution of the Free People's State of Württemberg.[45][44] Four years later, the Schlosstheater hosted a production of Handel's Rodelinda by the Württemberg State Theatre, the first musical performance at the palace since 1853. In the early 1930s, Wilhelm Krämer began hosting the Ludwigsburg Palace Concerts (Ludwigsburger Schlosskonzerte), which from 1933 to 23 July 1939 comprised six to ten concerts annually in the Order Hall, Ordenskapelle, or courtyard.[45] The palace survived World War II unscathed and was chosen as the site of the Borkum Island war crimes trial.[43][46] The concerts resumed in 1947 with 34 performances, a record that would not be broken until 1979. In 1952, the concerts were packed into a single week as the "Palace Days" (Ludwigsburger Schlosstage) and gained national significance when Theodor Heuss attended a production of Mozart's Titus two years later. The Palace Days became the Ludwigsburg Festival in 1966, which was attended by 12,000 visitors. In 1980, the state of Baden-Württemberg made the festival an official state event.[45]

Photograph of the band Revolverheld performing in the courtyard
Revolverheld performing in the courtyard[47]

Restorations were undertaken in the 1950s and 1960s and again in the 1990s,[43] in time for the palace's 300th anniversary in 2004. The anniversary was commemorated by the state government with three new museums and by the Federal government with a postage stamp depicting the palace.[43][48] On 19 October 2011, Minister-President Winfried Kretschmann hosted a reception for the U.S. Army's 21st Theater Sustainment Command at the palace, which was attended by John D. Gardner, former deputy commander of EUCOM, and Gert Wessels, commander of all German troops in Baden-Württemberg.[49] Almost five years later on 16 August 2016, Baden-Württemberg's Minister of Finance, Edith Sitzmann, visited Ludwigsburg Palace and Schloss Favorite.[50] The Ulm-based Klötzlebauer company exhibited a number of their Lego creations, attracting 18,000 visitors and prompting them to exhibit at the palace again that winter.[51][52] In that time, Ludwigsburg appeared again on Federal postage stamps in the Burgen und Schlösser series.[53] In November 2017, a painting of Frederick the Great on display in Charles Eugene's apartment, which had been attributed to Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, was found to have actually been painted by his teacher, Antoine Pesne. Michael Hörrmann, the director of the State Agency for Palaces and Gardens, valued the portrait at a minimum of €1 million.[54] Sitzmann returned to the palace to see the painting and attend a press conference, where she spoke about the cultural importance of Ludwigsburg Palace.[55]

By October 2017, 311,000 people visited Ludwigsburg Palace. It was projected that 350,000 people would visit by the end of that year, as 330,000 had done so in 2016. By March 2020,[56] the Baden-Württemberg State Agency for Palaces and Gardens plans to have spent €4 million to sort out and restore some 500 paintings, 400 pieces of furniture, and 500 lamps, clocks, and sculptures, and to arrange the Neuer Hauptbau as it would have looked in the reign of King Frederick I.[54][55]

Architecture

Plan of Ludwigsburg Palace, as completed.
Plan of Ludwigsburg Palace as completed, in German

Ludwigsburg Palace exhibits a great deal of Austro-Czech influence,[57] attributable to Johann Friedrich Nette and Donato Frisoni, who were educated in and experienced with Bohemian Baroque architecture and hired staff also experienced in that style.[16] Some French influence is also present, visible in the mirror halls in both the corps de logis and the mansard roofs, but the combination of work by Germans Philipp Jenisch and Nette and Italians Donato Frisoni, Diego and Carlo Carlone, Giuseppe Baroffio, Pietro Scotti and Luca Antonio Columba produced a strong resemblance to late 17th century works in Prague and Vienna.[22][58] The interiors are also a mix of Baroque influences from Paul Decker the Elder, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, and Daniel Marot, whose work Eberhard Louis was familiar with.[21] Ludwigsburg's Neoclassical architecture, inspired by the Renaissance, the work of Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, and Egyptian motifs that became popular in Europe with Napoleon's three-year Egyptian campaign, does not reflect a single style or designer. King Frederick I, at the time Duke Friedrich II, gave Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret the task of remodeling Ludwigsburg's interiors in the Neoclassical style. Thouret was inspired by the French Imperial style. His friend and partner Antonio Isopi simplified Thouret's plans into a more grounded Classical form that would then be carried out by Johannes Klinckerfuß and court painter Jean Pernaux.[39]

North wing

The Alter Hauptbau (Old Main building), is the oldest portion of the palace, originally built just to house the apartments of Eberhard Louis and his daughter-in-law, Princess Henrietta Maria.[59] Its facade was built from 1705 to 1708 and its interiors were mostly completed by 1715, although work inside its pavilions lasted into 1722. In 1809 and 1826–28, the rooms facing the courtyard in the beletage were remodeled in the Neoclassical style, but their Baroque frescoes were revealed in 1865. The corps de logis opens with a wide vestibule that terminates in an unadorned staircase.[60] The vestibule was built according to the Italian model (three sections separated by six columns)[61] and decorated by Frisoni in 1712. At the top of the stairs is a guard room and then the beletage's four suites, following the French Baroque model of a living room, audience chamber, and bedroom. Eberhard Louis's apartment is made unique by the addition of a hall of mirrors decorated with stucco by Donato Frisoni and a hidden staircase, since removed, into the room of his mistress Wilhelmine von Grävenitz.[62][59] The third floor, finished in 1708, houses the two galleries. The first takes up most of the south wall and served as a portrait gallery and an ahnentafel with stucco portraits of Eberhard Louis and his ancestors created by Frisoni and Soldati in 1713. The ceiling fresco was lost, as the gallery had been divided into smaller rooms from 1808 until its restoration in 2000–2004.[63] Above the third floor is a mansard roof that now houses a preserved piece of clockwork taken from Zwiefalten Abbey by King Frederick I in 1809.[22]

The two pavilions to the west and east of the corps de logis are joined to it by arcaded galleries, completed in 1713 and 1715 respectively, that close off the northern edge of the cour d'honneur.[20] The Western Gallery celebrates peacetime with stucco statuary, medallions, and reliefs of the Judgement of Paris, Aeneas fleeing Troy, Hercules and Omphale, and Apollo and Daphne. Its terminus, the Jagdpavillon (Hunting pavilion), contains the Marmorsaletta (Little marble hall) decorated with scagliola by Riccardo Retti and frescoes by Luca Antonio Colomba. Adjoined to the hall are three cabinet rooms, the first and third of which are decorated in Turkish and Chinese imagery respectively.[64][65] The Eastern Gallery celebrates warfare with stucco trophy captives and weapons, reliefs of Eberhard Louis's monogram, and depictions of the virtues of Strength, Justice, Moderation, Wisdom and the classical elements. Above the entire gallery is Colomba's Gigantomachy. At the end of the Eastern Gallery is the Spielpavillon, completed in 1716, whose center is a rounded, cruciform hall with four corner rooms that contain imitation Delftware images of Jacques Callot's Grotesque Dwarves. The dome fresco by Colomba and Emanuel Wohlhaupter depicts the four seasons and their corresponding zodiac signs.[66][67]

East wing

The giants in the entrance of the Riesenbau that give the building its name.
The Riesenbau's namesake giants in its vestibule

The Riesenbau (Giants' building), built by Johann Friedrich Nette in 1712–13, begins the east wing of Ludwigsburg Palace. The vestibule, decorated by Andreas Quittainer and Luca Antonio Colomba, prominently features two sphinxes and four giants as the atlases under the staircase to the beletage. Originally, these stairs led up to a room for the Hunting Order, which was segregated into residences from 1720 to 1723. Ahead of the giants is a statue of Minerva, and the frescoes on the ceiling above the staircase show Justitia and Fortitudo, the four seasons, and the four classical elements. In 1810, the rooms on the beletage were remodeled in Neoclassical, but they were restored to the Baroque style and opened as a museum in the 1950s. The apartments of Frederick Louis and Karl Alexander were decorated by Frisoni and Luca Antonio Colomba, but Karl Alexander's apartment also features a landscape painting by Adolf Friedrich Harper.[68]

Directly south of the Riesenbau is the East Kavaliersbau (Cavaliers' Building), built from 1715 to 1719 to house courtiers. It contains four apartments on both floors, like the West Kavaliersbau, decorated with stucco ornament by Riccardo Retti and a fresco on the ceiling of the beletage by Leopoldo Retti, preserved from the 1720s. The southwestern apartment on the second floor contains a museum dedicated to the Schlosstheater, attached by a gallery to the East Kavaliersbau and the Schlosskapelle. Europe's oldest preserved theater was constructed by Frisoni from 1729 to 1733 but was first furnished in 1758–59 by Philippe de La Guêpière, who added the stage, auditorium, and machinery. Friedrich von Thouret remodeled the Schlosstheater in Neoclassical in 1811–12.[69][33] Casanova is known to have visited the Schlosstheater,[70] making notes on the performances held there.[71]

Photograph looking down the Ahnengalerie.
The Ahnengalerie, tracing the lineage of the House of Württemberg

Joined to the Riesenbau and East Kavaliersbau by a connecting room on its southern end is the Schlosskapelle (Palace chapel), built from 1716 to 1724 and consecrated in 1723. The chapel is made up of a rotunda with three semi-domes and a private box for the duke and his family, accessed from the second floor. The box was painted around 1731 with the story of King David and given its red velvet wallpaper and a ceiling fresco by Livio Retti. The chapel itself was painted by Frisoni, Colomba, and Carlo Carlone, who were restricted by Protestant doctrine to illustrations of the Apostles and scenes from the Old Testament. Beneath the chapel is a crypt that contains all rulers of Württemberg from Duke Eberhard Louis to King Frederick I. The Schlosskapelle avoided major remodeling in the 19th century and is today the most original area of the palace.[72][18] The original organ, built in 1724 by Joseph Friedrich Baumeister and installed in 1747 by Georg Friedrich Schmahl, was moved to the Ordenskapelle in 1798 by Johann Jakob Pfeiffer. A new organ was built in 1916 by the Walcker Orgelbau company, while the original is still in existence at Schöntal Abbey.[73]

The final and southernmost part of the east wing is the 490 feet (150 m) long Ahnengalerie, built in 1729. The ceiling frescoes, by Carlo Carlone, were originally to depict the story of Achilles, but Eberhard Louis decided to move them to the Bildergalerie after the completion of the first and last frescoes in the series in 1732. In the place of this and Frisoni's original plan for a modest and plain white hall, Carlone painted an homage to Eberhard Louis in 1731–33 to glorify his reign with depictions of Alexander the Great, Apelles, Venus, Mars, Apollo, Phobos, and the Muses, among others. Frederick I had von Thouret remodel the Ahnengalerie in 1805–06, retaining Carlone's frescoes and adding stucco to the two antechambers. The portraits in the Ahnengalerie trace the lineage of the rulers of Württemberg from Eberhard I the Bearded, the first Duke of Württemberg, to Wilhelm II, the last King of Württemberg.[74][75]

West wing

Photograph of King Frederick I's throne in the Ordenskapelle
King Frederick I's throne in the Ordenskapelle

Beginning the west wing is the Ordensbau (Order building), containing three apartments on the ground floor and the banquet hall of the Order of the Golden Eagle. The vestibule is decorated with a ceiling fresco of Pheme with a genius, while pictures of Hercules adorn its walls and continue into the stairwell. The antechamber of the Order Hall is decorated with stucco reliefs of cherubs, masks, birds, and weapons by Tomasso Soldati and Donato Frisoni. The Order Hall's stucco was also by Tomasso and Frisoni, but the ceiling fresco is a later repainting by Pietro Scotti and Giuseppe Baroffio in 1731, as the original by Colomba was damaged by water and removed. King Frederick I had the Hall renovated into a throne room in 1805–06, moving the function and imagery of the Order to the Ordenskapelle. Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret designed Frederick I's throne and baldachin, opposite Johann Baptist Seele's 1808 portrait of the king. It was in the Order Hall that the constitutions of the Kingdom and the Free People's State of Württemberg were ratified in 1819 and 1919, respectively.[76][44][77]

Immediately southwest of the Ordensbau is the oval Ordenskapelle (Order chapel), begun in 1720 as a companion to the Schlosskapelle. The Ordenskapelle was given its current appearance from 1746 to 1748 by Johann Christoph David Leger on behalf of Duke Charles Eugene for Duchess Elisabeth Fredericka. Leger removed the floor between the chapel and a second-floor Order hall and reused existing pilasters for new Rococo decor crafted by Pietro Brilli. Livio Retti painted ceiling frescoes of the life of Jesus Christ. On the second floor is the duchess' box, decorated in 1747–48 with stucco and frescoes of the birth of Christ and allegories of faith, hope, and love. In 1798, Frederick I moved the Ordenskapelle's church functions to the Schlosskapelle. Nine years later, he designated it for use by the Order of the Golden Eagle and tasked Friedrich von Thouret with remodeling it in the Empire style. Thouret walled up the first-floor windows in 1807–08 for seating room and for the king's canopied throne under its star-studded semidome.[78][44] The organ in the Ordenskapelle was brought from Kochersteinsfeld and installed in 1980, as the original had been moved to Freudental in 1814.[79]

Also attached to the Ordenskapelle is the West Kavaliersbau, identical in layout and design to its eastern counterpart, built in 1719–20 and retaining some original stucco and ceiling frescoes by Riccardo and Livio Retti. The Festinbau, attached to the West Kavaliersbau, was originally designed as a kitchen but built from 1729 to 1733, and used from 1770 to 1775, as a theater. Since 2004, the West Kavaliersbau and Festinbau have contained a fashion museum.[80] The actual kitchen, the Küchenbau (Kitchen building), was built separate from, and west of, the palace to keep odors and the threat of fire at bay.[81] Inside are seven hearths, a bakery, a butcher's shop, several pantries, and the quarters for the servant staff in the attic and on the first floor. Most of the food prepared here was obtained locally due to the difficulty in transporting resources.[81]

The Bildergalerie (Picture gallery), the southernmost part of the west wing, was built by Frisoni in 1731–32. The only remaining Baroque decor is Pietro Scotti's ceiling fresco depicting the life of Achilles, which was to adorn the ceiling of the Ahnengalerie. Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret renovated the Bildergalerie in Tuscan Neoclassicism from 1803 to 1805, adding a fireplace by Antonio Isopi and a statue of Apollo by Pierre Francois Lejeune opposite the fireplace. This statue was carved in 1772 for the temple of Apollo in Castle Solitude, then moved to Charles Eugene's library in Hohenheim Palace in 1778, and finally found its way to the Bildergalerie during von Thouret's remodeling. The frescoes in the Bildergalerie's antechambers were painted in 1730 by either Scotti or Carlo Carlone.[82][83]

South wing

The entire southern wing of Ludwigsburg Palace consists of the Neuer Hauptbau (New Main building). It was designed and constructed by Donato Frisoni on the express command of Duke Eberhard Louis, who found that the Alter Hauptbau was too small to serve the needs of his court. Frisoni planned for a four story building in 1725 but wound up building three stories. Eberhard Louis died before he could move into the Neuer Hauptbau, leaving its interiors unfinished until Duke Charles Eugene finished them in 1747. Charles Eugene abandoned the palace in 1775, and the next royals to reside there were the first King and Queen of Württemberg, Frederick I and Charlotte Mathilde, who extensively remodeled parts of the palace in Neoclassical from 1802 to 1824 and resided in the Neuer Hauptbau during the summer. The building was used in 1944 and 1945 to store furnishings recovered from the recently destroyed New Palace in Stuttgart. Within the Neuer Hauptbau is a system of secret passages crowded around two hidden courtyards, called the Dégagements, that allowed servants to travel unobserved inside the structure while on-call.[84][85]

Image of some of the statuary in the Queen's Staircase.
Statuary and ceiling of the Queen's Staircase

The Neuer Hauptbau opens with an oval vestibule decorated by Carlo Carlone. It is home to a statue of Duke Eberhard Louis surrounded by terms supporting the ceiling. In the niches behind the columns are statues of Apollo, a woman and a sphinx, and two maenads with a satyr. A vaulted passageway decorated with two figures of Hercules leads into a salon, featuring a ceiling fresco by Diego Carlone and statues of Roman deities in niches. Next are the grand staircases on either side of the vestibule, from 1798 called the King's and Queen's Staircases, which lead up to the beletage of the Neuer Hauptbau. The King's Staircase has statuary on the theme of unhappy romances, and the cavettos above are adorned with stucco depictions of the seasons personified and medals bearing Eberhard Louis's initials. The Queen's Staircase is a mirror of the King's, but the statuary depicts virtues and the ribbonwork above displays Apollo, Artemis, and the four classical elements.[86]

Two galleries lead from the stairs to a guardroom decorated by Carlone in 1730 with stucco weapon trophies and fresco. Thouret covered over Carlone's work with Neoclassical ornamentation in 1815. The guardroom leads into the Marble Hall (Marmorsaal), the palatial dining hall once used to receive Francis II of Austria and Alexander I of Russia. Thouret began work here in 1813–14 by installing a new, curved ceiling and finished two years later with the Marble Hall's scagliola walls. Pilasters and windows form the lower wall, decorated by stucco garlands and candelabras by Antonio Isopi and reproductions of the Medusa Rondanini, Hermes Ludovisi, and the Medici Vase above and flanking the doors. Above the hall is a walkway in the attica, divided by pillars clad with caryatids holding plates and pitchers designed by Johann Heinrich Dannecker. The ceiling fresco, by Jean Pernaux, is of a partly cloudy blue sky that contains an eagle and four smaller birds that each hoist a chandelier.[87][88] The roof above the Marble Hall, though curved, has no visible supports. This was achieved by cantilevering its weight upon the entablatures at the top of the walls of the Marble Hall.[22]

To the east of the Marble Hall is the apartment of Queen Charlotte, originally the suites intended to house Prince Frederick Louis and Princess Henrietta Maria. When Charlotte joined Frederick I in residence at Ludwigsburg in 1798, the separating walls were removed to form one suite. Friedrich von Thouret only made small changes to the queen's suite from 1802 to 1806, principally adding damask to the primary antechamber and to the assembly and audience rooms. Extensive renovations, lasting from 1816 to 1824, came after the queen fully established herself at Ludwigsburg. Charlotte's audience chamber contains her throne, red silk walls, and paintings of Cybele, Minerva, and personified virtues by Viktor Heideloff over the doors and in the lunettes of the mirrors. Adjacent to it is the bedroom, remodeled in 1824 with marbled green pilasters and an alcove containing red silk from 1760. The study, the next room to the east, is unusual for a Neoclassical interior because of its large mirrors. Finally, there is the summer study and the queen's library, remodeled in 1818 with blue damask and Rococo overdoors that carry over into the library to the west. The entire apartment is furnished in the Biedermeier style by Johannes Klinckerfuss,[89][90] whose work Charlotte herself covered with embroidery.[91]

Photograph of King Frederick I's bedroom.
King Frederick I's bedroom

King Frederick I's apartment, to the west of Charlotte's, was to house Duke Eberhard Louis and Wilhelmine von Grävenitz, and later Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach. Charles Eugene became the first to reside here in 1744 with his wife. When Frederick I took up residence, he had Friedrich von Thouret remodel his 12-room suite from 1802 to 1811. The suite opens with the antechamber, containing decorations dated to 1785, likely taken from Hohenheim Palace, and an original ceiling fresco by Carlone of Bacchus and Venus. Adjacent to it is the audience chamber, decorated with Baroque red damask and Neoclassical borders. The room contains Frederick's throne and furniture by Isopi, embellished with griffins in relief, and two ovens by Georg Matthäus Schmid. Past the conference room and its Rococo overdoors by Heideloff are the king's bedchambers. The Baroque wooden wall paneling and overdoors survived the room's 1811 remodeling. The walls and furnishings of the king's office are Neoclassical, decorated with the heads of Greek gods and cornucopias, but the ceiling fresco is a Guibal original from 1779 of Chronos and Clio.[92][93]

Duke Charles Eugene moved into the Neuer Hauptbau in 1757 and tasked Philippe de La Guêpière with the apartment's decoration. Two years later, La Guêpière completed the entire suite except for the bedchamber, as the Duke occupied his wife's former suite in 1760 for his actual residence. The rest of the suite was used for social functions until it was emptied of furnishings in the next decade. A staircase and antechamber lead to the entrance of today's apartment, a gallery decorated by Ludovico Bossi. The initial rooms are the first and second antechambers, clad in green damask with portraits by Antoine Pesne and paneling by Michel Fressancourt, overdoors by Matthäus Günther, boiserie flooring, and furniture by Jacques-Philippe Carel and Jean-Baptiste Hédouin that Charles Eugene acquired around 1750. Next is the Assembly Room, restored in 2003, which prominently features overdoors by Adolf Friedrich Harper and trophies of musical instruments above the windows. Charles Eugene's third-floor residence begins with the Corner Room, again painted by Harper, which feeds into a cabinet room and then finally the bedchamber, completed in 1770. Bossi created the ceiling's stucco in 1759–60, but the room and its two closets took another decade to complete. Additional rooms on the third floor housed relatives of the rulers of Württemberg, but these have been occupied by the Ceramics Museum since 2004.[94]

Grounds and gardens

An engraving of the East Garden dated to 1810.
A colored engraving depicting the Alter Hauptbau and the Emichsburg, dated to 1810

Surrounding the residential palace on three sides are the 32-hectare (79-acre) Blooming Baroque (Blühendes Barock) gardens, which attract 520–550,000 visitors annually.[95] Today's gardens were created in 1954 and arranged in a Baroque style for Ludwigburg's 250th birthday.[96] The gardens comprise smaller themed gardens and the Fairy-Tale Garden (Märchengarten), which contains a folly and depictions of some fairy tales.[97] The gardens were to be focused in the north with an Italian terraced garden and were largely completed when Duke Eberhard Louis turned his attention to the South Garden, then a collection of broderie parterres, bosquets, and an orangery. In the south, he laid out a large, symmetrical French garden.[96][98] Beginning in 1749, Duke Charles Eugene began revising the layout of the gardens by filling in the North Garden's terraces to replace it with a large broderie,[99] and expanding and reorganizing the South Garden in the 1750s. From 1797, Frederick I revived the South Garden in a Neoclassical style by dividing it into four equally sized lawns with a Mediterranean theme. Frederick I retained the original pathways but added a canal and fountain to the garden's center and hillocks in each lawn.[100] Frederick I also gave the North Garden its current form in 1800.[99] He expanded the garden east to form the English-style Lower East Garden,[101] demolished Charles Eugene's opera house in the Upper East Garden to form a romantic medieval-themed landscape garden,[102] and created two private gardens for himself and Queen Charlotte adjacent to their Neuer Hauptbau suites. Another addition in the Lower East Garden was the Emichsburg castle,[96] built from 1798 to 1802 and named after a knight of the Hohenstaufens who is the fabled ancestor of the House of Württemberg.[103] Frederick's son and successor, William I, abandoned Ludwigsburg for Rosenstein Palace in Stuttgart and opened the South Garden to the public in 1828.[100] The canal was filled in, maintenance reduced, and an orchard planted on the southern lawns that was later used to grow potatoes.[104]

The Blooming Baroque gardens around Ludwigsburg Palace

In 1947, Albert Schöchle was charged with maintaining Ludwigsburg Palace's gardens and after visiting the 1951 Bundesgartenschau in Hanover decided to restore the gardens. Schöchle convinced Baden-Württemberg's Minister of Finance Karl Frank to help fund the venture in 1952 on the condition that the city of Ludwigsburg would also assist, a stipulation to which Lord Mayor Elmar Doch and the town council agreed. Frank approved the start of work on 23 March 1953 and construction lasted into the fall. It required the moving of 100,000 cubic meters (3,531,467 cu ft) of earth by bulldozers supplied by American soldiers and the planting of tens of thousands of trees and hedges, 22,000 roses, and 400,000 individual flowers. The Blooming Baroque gardens were opened on 23 April 1954 as a special horticultural show and attracted over 500,000 visitors by the end of May, among them President Theodor Heuss. When the show closed in the fall of 1954, it had recouped all but 150,000 Deutsche Marks of the investment in the restoration of the gardens, which easily became a permanent landmark.[104]

On the far east side is the Fairy-Tale Garden (Märchengarten), made up of some 40 recreations of fairy tales.[105] Opened in 1959, it was yet another addition to the palace gardens by Albert Schöchle, who was inspired by a similar garden he had seen two years earlier in Tilburg, the Netherlands.[106] The Fairy-Tale Garden was an immediate success and increased revenue by 50% that year,[107] ensuring the future of the Blooming Baroque gardens.[105]

Schloss Favorite

Picture of the detail on the ground floor exterior of Schloss Favorite.
Schloss Favorite in the winter

Construction of Ludwigsburg Palace began in 1704, but by 1710 Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg had decided to use Ludwigsburg Palace as his main residence rather than just a hunting lodge and charged Frisoni with the construction of a three-winged residential palace. However, the duke still desired a hunting retreat and, inspired by a garden palace he had seen in Vienna, tasked Frisoni with the design of a new Rococo palace to be located on a hill to the north of the main palace.[109] Frisoni largely completed Favorite within that year[110] but was unable to complete his extensive plans for its grounds, leaving only the road to the main palace.[111] In 1800, Favorite's interiors were remodeled by Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret for King Frederick I.[111] Only one room, in the western half of the building, retains its original baroque appearance.[112] When Frederick was appointed an elector in 1803 and made a king in 1806, he chose both times to celebrate the occasion at Schloss Favorite.[113] Favorite fell into disrepair in the 20th century but was restored true to form from 1972 to 1982.[114]

Museums

On the first and third floors of the Alter Hauptbau is the Baroque Gallery (Barockgalerie),[115] a subsidiary museum of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart opened in 2004 that displays 120 paintings,[116][117] some of which are originals from a purchase Duke Charles Alexander made in 1736 of around 400 paintings from Gustav Adolf von Gotter. Examples of the German and Italian Baroque paintings on display include Martin van Meytens's portrait of Charles Alexander,[118] works by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld, Carl Borromäus Andreas Ruthart, Johann Heiss, and Katharina Treu, as well as some works that formerly were in the collection of Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany.[119]

Ludwigsburg porcelain on display in the Ceramics Museum.
Ludwigsburg porcelain on display in the Ceramics Museum

The Landesmuseum Württemberg maintains two subsidiary museums at Ludwigsburg Palace, the Ceramics Museum and Fashion Museum (Keramikmuseum and Modemuseum, respectively), both opened at Ludwigsburg in 2004. The first of these takes up all of the third floor of the Neuer Hauptbau except the apartment of Duke Charles Eugene, a space of 2,000 square meters (22,000 sq ft) containing over 4,500 exhibits of examples of porcelain, ceramics, faience, and pottery and the histories thereof, making it one of the largest in Europe. The museum collection contains 2,000 pieces of original Ludwigsburg porcelain and 800 pieces of Italian maiolica, purchased by Charles Eugene from dealers in Augsburg and Nuremberg. In all, the museum collection includes porcelain from the manufactories at Meissen, Berlin, Sèvres, and Vienna, and 20th century Art Nouveau pieces purchased from six countries since 1950.[120][121][122] The Fashion Museum, housed in the Festinbau and West Kavaliersbau,[123] displays about 700 pieces of various clothing and accessories from the 1750s to the 1960s, including works by Charles Frederick Worth, Paul Poiret, Christian Dior, and Issey Miyake.[124][125]

On the ground floor of the Neuer Hauptbau is the lapidarium, housing original Baroque statuary by Andreas Philipp Quittainer, Carlo, Giorgio Feretti, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Beyer and Pierre François Lejeune.[126] Charles Eugene's apartment houses the Princess Olga Cabinet Exhibition, exploring the lives of Princess Olga and her family at Ludwigsburg from 1901 to 1932.[127]

Kinderreich (Children's Kingdom) is an interactive museum that educates children over four years of age about life in the court of the Duke of Württemberg.[128][129] Preserved in the Palace Theater are about 140 original set pieces and props from the 18th and 19th centuries that were discovered during restoration work on the theater, such as oil lamps used for stage lighting. These items were extensively restored to their original condition from 1987 to 1995, and since 1995 one of the original stage pieces has been used for the Children's Stage (Junge Bühne).[130][33]

Panorama of the Neuer Hauptbau, looking north

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Samantha Owens writes that settlers in Ludwigsburg had 20 years without taxation,[8] while the official websites for the city of Ludwigsburg and of its museum of history state 15 years.[9]
  2. ^ Both chapels were intended to be Lutheran and separated according to court function, but the Schlosskapelle became Roman Catholic from 1737 to 1798 because of the reigns of Catholics Karl Alexander and Charles Eugene,[4] while the approximately 600 Catholics in Ludwigsburg, mostly Italians, were forbidden by law from worshiping in their rite until 1806. Since 1829, the Schlosskapelle has been a Catholic institution and is today only used for festive functions.[18] The Ordenskapelle has been Protestant since the reign of Duke Charles Eugene.[19]

Citations

  1. ^ Dorling 2001, p. 292.
  2. ^ a b c Wenger 2004, p. 3.
  3. ^ Owens 2011, pp. 166–167.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Süddeutscher Barock: Ludwigsburg.
  5. ^ Kaufmann 1995, p. 320.
  6. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 3, 5.
  7. ^ a b Süddeutscher Barock: Philipp Joseph Jenisch.
  8. ^ a b Owens 2011, p. 175.
  9. ^ a b c d e Ludwigsburg Museum.
  10. ^ Charles & Carl 2010, p. 141.
  11. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 3–4.
  12. ^ Wilson 1995, p. 128.
  13. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 4, 12, 35.
  14. ^ Süddeutscher Barock: Johann Friedrich Nette.
  15. ^ a b Süddeutscher Barock: Donato Giuseppe Frisoni.
  16. ^ a b c Ludwigsburg Palace: Donato Giuseppe Frisoni.
  17. ^ Wenger 2004, p. 4.
  18. ^ a b Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Schlosskapelle.
  19. ^ a b c Wenger 2004, p. 7.
  20. ^ a b Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Gebäude.
  21. ^ a b Wenger 2004, p. 5.
  22. ^ a b c d Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Dächer.
  23. ^ Wenger 2004, p. 6.
  24. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 6–7.
  25. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Neuer Hauptbau.
  26. ^ Wilson 1995, p. 36.
  27. ^ Wilson 1995, p. 165.
  28. ^ Wilson 1995, p. 184.
  29. ^ a b Stuttgarter Zeitung, 28 November 2014.
  30. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 7–8.
  31. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Appartement von Herzog Carl Eugene.
  32. ^ a b c Wenger 2004, p. 8.
  33. ^ a b c Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Schlosstheater.
  34. ^ a b Curzon 2016, p. 70.
  35. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Neue Hauptbau.
  36. ^ a b Wenger 2004, p. 9.
  37. ^ Hazlitt 1830, p. 143.
  38. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Friedrich I von Württemberg.
  39. ^ a b Wenger 2004, pp. 9–10.
  40. ^ Curzon 2016, pp. 70–1.
  41. ^ a b Wenger 2004, pp. 10–11.
  42. ^ Panton 2011, p. 103.
  43. ^ a b c d e Wenger 2004, p. 11.
  44. ^ a b c d Ludwigsburg Palace: Ordensbau und Ordenskapelle.
  45. ^ a b c Ludwigsburg Festival: Chronicle.
  46. ^ Weingartner 2011, p. 49.
  47. ^ Südwest Presse, 10 August 2016.
  48. ^ StampWorld: Ludwigsburg Castle.
  49. ^ US Army, 27 October 2011.
  50. ^ BaWü Ministry of Finance: Schlösserreise nach Ludwigsburg und Stuttgart.
  51. ^ Stuttgarter Nachrichten, 22 April 2016.
  52. ^ Stuttgarter Nachrichten, 6 December 2017.
  53. ^ Ministry of Finance: Sondermarken Februar 2017.
  54. ^ a b Stuttgarter Nachrichten, 17 November 2017.
  55. ^ a b BaWü Ministry of Finance: Finanzministerin besucht Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg.
  56. ^ SWP.de, 25 May 2018.
  57. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Stilgeschichte.
  58. ^ Kaufmann 1995, p. 321–22.
  59. ^ a b Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Alte Hauptbau.
  60. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 12–13.
  61. ^ Hempel 1965, p. 171.
  62. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 13, 16–17, 18.
  63. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 23–24.
  64. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 24–28.
  65. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Jagdpavillon.
  66. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 28–30.
  67. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Spielpavillon.
  68. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 35–41.
  69. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 48–49, 91, 92–93.
  70. ^ BaWü Ministry of Tourism: Ludwigsburg Residential Palace.
  71. ^ SWP.de, 15 January 2018.
  72. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 43–45.
  73. ^ Orgelsammlung Gabriel Isenberg: Ludwigsburg Schlosskirche.
  74. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 84–87.
  75. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Ahnengalerie.
  76. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 31–34.
  77. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Meilensteine.
  78. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 46–48.
  79. ^ Orgelsammlung Gabriel Isenberg: Ludwigsburg Ordenskapelle.
  80. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 48, 49, 90.
  81. ^ a b Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Küchenbau.
  82. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 84, 88–90.
  83. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Bildergalerie.
  84. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 6, 8, 11, 50, 65–66.
  85. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Dienerschaftszimmer.
  86. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 51–53.
  87. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 54–56.
  88. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Marmorsaal.
  89. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 66–74.
  90. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Appartement der Königin.
  91. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Charlotte Mathilde von Württemberg.
  92. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 56–64.
  93. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Appartement des Königs.
  94. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 75–83.
  95. ^ Blooming Baroque: Facts and Figures.
  96. ^ a b c Ludwigsburg Palace: Der Garten.
  97. ^ Blooming Baroque: Fairy-Tale Garden.
  98. ^ Blooming Baroque: South Garden (Südgarten).
  99. ^ a b Blooming Baroque: North Garden (Nordgarten).
  100. ^ a b Blooming Baroque: History of the Ludwigsburg Palace Garden.
  101. ^ Blooming Baroque: Lower East Garden (Unterer Ostgarten).
  102. ^ Blooming Baroque: Upper East Garden (Obere Ostgarten).
  103. ^ Blooming Baroque: Emichsburg castle.
  104. ^ a b Blooming Baroque: Albert Schöchle's idea.
  105. ^ a b Blooming Baroque: The Fairy-Tale Garden.
  106. ^ Blooming Baroque: Creation of the Fairy-Tale Garden.
  107. ^ Blooming Baroque: Another success for Albert Schöchle.
  108. ^ Blooming Baroque: General plan.
  109. ^ Schloss Favorite: Das Schloss und der Garten.
  110. ^ Süddeutscher Barock: Favorite Ludwigsburg.
  111. ^ a b Schloss Favorite: Das Gebäude.
  112. ^ Schloss Favorite: Die westlichen Zimmer.
  113. ^ Schloss Favorite: Meilensteine.
  114. ^ Schloss Favorite: Home.
  115. ^ Wenger 2004, p. Foldout map.
  116. ^ Ludwigsburg: Barockgalerie.
  117. ^ Landeskunde Online: Barockgalerie in Schloss, Intro 1.
  118. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Barockgalerie.
  119. ^ Landeskunde Online: Barockgalerie in Schloss, Intro 2.
  120. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Keramikmuseum.
  121. ^ Landesmuseum Württemberg: Keramikmuseum.
  122. ^ Ludwigsburg: Keramikmuseum.
  123. ^ Wenger 2004, pp. 49, 91, Foldout map.
  124. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Modemuseum.
  125. ^ Landesmuseum Württemberg: Modemuseum.
  126. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Lapidarium.
  127. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Die Kabinettausstellung Prinzessin Olga.
  128. ^ Ludwigsburg: Kinderreich Schloss Ludwigsburg.
  129. ^ Ludwigsburg Palace: Das Kinderreich.
  130. ^ Ludwigsburg: Junge Bühne.

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  • "Meilensteine". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Das Gebäude". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Home". www.schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de/en. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Die westlichen Zimmer". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
German Federal and Baden-Württemberg State governments
  • "Sondermarken Februar 2017". bundesfinanzministerium.de (in German). Federal Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  • "Schlösserreise nach Ludwigsburg und Stuttgart". fm.baden-wuerttemberg.de (in German). Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  • "Finanzministerin besucht Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg". fm.baden-wuerttemberg.de (in German). Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  • "Ludwigsburg Residential Palace". tourism-bw.com. Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
City of Ludwigsburg
  • "Chronicle". schlessfestspiele.de/en. Ludwigsburg Festival. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Ideal city". ludwigsburgmuseum.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Barockgalerie". ludwigsburg.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  • "Keramikmuseum". ludwigsburg.de (in German). City of Ludigsburg. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  • "Kinderreich Schloss Ludwigsburg". ludwigsburg.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Junge Bühne". ludwigsburg.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Facts and Figures". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "Fairy-Tale Garden". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "South Garden (Südgarten)". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "North Garden (Nordgarten)". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "History of the Ludwigsburg Palace Garden". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "Lower East Garden (Unterer Ostgarten)". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "Upper East Garden (Obere Ostgarten)". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "Emichsburg castle". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  • "Albert Schöchle's idea of Blühendes Barock (Baroque in Bloom)". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  • "The Fairy-Tale Garden at Baroque in Bloom". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  • "Creation of the Fairy-Tale Garden". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  • "Another success for Albert Schöchle". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  • "General plan". Blühendes Barock. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
Süddeutscher Barock (in German)
  • Bieri, Pius. "Ludwigsburg". sueddeutscher-barock.ch. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  • Bieri, Pius (2011). "Favorite Ludwigsburg". sueddeutscher-barock.ch. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • Bieri, Pius. "Philipp Joseph Jenisch". sueddeutscher-barock.ch. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • Bieri, Pius. "Johann Friedrich Nette". sueddeutscher-barock.ch. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • "Donato Giuseppe Frisoni". sueddeutscher-barock.ch. Retrieved 19 January 2018.

External links

  • Official website for Ludwigsburg Palace (in English)
  • Official website for Schloss Favorite (in English)
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