Loma Linda University

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Loma Linda University
Loma linda university logo.png
Motto To make man whole
Type Private
Established 1905
Affiliation Seventh-day Adventist Church
Endowment US$848 million[1]
President Richard H. Hart
Provost Ronald Carter
Administrative staff
1,068
Undergraduates 960
Postgraduates 2,467
Location Loma Linda, California, United States
34°03′11″N 117°15′40″W / 34.053°N 117.261°W / 34.053; -117.261Coordinates: 34°03′11″N 117°15′40″W / 34.053°N 117.261°W / 34.053; -117.261
Campus Suburban
Website www.llu.edu

Loma Linda University (LLU) is a Seventh-day Adventist coeducational health sciences university located in Loma Linda, California, United States. The University comprises eight schools and the Faculty of Graduate Studies offer more than 100 degree and certificate and programs. LLU also offers distance education. It is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system.[2][3][4][5] The university is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). Its on-campus church has around 7,000 members. Loma Linda Academy, a Seventh-day Adventist K-12 school, is located nearby.

The university also hosts a branch office of the Ellen G. White Estate. Affiliated with Burman University and operating on the same campus, is Loma Linda University's Marital and Family Therapy master's degree program. Loma Linda is closing its program in Alberta and is no longer admitting students.[6]

History

Early Postcard of Loma Linda Sanitarium

Beginnings

Loma Linda University had its beginning in 1905 when Seventh-day Adventists John Burden and Ellen G. White worked together to purchase the property and develop what became known as the Loma Linda Sanitarium.[7] In 1906, Ellen White recalled:

"While attending the General Conference of 1905, at Washington, D. C, I received a letter from Elder J. A. Burden, describing a property he had found four miles west of Redlands, five and one-half miles southeast of San Bernardino, and eight miles northeast of Riverside. As I read his letter, I was impressed that this was one of the places I had seen in vision, and I immediately telegraphed him to secure the property without delay. He did so, and as the result, Loma Linda is in our possession."[8]

In February 1906, a council of church workers met at Loma Linda. It consisted of the faculty of Fernando Academy, the faculty of the Loma Linda school, and the executive committee of the Southern California Conference. John Burden reported their ideas to Ellen White in a letter dated February 14 that there was agreement on the siting of the school.

In 1906, The Loma Linda College of Evangelists was established. Courses included:

  • Religion: Bible Evangelism, Acts and Epistles, Missionary Methods, and Doctrines and Prophecies.
  • General: History, Languages, Mathematics, English, Music, Piano and Organ.
  • Industrial: Science of Gardening, Practical Gardening, Electrical Mechanics, Carpentry, Cookery, Accounting, Sewing.
  • Nursing/Medical: Chemistry and Anatomy, Children's Diseases, Physiology, Obstetrics, Gynecology, Hydrotherapy, Practical Nursing and Hydrotherapy.[9]

The 1910 Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook enters the school as 'Loma Linda College'. It adds the legal title, 'College of Medical Evangelists of Loma Linda' (CME) and notes that the school was chartered as a Medical College in 1909.[10] At the General Conference Committee Council held at Takoma Park, April 5–15, 1910. Later that same year, the minutes for the 187th Meeting of the General Conference Committee, December 2, recorded that the medical school and other facilities were to be furnished in 1910.[11]

1910 to 1919

Early Clinical Developments

From 1913 to 1962, the university taught basic sciences in Loma Linda, but sent its students to Los Angeles for clinical experience. Ellen White promoted rural settings for Adventist schools, but to train medical students, the school needed clinical experience. Loma Linda Sanitarium did not have such a clinic.[12] The American Medical Association would not recognize the medical college if it did not provide adequate clinical experience for its students.

In 1905, the American Medical Association formed a national Council on Medical Education. Dr. Nathan Porter Colwell (1870–1936) became its first secretary the next year. In reaction, Adventists leaders interested in developing the medical school met with Dr. Colwell. He visited the campus and gave counsel on how to proceed. E. E. Andross, President of the Pacific Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists and Chairman of the Board for the College of Medical Evangelists, reported on a special meeting of the constituency of the college convened at Loma Linda, January 27, 1913. A large number of General Conference men were in California at time. Andross called this meeting in order to benefit from their counsel. In his report, he wrote that a medical hospital and dispensary was needed to address accreditation requirements for the future medical education at the institution. On September 29, 1913, the College of Medical Evangelists opened the First Street Dispensary in the heart of Los Angeles.[13]

Los Angeles Hospital

The December 16, 1915 Review and Herald reported on the General Conference Committee's Biennial Council which met in November at Loma Linda:

"In order to equip and properly complete the medical college at Loma Linda, Cal., it will be necessary to build in Los Angeles a hospital requiring an outlay of approximately $60,000. The constituency of the medical college voted to erect this building when the funds have been provided, so that there will be no further increase of indebtedness. A memorial presented, suggesting that the necessary funds to this end be raised by the women of the denomination, and that a committee of sisters be appointed to promote this work..."[14]

World War I and a 'B' Rating

The United States federal government exempted medical students from the military draft. But they would only recognize 'A' and 'B' rated medical schools. The College of Medical Evangelists only had a 'C' rating. The California state authorities supported a higher rating. After a nationwide effort, Percy T. Magan and colleagues persuaded Dr. Colwell to visit the school and determine whether a 'B' rating could be given. After the AMA's visit, the rating was upgraded to 'B'. Medical students who had already left for their military duties returned to finish their medical training. Margaret Rossiter White, Historical Records Librarian at Loma Linda wrote at the time it was a tremendous victory for Loma Linda.[15]

1919-1960

On November 16, 1922, Dr. Colwell reported that the Council on Medical Education had granted an 'A' rating to the College of Medical Evangelists.

A shopping center at Loma Linda University campus pictured in the early 1950s.

The medical world, under the leadership of the American Medical Association was quickly developing standards for medical education and for the quality of hospitals. The requirements for accreditation developed as well. The July 12, 1923 Review and Herald presented the addresses given at the Educational Convention held at Colorado Springs, Colo., June 5–19, 1923. In an article entitled 'Separation from the World in Education', W.E. Howell, former President of the Loma Linda College of Evangelists (1906)[9] and at the time of the article, the Secretary, or director, of the SDA General Conference Education Department[16] expressed concern for where dependence on accreditation would lead Adventist schools. [17]

LLU's 47 General Hospital, Milne Bay

During World War II, the CME sponsored the 47th General Hospital.[18]

1960-1980

University status and name change

In 1961 college leaders voted convert the institution to a university and renamed after the institution after the city. All its science and clinical faculty were consolidated within the city of Loma Linda by 1962.

On July 9, 1967, the university opened the Loma Linda University Medical Center with more than 125 patients from the old community hospital.[19] The university also operated the Seventh-day Adventist liberal arts college in Riverside from 1967 to 1990, which is now known as La Sierra University.

In 1980, the state designated LLU the only Level I trauma center in San Bernardino, Riverside, Inyo and Mono counties, which comprise more than a fourth of the state's land mass. About 1,600 emergency helicopters land there each year.[19]

1980-2011

In October 1984, at Loma Linda University Medical Center, Baby Fae became the first human to receive a heart of a baboon. The transplant appeared to be successful, but Baby Fae died 21 days later of heart failure due to rejection of the transplant.

In 1991, B. Lyn Behrens became the first female president of LLU. Serving until March 2008, she was succeeded by Richard Hart, who had previously served as LLU's chancellor.

Loma Linda University celebrated the Grand Opening of its new 150,000-square-foot (14,000 m2) Centennial Complex on October 28, 2009. The complex includes new classrooms, two 100-seat amphitheaters and more than 100 workstations with labs for dental, medical, physical therapy and graduate students. Updated technology allows the university to link to several areas around the globe. Additionally, the complex houses simulation labs where students can practice medical skills on live actors and sophisticated robotic mannequins. The complex was expected to bump up the university's growth by 25 percent from its current enrollment of 4,000 students to 5,000 students by 2010.[20]

Grants and funding

The University applies for and receives grants from various organizations. Some of the research grants include:

  • California Walnut Commission[21] for walnut research
  • Pfizer Public Health & Government Group[22] for public health television and Internet programming
  • NSF Partnership for Innovation Grant[23] in partnership with the Larta Institute

Federal government support

The special relationship between Loma Linda University and Representative Jerry Lewis, R – San Bernardino, first came to light in a Pulitzer Award-winning expose written by Jerry Kammer.[24] Lewis has lent significant help in funding important school operations. From 1998-2003, Loma Linda has received $167.2 million in federal funds, the number one academic recipient in the country receiving nearly $60 million more than the runner up, the University of South Florida.[25] In 2000, it was the single largest recipient of higher education grants at $36 million. Several grants were from the Department of Defense, plus $5 million from NASA for space radiation research. Critics point out that the brother of Lewis is employed by Loma Linda University.[26] In 2008, Loma Linda University received nearly $9.5 million of which $5 million came from the Department of Defense.[27]

Academic programs

Loma Linda University offers more than 100 degrees and certificate programs in the following Schools:

School of Public Health

The Loma Linda University School of Public Health was founded in 1967. The school is an accredited member of the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH).[28] The Master of Public Health (MPH) degree is offered with the following concentrations:[29]

The School of Public Health also offers a Master of Science MS, Master of Business Administration MBA, Doctor of Public Health DrPH, and Certificates in various programs.[30]

School of Behavioral Health

The Loma Linda University School of Behavioral Health was created in 2012 to unite LLU's behavioral health disciplines. The school's departments and the degrees they offer are listed below:

  • Counseling and Family Sciences: Child Life Specialist (MS), Clinical Mediation (Certificate), Counseling (MS), Drug and Alcohol Counseling (Certificate), Family Life Education (Certificate), Marital and Family Therapy (MS, DMFT, PhD), School Counseling (Certificate)
  • Psychology: Psychology (PsyD, PhD)
  • Social Work and Social Ecology: Criminal Justice (MS), Gerontology (MS), Social Policy and Social Research (PhD), Social Work (MSW)
  • Division of Interdisciplinary Studies: Play Therapy (Certificate)
  • Dual Degrees: Bioethics/Social Policy and Social Research (MA/PhD), Clinical Ministry/Marital and Family Therapy (MA/MS), Social Work/Criminal Justice (MSW/MS), Social Work/Gerontology (MSW/MS), Social Work/Social Policy and Social Research (MSW/PhD)[31]

The School of Behavioral Health also provides outpatient services at the Behavioral Health Institute.[32]

Medical Center

The Loma Linda University Medical Center, in Loma Linda, California, admits more than 30,000 patients per year.[33] LLUMC, as it is commonly known, also houses the Loma Linda University Children's Hospital, Proton Treatment Center, Transplantation Institute & Liver Center, and Loma Linda International Heart Institute.[34]

Notable alumni

School of Medicine

Name Class of Notability Residency Fellowships Ref.
T.R.M. Howard, M.D. 1935 Nationally known civil rights leader, entrepreneur, mentor to Medgar Evers, key figure in the investigation of the lynching of Emmett Till, President of the National Medical Association and Chief Surgeon of the Taborian Hospital of Mound Bayou, Mississippi City Hospital, Number Two, in St. Louis, Missouri
Frank Jobe, M.D. 1956 A world-renowned Orthopedic Surgeon and Professor of Orthopedics at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Orthopaedic Consultant for the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, PGA Tour & Senior PGA Tour,

Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, Los Angeles Kings hockey team, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim baseball team

Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles County Hospital in Los Angeles, California
Melvin Paul Judkins, M.D. 1947 A pioneer in Coronary angiography Urology, Loma Linda University Medical Center [35]
Leo P. Krall, M.D. 1943 A world-renowned leader in the field of diabetes, one of the original founders of Joslin Diabetes Center, Joslin International Fellows and director of Joslin's Education Division. Chaired annual Harvard-Joslin course and lectured at Harvard Medical School. In 1985, elected president of the International Diabetes Federation. U.S. Marine Hospital in Staten Island, NY and San Francisco, CA; as well as the New England Deaconess Hospital in Boston, MA. [36]
[37]
William J Sandborn, M.D. 1987 Head of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research and Professor of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. [38]
[39]
Bernd W. Scheithauer, M.D. 1973 A world-renowned Neuropathologist and Professor of Pathology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Neuropathology and Anatomic Pathology Stanford University Medical Center Surgical Pathology Stanford University Medical Center [40]
Cynara L. Coomer, M.D. 1996 Chief of Breast Surgery and Director of the Comprehensive Breast Center at Staten Island University Hospital and a Fox News medical contributor. SUNY Downstate Health Sciences Medical Center

School of Public Health

Name Class of Notability Ref.
Floyd Petersen, M.P.H. 1976 Assistant Professor of Biostatistics at Loma Linda University Schools of Public Health, Medicine and Nursing. City Council (1990), Mayor pro tempore (1992–1996) and Mayor (1996–2004) for the City of Loma Linda, California. [41]
David Williams, Ph.D., M.Div., M.P.H. 19?? Norman and Laura Smart Norman Professor of Public Health in the Department of Society, Human Development, and Health at Harvard University School of Public Health. Prior HSPH, Williams was the Harold W. Cruse Collegiate Professor of Sociology, a senior research scientist at the Institute for Social Research, and an associate professor of sociology at the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan. [42]
Lars D. Houmann, M.H.A. 1981 President and Chief Executive Officer of Florida Hospital and Adventist Health System's Florida Division which includes 17 hospitals. [43][44]
Paul Wangai Jr., Ph.D., MD, MPH, MRSH, FICA, FACPM 1985 Medical Director of New Life Home Trust, Director of Medicare Wellness Centre, Consultant Physician of Aga Khan Hospital, Chairman/Consultant Physician of Nairobi Women's Hospital, Medical Advisor to the Shell Group of Companies of East Africa, and Consultant Advisor to the World Health Organization & the UICC (International Union Against Cancer). [45]
Lee Berk, DrPH 1981 Dr. Berk is a faculty member whose noteworthy research includes laughter and its positive health effects. [46]
Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH 1988 Dr. Sabaté is the Chair of the Loma Linda University School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition. Dr. Sabaté served as principal investigator in a nutritional study that directly linked the consumption of walnuts to significant reductions in serum cholesterol. His findings were published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. He also gave evidence for the health and nutrition property of nuts before an FDA commission resulting in the qualified health claim. [47]

[48]

Other

Name Class of Notability Ref.
Heather Knight 1984 President of Pacific Union College
Jerry Yang 19?? Poker player and winner of the 2007 World Series of Poker Main Event. [49]
Edmund C. Jaeger 191x Renowned naturalist and author. (Attended Loma Linda College of Medical Evangelists years 1911-12 and 1912-13.) [50]

See also

References

  1. ^ As of June 30, 2017. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2017 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2016 to FY 2017" (PDF). 2017 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  2. ^ "
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-23. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
  4. ^ "Department of Education, Seventh-day Adventist Church". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  5. ^ Rogers, Wendi; Kellner, Mark A. (April 1, 2003). "World Church: A Closer Look at Higher Education". Adventist News Network. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  6. ^ "Directory of Universities, Colleges and Schools in Canada". Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  7. ^ Review and Herald, September 20, 1906, p. 24. Online access may be found at the SDA General Conference Online Document Archives linked here.
  8. ^ Review and Herald, June 21, 1906, p. 8
  9. ^ a b "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  10. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  11. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  12. ^ In the early 1900s these walk-in clinics were called dispensaries or treatment rooms.
  13. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  14. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  15. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  16. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  17. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  18. ^ The Alumni Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, August 1946 as quoted in Loma Linda University History website linked here. Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine. A picture of the CME's 47th General Hospital stationed at Milne Bay is available at the U.S. Army Medical Department Office of Medical History linked here.
  19. ^ a b Glenn, Stacia (October 31, 2007). "Loma Linda University: From humble beginnings to world renown". San Bernardino Sun. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
  20. ^ Kennedy-Ross, Selicia (October 17, 2007). "What's in the future for I. E. universities?". San Bernardino Sun. Archived from the original on December 8, 2012. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
  21. ^ "Walnuts & Weight". Walnuts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
  22. ^ "Designs for Health". Llu.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-09. Retrieved 2011-02-01.
  24. ^ "A Steady Flow of Influence". pbs.org. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
  25. ^ "Pork? Funds for Collages Raise Objections". Pe.com. July 9, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  26. ^ "New Democrats Leaders Love Pork Barrel Spending". Conservative.org. Archived from the original on 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  28. ^ "Association of Schools of Public Health Accreditation". Archived from the original on 2007-07-16.
  29. ^ "LLU School of Public Health Departments". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
  30. ^ "School of Public Health Degrees".
  31. ^ "School of Behavioral Health - Loma Linda University". Llu.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  32. ^ "Behavioral Health Institute (BHI) - Loma Linda University Medical Center". lomalindahealth.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  33. ^ "About Us - Loma Linda University Medical Center". Llu.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  34. ^ "Our Services - Loma Linda University Medical Center". Llu.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  35. ^ "OHSU Library Home". Oregon Health & Science University. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  36. ^ "Leo P. Krall, a founder of Joslin Diabetes Center, dies at 87". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  37. ^ "University Alumni of the Year". Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  38. ^ "Mayo Clinic Research". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  39. ^ "Cutting Edge Medical Report". Information Television Network. Archived from the original on 2006-12-16. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  40. ^ "Mayo Clinic Research". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 2003-09-09. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  41. ^ "Board Member Profiles". San Bernardino International Airport. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  42. ^ "Williams joins Department of Society, Human Development, and Health". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  43. ^ "AHS Executive Team". Adventist Health System. Archived from the original on 2007-04-02. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  44. ^ "Lars Houmann tapped for Florida Hospital's top job". Orlando Biz Journal. 2006-02-28. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  45. ^ "Achieving excellence in AIDS programs in Africa". Center for International Development at Harvard University. Retrieved 2007-04-11. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Berk on NBC: the healing power of laughter". Loma Linda University. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  47. ^ "Effects of Walnuts on Serum Lipid Levels and Blood Pressure in Normal Men". Loma Linda University. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  48. ^ "Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion - Nuts and Coronary Heart Disease (Docket No 02P-0505)". Loma Linda University. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  49. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
  50. ^ Ryckman, Raymond E.; Zackrison, James L. (1998). Son of the Living Desert - Edmund C. Jaeger, 1887-1983: Ecologist, Educator, Environmentalist, Biologist, and Philanthropist. Loma Linda, California: R.E. Ryckman. pp. 167–169. ISBN 978-0-9663563-0-4. OCLC 39497413. LCC QH31.J33 R97 1998 University of California, Riverside, Science Library

External links

  • Official website
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