Lobor concentration camp

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Lobor concentration camp
Concentration camp
Loborgrad.jpg
The palace of Keglevich in 2011, the former place of Lobor concentration camp
Coordinates 46°7′16″N 16°4′3″E / 46.12111°N 16.06750°E / 46.12111; 16.06750Coordinates: 46°7′16″N 16°4′3″E / 46.12111°N 16.06750°E / 46.12111; 16.06750
Other names Loborgrad
Location Lobor, Zlatar Bistrica, Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Croatia)
Operated by Independent State of Croatia
Original use The pallace of Keglevich family
Operational 9 August 1941 - November 1942[1]
Inmates Jewish and Serb women and children
Killed at least 200

The Lobor concentration camp or Loborgrad camp (Croatian: Koncentracioni logor Lobor) was a concentration camp established in Lobor, Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Croatia) in the deserted palace of Keglevich family. It was established on 9 August 1941, mostly for Serb and Jewish children and women. The camp was established and operated by Ustaše, with 16 of its guards being members of the local Volksdeutsche community. Its inmates were subjected to systematic torture, robbery and murder of "undisciplined" individuals. All younger female inmates of the Lobor camp were subjected to rapes. More than 2,000 people were inmates of this camp, at least 200 died in it. All survived children and women were transported to Auschwitz concentration camp in August 1942 where they all were killed.

Establishment

The Lobor concentration camp was established on 9 August 1942, mostly for Serb and Jewish children and women.[2][3][4] The camp was established in the deserted palace of Keglevich family.[5] It was established, operated and controlled by Ustasha Surveillance Service subordinated to Main Ustaša Headquarters, the guards were members of the German ethnic community (Volksdeutsche), totally 16 of them.[6] The maximum capacity of this camp was 800 inmates.[7]

The inmates

Because of the significant proportion of children among its inmates, this camp was categorized among children's concentration camp, besides Jablanac, Mlaka, Bročica brickyard, Uštica, Sisak, Jastrebarsko and Gornja Rijeka.[8] According to some sources, the total number of children inmates in concentration camps in Croatia in 1942 was at least 24,000.[9] The first contingent of inmates numbering 1,300 people was transported to Lobor camp from Kruščica concentration camp.[10] The number of women and children inmates in Lobor camp reached 1,500.[11] All younger female inmates of the Lobor camp were subjected to rapes by the commanding officers and guards,[12] which resulted with pregnancies, in some cases even of 14 years old girls.[13] Besides systematic rapes, the inmates were subjected to torture, robbery and murder of "undisciplined" individuals.[14] At least 200 women and children died in Lobor camp.[15] There was no mass killing of inmates in Lobor, 150 inmates died because of typhoid epidemy.[16]

Around 2,000 Jewish women and children were inmates of this concentration camp during its existence.[17] In period between 13 and 28 August 1942 all survived children and women were transported to Auschwitz concentration camp where they all were killed.[18][19][20]

Aftermath

In 2002 the Home for Mentally lll Adults Lobor-Grad was established in the object which housed the camp. According to its website, during the World War II its building was the almshouse of The Society for the Suppression of begging and supporting sick.[21]

References

  1. ^ (Jelić-Butić 1977, p. 186): "Od rujna 1941. do jeseni 1942. postojao je koncentracioni logor u Loborgradu, nedaleko od Zlatar Bistrice u "
  2. ^ (Goldstein & Lengel-Krizman 1997, p. 97): "9 August 1941 - a camp was established in Loborgrad for about 1,700 women and children; "
  3. ^ (Centre 1998, p. 41): "Loborgrad was specifically designated for Serb and Jewish women and children;
  4. ^ (Čulinović 1970, p. 316)
  5. ^ (Croatia 1990, p. 95)
  6. ^ (Croatia 1990, p. 95)
  7. ^ (Croatia 1990, p. 95)
  8. ^ (Bulajić 1988, p. 257): "Dječji koncentracioni logori bili su u Loboru, Jablancu kod Jasenovca, u Mlaki kod Jasenovca, na ciglani Bročica kod Jasenovca, u Uštici, u Staroj Gradiški, u Sisku, u Jastrebarskom i u Gornjoj Rijeci u varaždinskom kotaru. "
  9. ^ (Bulajić 1988, p. 257): "Prema izjavama same djece nekim drugim podacima koje sam uspio prikupiti, izračunao sam da je u to vrijeme u 1942 godini bilo u tim logorima najmanje 24000 djece, a od tog broja mi smo dobili iz logora jedva polovinu."
  10. ^ (Boban 1976, p. 884): ".. kada stiže u Lobor prvi transport od 1300 osoba iz logora Krušćica"
  11. ^ (Miletić 1986, p. 713): " Zatim da se u Lobor-gradu nalazilo 1.500 žena i dece,"
  12. ^ (Gerolymatos 2003, p. 242): "In the Loborgrad camp, 1,500 Jewish women and girls were subjected to repeated rapes by the commandant and his guards."
  13. ^ (Antonić 2001, p. 345)
  14. ^ (Centre 1998, p. 41): "in addition to robbery, torture and rape, individual killings of 'undisciplined' inmates were carried out" there."
  15. ^ (Goldstein & Lengel-Krizman 1997, p. 97): "9 August 1941 - a camp was established in Loborgrad for about 1,700 women and children; over 200 people died in the camp,"
  16. ^ (Bauer 1981, p. 281)
  17. ^ (Premerl 1988, p. 218): "....koncentracioni logor u Lobor-gradu, kroz koji je prošlo oko 2000 židovskih žena i djece...."
  18. ^ (Institut 1988, p. 162): "... dok su žene i djeca iz logora Loborgrad u kolovozu 1942. prebačeni u logor Auschwitz, gdje su svi likvidirani."
  19. ^ (Skolnik & Berenbaum 2007, p. 414): "A year later, the Loborgrad camp suffered a similar fate, and those who had survived the first year were now..."
  20. ^ (Goldstein & Lengel-Krizman 1997, p. 97): " between 13 and 28 August 1942 the survivors were handed over to the Germans and taken to Auschwitz."
  21. ^ "Povijest Doma". www.lobor-grad.hr. Archived from the original on 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2017-02-05.

Sources

  • Premerl, Nada (1988). Židovi na tlu Jugoslavije: Muzejski prostor Zagreb, 14.IV.-12.VI.1988. MTM.
  • Boban, Ljubo (1976). Sjeverozapadna Hrvatska u NOB-u i socijalističkoj revoluciji: zbornik. Zajednica općina memorijalnog područja Kalnik.
  • Bulajić, Milan (1988). Ustaški zločini genocida i suđenje Andriji Artukoviću 1986. godine. Rad.
  • Bulajić, Milan (1994). The Role of the Vatican in the break-up of the Yugoslav State: The Mission of the Vatican in the Independent State of Croatia. Ustashi Crimes of Genocide. Belgrade: Stručna knjiga.
  • Bulajić, Milan (2002). Jasenovac: The Jewish-Serbian Holocaust (the role of the Vatican) in Nazi-Ustasha Croatia (1941-1945). Belgrade: Fund for Genocide Research, Stručna knjiga.
  • Čulinović, Ferdo (1970). Okupatorska podjela Jugoslavije. Vojnoizdavački.
  • Miletić, Antun (1986). Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac 1941-1945: dokumenta. Narodna knjiga.
  • Institut (1988). Historical contributions. Institut.
  • Jelić-Butić, Fikreta (1977). Ustaše i Nezavisna Država Hrvatska: 1941-1945. Sveučiliǎna naklada Liber ; Školska knjiga.
  • Croatia (1990). Časopis za suvremenu povijest.
  • Antonić, Zdravko (2001). Dokumenta o genocidu nad Srbima u Bosni i Herzegovini od aprila do avgusta 1941. Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Republike Srpske.
  • Gerolymatos, Andre (20 March 2003). The Balkan Wars: Conquest, Revolution, and Retribution from the Ottoman Era to the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02732-3.
  • Skolnik, Fred; Berenbaum, Michael (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN 978-0-02-865949-7.
  • Centre (1998). Jews in Eastern Europe. The Centre.
  • Goldstein, Ivo; Lengel-Krizman, Narcisa (1997). Anti-semitism, Holocaust, anti-Fascism. Jewish Community. ISBN 978-953-96836-1-8.
  • Bauer, Yehuda (1981). American Jewry and the Holocaust: The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1939-1945. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1672-7.

Further reading

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