Loa Sek Hie

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Loa Sek Hie.
Born 1898
Batavia, Dutch East Indies
Died 1965 (aged 66–67)
The Hague, the Netherlands
Occupation politician, parliamentarian, community leader, landowner
Spouse(s) Tan Pouw Nio
Parents
Family Loa Po Seng (grandfather)
Tan Liok Tiauw (father-in-law)
Awards Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau

Loa Sek Hie Sia (born in Batavia in 1898 - died in The Hague in 1965) was a Chinese-Indonesian colonial politician, parliamentarian and founding Voorzitter or chairman of the controversial, ethnic-Chinese self-defense force Pao An Tui (1946 - 1949).[1][2] In his political career, he campaigned against racial discrimination and demanded better healthcare and education for ethnic Chinese in the Dutch East Indies.[1]

Family and education

Loa was born in Pasar Baru, Batavia in 1898 into one of the city's most prominent families, part of the Cabang Atas or Chinese gentry of Java.[1][2] His grandfather was the famous tycoon Loa Po Seng, of Jalan Poseng in Pasar Baru, while his father, Loa Tiang Hoei, served as Kapitein der Chinezen of Pasar Baru.[1] This was a civil government appointment with legal and political authority over the local Chinese community.

Loa's mother, Louise Goldman, came from an Indo-European family of Austrian-Jewish descent, but long settled in the Indies. His stepmother, Tio Bit Nio, was a first cousin of Tio Tek Ho, 4th Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia. As a descendant of Chinese officers, Loa bore the hereditary title of Sia.

He was educated at the Europeesche Lagere School (ESL) and the Hogere Burgerschool (HBS) in Batavia, then studied commerce at Prins Hendrik School, graduating in May 1917.[3][4]

In November 1917, Loa married Tan Pouw Nio, daughter of Tan Liok Tiauw Sia, the Landheer or landlord of Batoe-Tjepper.[5] The young couple settled down in the then new, fashionable suburb of Menteng in the outskirts of Batavia.

Colonial career

Loa was appointed to the Gemeenteraad (the municipal council) of Batavia in 1919, and to the Volksraad (the parliament of colonial Indonesia) in 1927.[6][1] From 1928 until 1951, he served on the Executive Board of Chung Hwa Hui (CHH), a center-right political party that advocated change through cooperation with the Dutch colonial state.[1] Loa was also part of the Masonic Lodge of Batavia.[7][8][9]

A session of the Volksraad.

As parliamentarian, Loa worked closely with Hok Hoei Kan, chairman of CHH, to abolish discriminatory policies against Chinese subjects of the colony. He campaigned further for the creation of educational and health institutions for the Chinese community. To remedy perceived government indifference, Loa played a leading role in the establishment of Jang Seng Ie (now Husada Hospital). He served on the governing council of the hospital from 1924 until 1951.

Around 1929, he provided a character reference to the government for Liem Bwan Tjie, a well-known architect whose return from overseas had been obstructed due to suspected communist sympathies.[10] Liem stayed at the Loa family residence, and helped remodel it - a project that became the architect's first commission back in the Indies.[11]

In 1940, Loa was appointed by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands as an Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau in recognition of his civic service.[12] When the Second World War broke out, Loa was apprehended by the occupying Japanese forces due to his perceived closeness with the Dutch colonial state. He was interned for much of the war, and was released in 1945.

Revolution

In the feverish atmosphere that followed the end of the War and the start of the Indonesian Revolution, he deemed it important for the Chinese community to be able to defend its interests militarily.[2] So, Loa became one of the founders of Pao An Tui, which many revolutionaries later accused to be a fighting, pro-Dutch militia.[2] He served as Voorzitter, or chairman, of the organization's Central Committee. Pao An Tui received both arms and funding from the Allies, but also obtained the support of Indonesia's first Prime Minister, Sutan Sjahrir.[2] During the tenure of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration, Loa acted as an advisor to Hubertus van Mook, the country's acting Governor-General.

After it became clear that Indonesia was to attain independence, Loa supported the federal movement. Federalism, however, did not gain widespread popular support due to perceived Dutch patronage. With the defeat of federalism by the centralist faction, led by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, Loa withdrew from the political sphere.

Exile and death

Sukarno consulted Loa Sek Hie on issues ranging from Dutch business interests to Freemasonry in Indonesia, but generally ignored the latter's advice.[8][9] Loa left Indonesia for the Netherlands in 1964.[12] He was naturalized as a Dutch citizen in 1965,[12] and died in The Hague later that same year.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Suryadinata, Leo (1995). Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 103–104. ISBN 9813055030. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Setiono, Benny G. (2003). Tionghoa dalam pusaran politik. Elkasa. pp. 503, 624–625, 627. ISBN 9799688744. 
  3. ^ "P. H. S. afdeeling Handelsschool." Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië. 9 May 1916. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  4. ^ "P. H. S. Afdeeling Handelsschool". De Preanger-bode. 2 May 1917. 
  5. ^ "Familiebericht". Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië. 14 November 1917. 
  6. ^ "Ons doel bereikt!". Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië. 16 August 1919. 
  7. ^ Stevens, Th (1994). Vrijmetselarij en samenleving in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië 1764-1962. Uitgeverij Verloren. pp. 305, 317, 350–353. ISBN 9065503781. 
  8. ^ a b Utama, Abraham (February 4, 2016). "Antara Freemasonry Indonesia, Soekarno dan Bung Hatta" (16.25 WIB). CNN Indonesia. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 30 September 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Utama, Abraham (February 4, 2016). "Lelaki Indonesia di Freemasonry, Raden Saleh hingga Kapolri". CNN Indonesia. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 30 September 2016. 
  10. ^ den Dikken, Judy (2002). Liem Bwan Tjie (1891-1966) Westerse vernieuwing en oosterse traditie. Rotterdam: STICHTING BONAS. p. 10. ISBN 90-76643-14-8. 
  11. ^ den Dikken, Judy (2002). Liem Bwan Tjie (1891-1966) Westerse vernieuwing en oosterse traditie. Rotterdam: STICHTING BONAS. p. 10. ISBN 90-76643-14-8. 
  12. ^ a b c "Zitting 1965-1966 - 8514". Registration Agency NBN. Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Retrieved 30 September 2016. 

Works cited

  • den Dikken, Judy (2002). Liem Bwan Tjie (1891-1966) Westerse vernieuwing en oosterse traditie. STICHTING BONAS Rotterdam. ISBN 90-76643-14-8. 
  • Haris, Syamsuddin (2007). Partai dan Parlemen Lokal Era Transisi Demokrasi di Indonesia: Studi Kinerja Partai-Partai di DPRD Kabupaten/Kota. TransMedia. ISBN 9797990524. 
  • Lohanda, Mona (2002). Growing Pains: The Chinese and The Dutch in Colonial Java, 1890-1942. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. 
  • Setiono, Benny G. (2003). Tionghoa dalam pusaran politik. Elkasa. ISBN 9799688744. 
  • Setyautama, Sam & Mihardja, Suma (2008). Tokoh-tokoh etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia. Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN 9799101255. 
  • Stevens, Th (1994). Vrijmetselarij en samenleving in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië 1764-1962. Uitgeverij Verloren. ISBN 9065503781. 
  • Suryadinate, Leo (1995). Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9813055030. 
  • Suryadinata, Leo (2005). Peranakan Chinese Politics in Java, 1917-1942. Marshall Cavendish Academic. ISBN 9812103600. 
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