Liu Gang

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Liu Gang
Founder of Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation
In office
23 April 1989 – 23 April 1989
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Zhou Yongjun
(as Chairperson)
Personal details
Born (1961-01-30) 30 January 1961 (age 57)
Liaoyuan, Jilin, China
Alma mater University of Science and Technology of China
Peking University
Columbia University
New York University
Known for 1986 Student Demonstrations
Tiananmen Square protests
Liu Gang
Traditional Chinese 劉剛
Simplified Chinese 刘刚

Liu Gang (born 30 January 1961) is a Chinese scientist and revolutionary who founded the Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation. He was a prominent student leader at the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[1] Liu holds a M.A. in physics from Peking University and a M.A. in computer science from Columbia University. After his exile to the United States in 1996, Liu studied technology and physics at Bell Labs in New Jersey. Liu was employed at Morgan Stanley as a Wall Street IT analyst.[2]

Student activist

As an undergraduate student at University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei, Liu met Fang Lizhi, a pro-democracy activist.[3] Then, at Peking University, Liu organized "Democracy Salons". Wang Dan later held a position there.

Liu was a 28-year-old graduate when the 1989 demonstrations began. He organized the Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation and joined the movement's organizing body. As a result, he was sixth on a list of twenty-one activists whose arrests were ordered by the government. Liu went into hiding as a fugitive, but on 15 June 1989, Liu was arrested and charged with attempted subversion of the Communist Party of China.[4] In 1991, he was convicted and sentenced to six years imprisonment at Qincheng Prison.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

After his release from prison in 1996, Liu continued to advocate for human rights in China and organized an underground democracy movement. [11][12] After moving to the United States, Liu continued his studies at Columbia University in New York City. [13][14][15] From there, he continued to support the Chinese democracy movement and in 2011, initiated further pro-democracy protests.[16]

Scientific research


In 1982, Liu received a bachelor's degree in modern mechanics from the University of Science and Technology of China. He was employed by the Aviation Industry Corporation of China in Shenyang in the field of aerodynamics. He worked in partnership with Luo Yang, and was promoted to head of aircraft design. Liu's field of research was the theory of air resistance, and he worked on problems of double-sided entry and radar technology.

In 1984, Liu received a master's degree in optics from the Department of Physics at Peking University in Beijing. While there, he was an assistant teacher.[17] Liu returned to work at the China Soft Science Research Institute but was also acting assistant director at the University of Science and Technology of China.

In 1988, Liu became an assistant and associate researcher at the Wear-Resistant Materials Development Company of the National Ministry of Higher Education & the Dalian Institute of Technology.[citation needed] He was then transferred to research in the Department of Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

United States

In 1996, Liu received a master's degree in computer science from Columbia University. He was invited to speak at the New York Academy of Sciences.[18] Liu gained employment as a member of technical staff (MTS) at the Mathematics of Networks and Systems Research Department at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. There he worked on Optical telecommunication network design and planning, routing algorithms, optimization techniques, and economic models and strategy analysis.[19]

Liu's areas of research included: SPIDER, a design tool for fast-restoration in all-optical networks; VPNStar, a system for provisioning multi-service VPNs with Quality of service guarantees over Internet Protocol; in software design, a management system for Lambda Router in all-optical networks; and analysis of Internet pricing.[20]

During his days at Bell Laboratories, Liu introduced the A*Prune (1999, ISSN 0743-166X) with K. G. Ramakrishnan, to describe a new class of Algorithm. This opened a new research direction in theoretical science. He found that A*Prune is comparable to the current best known-approximate algorithms for most randomly generated graphs. The algorithm constructs paths, starting at the source and going towards the destination. But, at each iteration, the algorithm is rid of all paths that are guaranteed to violate the constraints, thereby keeping only those partial paths that have the potential to be turned into feasible paths, from which the optimal paths are drawn.[21]

Liu also proposed a special class of Optical devices called SPIDER (2001, ISSN 1089-7089); optical routers, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems, and cross-connects of unprecedented capacities. Liu and his colleagues are developing techniques for efficient and reliable optical network design, covering decentralized dedicated protection to shared path-based mesh restoration.[22]

Since 2011, Liu had been involved in a bitter divorce with his former wife, the judge presided the case had declared him mentally unstable, and appointed a custodian guardian to represent him against his wish; among Liu's accusations: his wife was a spy sent by Chinese Communist central committee to monitor him, and his ex-employer Morgan Stanley fired him to appease Chinese government.[23]


  • Liu G. T-Forward Method: a Closed-Form Solution and Strongly Polynomial Time Approach for Convex Nonlinear Programming. Algorithms Research, Elmhurst, New York 2014 3(1):1-25.
  • Liu G. A Mathematic Model for Supply-Demand Equilibrium and the Optimal Solution for Labor Assignment American Journal of Economics, Elmhurst, New York, 2014 4(2):83-98 doi 10.5923/j.economics.20140402.01
  • Liu G. et al. SPIDER: A Simple and Flexible Tool for Design and Provisioning of Protected Lightpaths in Optical Networks[permanent dead link] Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum, Murray Hill, New Jersey, 2001.
  • Liu G. and Ramakrishnan K. G. A*Prune: an Algorithm for Finding K Shortest Paths Subject to Multiple Constraints. Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum 10009626-000302-04TM, Murray Hill, New Jersey, 1999. CiteSeerx10.
  • Liu G. et al. Algorithms for DWDM Mesh Network Design: Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Dedicated Protection, Ring Auto-Recovery and Optical Cross-Connect Restoration in Core Optical Networks. Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum 10009626-000126-01TM, Murray Hill, New Jersey, 1999.
  • Liu G. and Stern T. E. An Algorithm for Optimal Routing and Wavelength Assignment on a Bi-directional Ring Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum BL0112120-990610-10TM, Murray Hill, New Jersey, 1999.


  1. ^ Andrew Jacobs (June 3, 2014). "Tiananmen's Most Wanted". New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2014. 
  2. ^ "From China's Prisons To Columbia's Computers". Columbia University. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Guilt by Association: More Documents from the Chinese Trials. News from Asia Watch. P.2" (PDF). News from Asia Watch. July 25, 1991. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  4. ^ Nicholas D. Kristof (June 3, 2014). "China Arrests Another Student Leader". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  5. ^ Sheryl WuDunn (January 24, 1991). "Democracy Leader on Trial in China". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  6. ^ Sheryl WuDunn (February 7, 1991). "China Tries Another Student for Protests". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  7. ^ Nicholas D. Kristof (September 1, 1992). "Imprisoned China Pro-Democrats Charge Torture". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  8. ^ Nicholas D. Kristof (June 1, 1993). "A Gentler China: A special report.; 4 Years After Tiananmen, The Hard Line is Cracking". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Chinese Government Shows Video Of 4 Prisoners Mentioned by U.S." New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Chinese Said to Detain Dissidents as Parley Nears". New York Times. August 10, 1995. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  11. ^ Patrick E. Tyler (March 6, 1994). "Chinese Take Journalists on Guided Tour of Prison". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  12. ^ "World News Briefs; China Releases Dissident After 6 Years in Prison". New York Times. June 19, 1995. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  13. ^ Steven Erlanger (May 4, 1996). "A Top Dissident Flees China And Is Admitted to the U.S." New York Times. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  14. ^ Richard Bernstein (February 21, 1997). "Chinese Exiles Wonder How Wind Will Blow". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  15. ^ "Liu Gang". Committee of Concerned Scientists. October 3, 1997. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  16. ^ Kathianne Boniello (August 7, 2011). "Torment of Tiananmen". New York Post. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Introduce of the China's 21 "Most Wanted" following Tiananmen Square Massacre". China Daily Mail. June 13, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Wang Dan Press Conference Statement". Human Rights in China. April 23, 1998. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  19. ^ "Introduce of Gang Liu". Bell's Lab. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  20. ^ "Active Research Projects of Gang Liu". Bell's Lab. Archived from the original on 2014-08-06. 
  21. ^ "A*Prune: An Algorithm for Finding K Shortest Paths Subject to Multiple Constraints". Research Gate. August 2001. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  22. ^ Davis, R. Drew; Kumar, K.; Liu, Gang; Sanlee, Iraj (March 2000). "SPIDER: A Simple and Flexible Tool for Design and Provisioning of Protected Lightpaths in Optical Networks". Research Gate. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  23. ^ "Torment of Tiananmen". New York Post. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 

External links

  • — A website solver for Convex Nonlinear Programming
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