List of wildfires

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of wildfires.

Asia

China

  • 1987 – The Black Dragon Fire burnt a total of 72,884 square kilometres (28,141 sq mi) of forest along the Amur river, with three million acres (4687.5 square miles) destroyed on the Chinese side.[1]

Indonesia

During the 1997 Indonesian forest fires 97,000 km2 (37,000 sq mi) of forest were destroyed, more than 2.6 gigatonnes of CO2 was released to the atmosphere. There are other forest fires in Java and Sulawesi on the same year.

  • Huge forest fires that officials deemed as "too furious for human intervention" burned 52,000 hectares of land in Sumatra and 138,000 hectares in Kalimantan. The haze covered countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Burma, Philippines and also Vietnam. In Singapore, some of the 2015 FINA Swimming World Cup's events on 3 October 2015 were cancelled as the PSI was in the 'Unhealthy' range. In Thailand, the haze from Sumatra had turned most parts of southern Thailand such as Narathiwat, Pattani, Phuket, Satun, Songkhla, Surat Thani, Trang and Yala provinces unsightly, even reaching hazardous levels on 7 October. In Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City and other provinces in Southern Vietnam had been enveloped in fog since 4 decembar

Israel

  1. 1989 Mount carmel forest fire
  2. 1995 Jerusalem forest fire[2]
  3. The 2010 Mount Carmel forest fire in Israel, Started on 2 December 2010 and burned 41 km2 of forest, killing as many as 44 people, most of them Israel Prison Service officer cadets, when a bus evacuating them was trapped in flames.
  4. 22 November 2016 Haifa, Zikhron ya'akov, Gilon wildfires

Japan

  • 27 April 1971 – 340 hectares (840 acres) was lost in a forest fire at Kure, western Honshu, Japan. Construction workers were using fire in order to wither weeds when a strong wind moved through the area, fueling the fire; 18 firefighters were killed. The fire lasted for one day.

South Korea

Europe

Croatia

Summer 2017 Croatian Wildfires,is a series of wildfires burning in the Istria to the all Way down to Dalmatia. One Wildfire also entered eastern suburbs of Split. The fire also affected islands of Vir,Pag and few other islands

Germany

Greece

  • 2000 forest fires in Greece, a series of forest fires affected Greece including Agioi Theodoroi and eastern Corinthia at the beginning of July 2000
  • 2005 East Attica Fire in Greece – Forest fires ravaged East Attica on 28 July 2005 from Agia Triada Rafinas to west of Rafina. The fires began at around 11:00 (EET/UTC+3) consuming 70 square kilometers of forests, properties and farmlands. The fire spread quickly after a few hours with winds of up to 55 to 70 km/h and spread near the suburban housings of Athens near Rafina causing dense smoke. The fire reached Kallitechnio and the settlements by around 3:30 (EET) and devastated homes leaving some people homeless and evacuated people in areas around Agia Triada Rafinas, Agia Kyriaki Rafinas, Kallitechnio, Loutsa, Neos Vourtzas and the Rafina area mostly on the hillside areas. Pine trees were devastated. Firefighters didn't put out the blaze until the winds calmed down around 5:00 (EET). It took hundreds of fire trucks, firefighters, planes, 65 firefighting helicopters from all over the surrounding areas and most of Greece to put out the blaze. A stretch of Marathonos Avenue became closed.
  • 29 July 2005 – a day after the enormous Attica fire, another series of fires occurred throughout Greece, entirely in Preveza including Monolithi consuming properties and a campground, Ioannina and Xiromeni of Aetolia-Acarnania.
  • 2007 Greek forest fires
  • 2009 Greek forest fires
  • 2012 Chios forest fire

France

The 1949 Landes Forest Fire burned 50.000 ha of forest land and killed 82 people.

Poland

  • Kuźnia Raciborska fire in Poland burned 90.62 km² of forest and killed two firefighters on 26 August 1992. A third casualty is often mentioned, but she did not die in the fire; she was involved in a collision with a fire engine that skidded.

Portugal

Russia

Spain

  • 17 July 2005 – Guadalajara province, Spain, a 130 km2 forest fire and 11 dead firefighters. The fire brigade unit is not out of post because of this deadly toll. A barbecue sparked deadly blazes.

Sweden

United Kingdom

  • May 2011 – Swinley Forest fire, Berkshire, England. Fire appliances from 12 counties attended over several days due to the large area of the fire. The fire service incident log for the call is over 500 pages long.[6][7]

North America

Canada and the United States

From 2007-17, wildfires burned an average of 6.6 and 6.2 million acres/year in the U.S. and Canada, respectively.[8]

Year Size Name Area Notes
1825 3,000,000 acres (1,200,000 ha) Miramichi Fire New Brunswick Killed 160 people.
1845 150,000 acres (61,000 ha)[9] The Great Fire Oregon
1853 450,000 acres (180,000 ha)[9] The Yaquina Fire Oregon
1868 300,000 acres (120,000 ha)[9] The Coos Fire Oregon
1870 964,000 acres (390,000 ha)[10] Saguenay Fire[11][12] Quebec
1871 1,200,000 acres (490,000 ha) Peshtigo Fire Wisconsin Killed over 1,700 people and has distinction of the conflagration that caused the most deaths by fire in United States history. It was overshadowed by the Great Chicago Fire that occurred on the same day.
1871 2,500,000 acres (1,000,000 ha) The Great Michigan Fire Michigan It was overshadowed by the Great Chicago Fire that occurred on the same day.
1876 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) Bighorny Fire Wyoming
1881 1,000,000 acres (400,000 ha) Thumb Fire Michigan Killed 200+ people
1889 300,000 acres (120,000 ha) Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 California
1894 160,000 acres (65,000 ha) Hinckley Fire Minnesota Killed 418 people and destroyed 12 towns
1898 3,000,000 acres (1,200,000 ha)[9] South Carolina
1903 464,000 acres (188,000 ha) Adirondack Fire New York
1908 64,000 acres

(25,900 ha)

1908 Fernie Fire British Columbia Town of Fernie, BC destroyed. 22 casualties reported. Cause: logging slash.[13]
1910 3,000,000 acres (1,200,000 ha) Great Fire of 1910 Idaho-
Montana-
Washington
Killed 86 people, including 78 firefighters
1911 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) Great Porcupine Fire Ontario Killed 73 people
1916 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) Great Matheson Fire Ontario Killed 228 (U.O. 400+) people and destroyed several towns, Cochrane burnt again after just five years.
1918 100,000 acres (40,000 ha) Cloquet Fire Minnesota-
Wisconsin
Killed between 400 and 500 people
1919 5,000,000 acres

(2,023,000 ha)

Great Fire of 1919 Alberta and Saskatchewan Spanning from Lac La Biche, AB to almost Prince Albert, SK. Village of Lac La Biche destroyed. 300+ people homeless. An estimated $200,000 in property damage.

Cause: drought, high winds, lightning. Forest Fire area burned is an estimation.[14][15]

1922 415,000 acres (168,000 ha) Great Fire of 1922 Ontario Killed 43 people and burnt through 18 townships in the Timiskaming District
1923 Giant Berkley Fire California Leveled 50 city blocks, destroying 624 buildings[9]
1933 Griffith Park Fire California Kills 29 firefighters and injures more than 150[9]
1947 175,000 acres (71,000 ha) The Great Fires of 1947 Maine A series of fires that lasted ten days; 16 people killed
1948 645,000 acres (261,000 ha) Mississagi/Chapleau fire Ontario
1949 4,500 acres (1,800 ha) Mann Gulch fire Montana Killed 13 firefighters
1950 3,500,000 acres (1,400,000 ha) Chinchaga Fire British Columbia and Alberta Largest single North American fire on record. The B.C. portion was just 90,000 ha.[16]
1953 1,300 acres (530 ha) Rattlesnake Fire California Killed 15 firefighters. Well known textbook case used to train firefighters.
1958 558,260 acres (225,920 ha) Kech Fire British Columbia Largest wildfire in BC history[16] until the 2017 Plateau Fire of 521,012 hectares.[17]
1961 16,090 acres (6,510 ha) Bel Air Fire California 484 homes destroyed and ~112 injuries.
1970 175,425 acres (70,992 ha) Laguna Fire California 382 homes destroyed and 8 people killed.
1977 10,000 acres (4,000 ha) Honda Canyon Fire California Vandenberg Air Force Base, 4 people killed including the base commander, and two fire chiefs.[18][19]
1985 93,000 acres (38,000 ha) Allen Fire North Carolina In 1985, nearly 93,000 acres of forest, wetlands and farmland burned in northeastern North Carolina in one of the biggest fires in modern state history[20]
1987 650,000 acres (260,000 ha) Siege of 1987 California-Oregon These fires were started by a large lightning storm in late August. The storm started roughly 1600 new fires, most caused by dry lightning.[21]
1988 793,880 acres (321,270 ha) Yellowstone fires of 1988 Wyoming-
Montana
Never controlled by firefighters; only burned out when a snowstorm hit.
1989 8,105,000 acres

(3,280,000 ha)

The Manitoba Fires Manitoba 1147 wildfires in central and northern Manitoba in the spring & summer of 1989. 24,500 people evacuated from 32 communities. Over 100 homes destroyed. Worst fire season in province's history. Cause: severe drought, human and natural ignition sources.[22]
1991 1,520 acres (620 ha) Oakland Hills firestorm California Killed 25 and destroyed 3469 homes and apartments within the cities of Oakland and Berkeley
1993 14,337 acres (5,802 ha) Laguna Beach Fire California Destroyed 441 homes, burned 14,337 acres causing $528,000,000 in damage.[23]
1994 2,115 acres (856 ha) South Canyon fire Colorado Killed 14 firefighters
1996 37,336 acres (15,109 ha) Miller's Reach Fire Alaska Most destructive wildfire in Alaska history. 344 structures destroyed.
1998 506,000 acres (205,000 ha) 1998 Florida wildfires Florida 4899 fires, burned 342 homes, $390 million timber lost.[24]
1998 14,800 acres

(6,000 ha)

Salmon Arm Wildfire British Columbia Immediately SW of Salmon Arm, BC. Cause was lightning. Approximately 7,000 people evacuated. Over 40 buildings destroyed. It cost about $10,000 to extinguish.[15]
2000 48,000 acres (19,000 ha) Cerro Grande Fire New Mexico Burned about 420 dwellings in Los Alamos, New Mexico, damaged >100 buildings at Los Alamos National Laboratory; $1 billion damage, second worst fire in state's recorded history
2001 9,300 acres (3,800 ha) Thirty Mile Fire Washington Killed 4 firefighters
2002 150,700 acres (61,000 ha) McNally Fire California Largest fire in Sequoia NF history.
2002 467,066 acres (189,015 ha) Rodeo-Chediski fire Arizona Threatened, but did not burn the town of Show Low, Arizona
2002 137,760 acres (55,750 ha) Hayman Fire in Pike National Forest Colorado 5 firefighter deaths, 600 structures fires
2002 499,750 acres (202,240 ha) Florence/Sour Biscuit Complex Fire Oregon 150 million dollars to suppress.
2003 84,750 acres (34,300 ha) Aspen Fire Arizona Destroyed large portions of Summerhaven, Arizona
2003 61,776 acres (25,000 ha) Okanagan Mountain Park Fire British Columbia Displaced 45,000 inhabitants, destroyed 239 homes and threatened urbanized sections of Kelowna.
2003 91,281 acres (36,940 ha) Old Fire California 993 homes destroyed, 6 deaths. Simultaneous with the Cedar Fire.
2003 280,278 acres (113,424 ha) Cedar Fire (2003) California Largest recorded fire in California history (see 1889 Santiago Canyon fire that may have been larger); burned 2,232 homes and killed 15 in San Diego County.
2004 1,305,592 acres (528,354 ha) Taylor Complex Fire Alaska Largest wildfire by acreage of 1997–2007 time period
2006 40,200 acres (16,300 ha) Esperanza Fire California Arson-caused wildfire that killed 5 firefighters and destroyed 34 homes and 20 outbuildings.
2007 564,450 acres (228,420 ha) Sweat Farm Road/Big Turnaround Complex Fire Georgia Largest recorded fire in Georgia history. 26 structures were lost.
2007 124,584 acres (50,417 ha) Florida Bugaboo Fire Florida Largest fire on record in Florida.
2007 363,052 acres (146,922 ha) Milford Flat Fire Utah Largest fire on record in Utah.
2007 653,100 acres (264,300 ha) Murphy Complex Fire IdahoNevada
2007 127,244 acres (51,494 ha) California wildfires of October 2007 California A series of wildfires that killed 9 people and injured 85 (including 61 firefighters). Burned at least 1,500 homes from the Santa Barbara County to the U.S.–Mexico border.
2008 41,534 acres (16,808 ha) Evans Road Wildfire Eastern North Carolina Peat fire started on 1 June by lighting strike during North Carolina's drought – the worst on record.
2008 1,557,293 acres (630,214 ha) Summer 2008 California wildfires California In Northern California, the fires were mostly started by lightning. In Santa Barbara (Southern California), the Gap fire endangered homes and lives. The Basin Complex and Gap fire were the highest priority fires in the state at this time.
2009 164,500 acres (66,600 ha) Brittany Triangle Fire British Columbia Also known as the Lava Canyon fire this was the largest fire in BC in 2009. Started 31 July by lighting this fire made news when it threatened wild horse population.[25]
2009 160,577 acres (64,983 ha) Station Fire California In Angeles National Forest, just north of Los Angeles, the fire was caused by arson.[26]
2010 98,842 acres (40,000 ha) Binta Lake Fire British Columbia BC's largest blaze of 2010, resulted in evacuation orders and alerts. Burned 70,000 acres in a 12-hour period.[16]
2011 538,049 acres (217,741 ha) Wallow Fire Arizona & New Mexico The largest fire in Arizona state history. In one 24-hour burn period (6/6-6/7), it consumed 77769 acres of forest land.
2011 34,000 acres (14,000 ha) Bastrop County Complex fire Texas The worst fire in Texas state history, destroyed over 1500 homes
2011 1,748,636 acres (707,648 ha) Richardson Backcountry Fire Alberta The largest Canadian fire since 1950.
2011 156,293 acres (63,250 ha) Las Conchas Fire New Mexico Second largest fire in New Mexico state history. 63 homes lost. Threatened Los Alamos National Laboratory.
2011 12,000 acres (4,900 ha) Slave Lake Wildfire Alberta Burned through Slave Lake, Alberta, Canada and its surrounding area from 14 May 2011 through 16 May 2011. The fire destroyed roughly one-third of Slave Lake and cost $1.8 billion.
2012 289,478 acres (117,148 ha) Whitewater-Baldy Complex Fire New Mexico Largest wildfire in New Mexico state history. Began in the Gila Wilderness as two separate fires that converged, both started by lightning. Destroyed 12 homes in Willow Creek, NM.
2012 44,330 acres (17,940 ha) Little Bear Fire New Mexico Most destructive wildfire in New Mexico state history. Began in the Lincoln National Forest and was started by lightning.
2012 87,284 acres (35,323 ha) High Park Fire Colorado Started by lightning, it is the second largest wildfire in Colorado state history by size.
2012 18,247 acres (7,384 ha) Waldo Canyon Fire Colorado Rampart Range and West Colorado Springs with 346 homes destroyed primarily in the Mountain Shadows neighborhood, it is the second most destructive fire in state history. Two fatalities reported.
2012 248,000 acres (100,000 ha) Ash Creek Fire[27] Montana
2012 719,694 acres (291,250 ha) Long Draw Fire and Miller Homestead Fire Oregon Oregon's largest fire in 150 years.
2012 332,000 acres (134,000 ha) Mustang Complex Wildfire Idaho [28]
2013 14,198 acres (5,746 ha)[29] Black Forest Fire Colorado North of Colorado Springs, Large, fast-spreading fire due to dry conditions, high heat and restless winds. Destroyed 509 homes and left 17 homes partially damaged. As of 13 June 2013 it became the most destructive fire in Colorado state history.
2013 1,300 acres (530 ha)[30] Yarnell Hill Fire Arizona 19 firefighters killed on 30 June 2013.
2013 617,763 acres (250,000 ha)[31] Quebec Fire Quebec Over 300 evacuated.
2013 253,332 acres (102,520 ha)[32] Rim Fire California Occurred in Yosemite National Park. Biggest wildfire on record in the Sierra Nevada, and third largest wildfire in California history. Started 17 August 2013 and was contained on 24 October 2013.
2014 252,000 acres (102,000 ha)[33] Carlton Complex Fire Washington The largest single wildfire in Washington state history.[34] (Of the 3,000,000 acres Great Fire of 1910, only 150,000 acres were in Washington.)
2014 3,400,000 ha (8,400,000 acres)[35] 2014 Northwest Territories fires Northwest Territories Said to have been the largest set of wildfires in 30 years in the Northwest Territories. Total cost of firefighting was between C$55 and C$56 million compared to the normal budget C$7.5 million. There were no reported deaths.[35][36]
2015 302,224 acres (122,306 ha) Okanogan Complex Washington The largest wildfire complex in Washington state history.[37]
2016 367,620 acres (148,770 ha)[38] Anderson Creek Fire KansasOklahoma Largest wildfire in Kansas history.[39]
2016 1,466,990 acres (593,670 ha)[40][41] Fort McMurray Wildfire AlbertaSaskatchewan Largest fire evacuation in Alberta history (88,000 on 3 May, a further 8,000 on 16 May). Over 2,400 homes and buildings destroyed. Costliest disaster in Canadian history.
2017 1,215,748 hectares (3,004,180 acres)[42] 2017 British Columbia wildfires British Columbia The 2017 BC fire season is notable for three reasons; first, for the largest total area burnt in a fire season in recorded history; second, for the largest number of total evacuees in a fire season (Estimated 45,000 evacuees at peak on Jul 21, 2017); and third, for the largest single fire ever in British Columbia.[43]
2017 506,000 acres (205,000 ha) 2017 Colorado wildfires Colorado Almost 5000 fires, burned almost 400 homes, $390 million timber lost.
2017 52,465 acres (212.32 km2)[44] Cinder Butte Fire Oregon The fire consumed mostly United States Government land administered Bureau of Land Management and some private ranch land.[44] It also threatened some archaeological sites.[45] The fire involved 496 firefighters at its peak.[46]
2017 160,000 acres (650 km2)[47] October 2017 Northern California wildfires California The October 2017 Northern California wildfires were a large group of forest fires that broke out throughout Napa, Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino, Butte, and Solano counties during severe fire weather conditions effectively leading to a major red flag warning from much of the Northern California area. Seventeen separate wildfires were reported during this time.[48]

Greenland

Some wildfires occurred in Greenland in August 2017.[49][further explanation needed]

Oceania

Australia

New Zealand

South America

Bolivia

Chile

See also

References

  1. ^ The Breath of the Black Dragon in Russia and China, The New York Times (1 October 1988)
  2. ^ "Israel's Worst Forest Fire Is Finally Put Out; from google (israel fire 1995) result 3". 
  3. ^ Anna Smolchenko (14 April 2015). "Huge Siberia wildfires kill 26". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  4. ^ {http://www.svd.se/nyheter/inrikes/kraftig-skogsbrand_3797298.svd?sidan=23
  5. ^ Tillbaka (30 November 2015). "Man död i skogsbrand". DN.SE. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  6. ^ "Incident log for Swinley Forest – a Freedom of Information request to Royal Berkshire Fire and Rescue Service". Whatdotheyknow.com. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  7. ^ "Swinley Forest fire 'largest in Berkshire's history'". BBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  8. ^ G.F. (13 October 2017). "Why the North American west is on fire". The Economist. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Large Fires & Fatalities". National Park Service. Retrieved October 11, 2017. 
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2008. 
  11. ^ "Historica Minutes: Saguenay Fire". Histori.ca. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  12. ^ "THE GREAT SAGUENAY FIRE.; Experience of a Sufferer—Fearful Perils of the Survivors—Narrow Escapes—Saved by Plunging in a Spring". The New York Times. 18 July 1870. 
  13. ^ "'Lest we forget': Canada's major wildland fire disasters of the past, 1825–1938" (PDF). Firesmartcanada.ca. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "The Great Fire of 1919" (PDF). Foresthistory.org. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  15. ^ a b "Canada's incendiary past. Fires that have burned their way into Canadian history". Canadageographic.ca. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  16. ^ a b c "Wildfire Status – Province of British Columbia". Bcwildfire.ca. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  17. ^ https://governmentofbc.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=a1e7b1ecb1514974a9ca00bdbfffa3b1
  18. ^ Valencia, Joseph (2004). Beyond Tranquillon Ridge. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781418443320. 
  19. ^ Page, Joseph (2014). Vandenberg Air Force Base. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 66–68. ISBN 9781439648766. Retrieved 19 September 2016. 
  20. ^ McGrath, Gareth (16 June 2008). "Big blaze in Holly Shelter inevitable, officials say". Wilmington Star News. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  21. ^ "Wildland Fire: History Timeline – U.S. National Park Service". Npsd.gov. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  22. ^ "A chronological overview of the 1989 fire season in Manitoba" (PDF). Nofc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca. 
  23. ^ "Laguna Beach Fire: One of the 20 Largest Fires Losses in U.S. History". Portlandoregon.gov. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  24. ^ "Experts don't expect a repeat of Florida's disastrous 1998 wildfire season". USATODAY.com. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  25. ^ "Wildfire Status – Province of British Columbia". Bcwildfire.ca. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  26. ^ https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/1856/
  27. ^ "Dead cattle, devastation in wake of Western fires". The Big Story. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  28. ^ "Idaho wildfire roars through former uranium mine site". Reuters. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  29. ^ Gorski, Eric (17 June 2013). "Black Forest fire near Colorado Springs at 75% containment". Denver Post. 
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  31. ^ "Massive wildfire threatens northern Quebec Cree community – North – CBC News". Cbc.ca. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  32. ^ "RIM FIRE UPDATE". Facebook. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  33. ^ ":Carlton Complex Fire". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  34. ^ "Crews Make Progress Controlling Largest Fire In Washington State's History". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  35. ^ a b 2014 N.W.T. fire season report: What you need to know
  36. ^ Worst forest fires in 30 years cost N.W.T. $55M
  37. ^ "Okanogan Complex is largest wildfire in state history". King5.com. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  39. ^ "Largest Wildfire In Kansas History Continues To Burn". Npr.org. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  40. ^ "Provincial Active Fires Report". Wildfire.alberta.ca. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  41. ^ "Alberta Sustainable Resource Development – Wildfire Management : Wildfire Situation Summary Report" (PDF). Wildfire.alberta.ca. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  42. ^ "Current Statistics". 
  43. ^ "B.C. surpasses worst wildfire season on record — and threat is far from over". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-08-18. 
  44. ^ a b "Cinder Butte Fire", Evening news release, InciWeb Incident Information System, Burns District, Bureau of Land Management, Hines, Oregon, 8 August 2017/8:46 pm.
  45. ^ Guevarra, Ericka Cruz, "Cinder Butte Fire Threatens Tribal Archaeological Sites", Oregon Public Broadcasting, Portland, Oregon, 6 August 2017.
  46. ^ "Fire Activity Slows Over Weekend", The Bulletin, Bend, Oregon, 8 August 2017, p. 2.
  47. ^ "October 2017 Northern California wildfires", Latest fire update as of 11:00am PST on 12 October, 2017.
  48. ^ Fuller, Thomas; Bromwich, Jonah Engel; Turkewitz, Julie (October 10, 2017). "Wildfires Sweep Across Northern California; 13 Are Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2017. 
  49. ^ http://www.climatecentral.org/news/wildfire-burning-greenland-21686
  50. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-16368185
  51. ^ Bonnefoy, Pascale; Chan, Sewell (25 January 2017). "'The Greatest Forest Disaster in Our History': Wildfires Tear Through Chile" – via NYTimes.com. 

External links

  • City of West Covina Natural Hazard Mitigation Plan: Section 9 Wildfire
  • FlameMapper's Historic Fires
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