List of wars involving Mongolia

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The following is an incomplete list of major wars fought by Mongolia, by Mongolian people or regular armies during periods when independent Mongolian states existed, from antiquity to the present day.

The list gives the name, the date, combatants, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

  Mongolian victory
  Mongolian defeat
  Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive)
  Ongoing conflict

Xiongnu

This section contains list of wars involving Xiongnu and its state located on the territory of modern Mongolia.

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
9th century BC Xiongnu raid on the Zhou Xiongnu Zhou Dynasty Defeat
4th–3rd century BC Xiongnu raid on the Zhao Xiongnu Zhao (state) Defeat
215 BC Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu Xiongnu Qin Dynasty Defeat
209 BC The war against Donghu Xiongnu Donghu Victory
200 BC Battle of Baideng Xiongnu Han Dynasty Victory
3rd century BC The first war against Yuezhi Xiongnu Yuezhi Different results
2nd century BC The second war against the Yuezhi Xiongnu Yuezhi Victory
133 BC – 89 AD Han–Xiongnu War Xiongnu Han Dynasty Defeat
48–55 War of Northern and Southern Xiongnu Northern Xiongnu Southern Xiongnu Stabilization of relations

Mongolian Tribes

This section contains list of wars involving Xianbei, Wuhuan, Wusun and other Mongol tribes.

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
2nd century Wuhuan Uprising Wuhuan Northern Xiongnu Wuhuan Victory
93 Battle of Ikh Bayan Xianbei Xiongnu Xianbei Victory.
97–130 Raids on cities Liaodong Peninsula Xianbei Han Dynasty Unclear
117 Xianbei Conflict with Wusun Xianbei Wusun Xianbei Defeat.
119 Raid on Ma-chen-sai Xianbei Xiongnu Defeat.
122 The attack on Yanmen and Dingxiang Xianbei Han Dynasty Defeat.
123 Attack's on Southern Xiongnu Xianbei Xiongnu Victory
155 Dismemberment Xiongnu Xianbei
Han Dynasty
Xiongnu Victory. Xiongnu destroyed on four parts.
2nd century Xianbei-Buyeo conflict Xianbei Buyeo Victory
2nd century Tanshihuay's campaign against Wusun Xianbei Wusun Xianbei Victory
177 Xia Yu, Tian Yan and Tsang Ming campaign against Xianbei. Xianbei Han Dynasty Victory
2nd–3rd century Helyan's raid on China. Xianbei Han Dynasty Defeat.

Rouran Khaganate

This section contains list of wars involving Rouran Khaganate

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
508–540 Rouran-Tiele people wars Rouran Khaganate Tiele people Victory.
554–555 Rouran-Turkic war Rouran Khaganate Turkic Khaganate Defeat. Destruction of Rouran Khaganate.

Liao Empire|Liao Dynasty

This section contains list of wars involving Liao Dynasty

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
906–926 The conquest of the Balhae State Liao Dynasty Balhae Victory. Destruction of Balhae State.
923–936 The proxy war with the Later Tang Liao Dynasty Later Tang Victory
993 First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War Liao Dynasty Kingdom of Goryeo Victory
1010–1011 Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War Liao Dynasty Kingdom of Goryeo Victory
1019 Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War Liao Dynasty Kingdom of Goryeo Defeat
1114–1125 Jin-Khitan war Liao Dynasty Jin dynasty (1115–1234) Defeat. Liao Empire destroyed.

Mongol Empire

This section contains list of wars involving Mongol Empire

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1201 Battle of Dalan Balzhat Genghis Khan Jamukha Genghis Khan Defeat
1201 Battle of the Thirteen sides Genghis Khan Jamukha Genghis Khan Victory
1201–1205 Conquest Forest Peoples Mongols Forest Peoples Victory
1205–1210 Mongol conquest of Western Xia Mongols Western Xia Victory
1209 Mongol invasion of Kingdom of Qocho Mongol Empire Kingdom of Qocho Victory
1211–1234 Mongol conquest of the Jin Empire Mongol Empire Jin Empire Victory
1216–1218 Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai Mongol Empire Qara Khitai Victory
1220–1223 The Mongol conquest of Cumania Mongol Empire Kipchaks Victory
1220–1238 Mongol invasions of Georgia Mongol Empire Kingdom of Georgia Victory
1220–1236 Mongol invasions of Armenia Mongol Empire Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Victory
1221–1225 First Mongol invasions of India Mongol Empire Punjab
Sindh
Kerman
Victory
1223–1240 Mongol invasion of Rus Mongol Empire Vladimir-Suzdal
Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia
Novgorod Republic
Smolensk
Rostov
Chernigov
Ryazan
Pereyaslavl
Victory
1223, 1229–1230, 1236 The Mongol invasions of Volga Bulgaria Mongol Empire Volga Bulgaria Victory
1225–1227 Punitive expedition in Western Xia Mongol Empire Western Xia Victory
1231 First Mongol invasion of Korea Mongol Empire Kingdom of Goryeo Eventual Victory
1232 Second Mongol invasion of Korea Mongol Empire Kingdom of Goryeo Defeat
1235–1239 Third Mongol invasion of Korea Mongol Empire Kingdom of Goryeo Victory
14th century Mongol invasion of Tibet Mongol Empire Tibet Victory.
1235–1279 Mongol conquest of the Song Empire Mongol Empire Song dynasty Victory
1235–1241 Mongol conquest of Kashmir Mongol Empire Kashmir
Deli Sultanate
Victory
1237–1253 First Mongol invasions of Dzurdzuketia Mongol Empire Chechens
Ingush
Ossetians
Lezgins
Avars
Alans
Defeat
1240–1241 First Mongol invasion of Poland Mongol Empire Kingdom of Poland
Holy Roman Empire
Knights Templar
Teutonic Knights
Knights Hospitaller
Victory
1241–1243 Mongol invasion of Anatolia Mongol Empire Sultanate of Rum
Georgian auxiliaries
Trapezuntine auxiliaries
Latin mercenaries
Victory
1242 First Mongol invasion of Hungary Mongol Empire Kingdom of Hungary Victory
1242 Mongol invasion of the Bulgarian Empire Mongol Empire Bulgarian Empire Defeat
1242 Mongol invasion of Serbia Mongol Empire Serbia Victory
1242 Fourth Mongol invasion of Korea Mongol Empire Kingdom of Goryeo Victory
1253 Second Mongol invasions of Dzurdzuketia Mongol Empire Chechens
Ingush
Ossetians
Lezgins
Avars
Alans
Victory
1253 Mongolian conquest of Dali Kingdom Mongol Empire Dali Kingdom Victory
1254–1255 Kashmir uprising Mongol Empire Kashmir rebels Uprising crushed
1255 Fifth the Mongol invasion of Korea Mongol Empire Kingdom of Goryeo Victory
1257–1258 The Mongol invasion in the Abbasid Caliphate Mongol Empire Abbasid Caliphate Victory
1257–1258 First Mongol invasion of Delhi Sultanate Mongol Empire Delhi Sultanate Peaceful agreement
1257–1258 Dai Viet-Mongol War Mongol Empire Tran Dynasty
Champa
Defeat
1258 Sixth Mongol invasion of Korea Mongol Empire Kingdom of Goryeo Peaceful agreement
1259–1260 Second Mongol invasion of Poland Mongol Empire Polish states Victory
1260 The Mongol invasion of Syria Ilkhanate of the Mongol Empire
Kingdom of England
Knights Templar
Golden Horde of the Mongol Empire (1259–1264)
Mamluk Sultanate
Ayyubids
Golden Horde of the Mongol Empire (after 1264)
Karamanid rebels
Abbasid Caliphate
Military Defeat
1274 First Mongol invasion of Japan Mongol Empire Kamakura Japan Defeat
1281 Second Mongol invasion of Japan Mongol Empire Kamakura Japan Defeat
1293–1298 Second Mongol invasion of Delhi Sultanate Mongol Empire Delhi Sultanate Defeat

Mongolian States

This section contains list of wars involving different Mongolian states existed between the 13th and 14th centuries.

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1252–1254 Kuremsa raid on South Volyn Golden Horde Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Defeat
1275–1276 Ruthenians and Mongols winter raid to Lithuania Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Golden Horde
Grand Duchy of Lithuania Defeat
1262 Berke–Hulagu war Golden Horde Ilkhanate Inconclusive
1268–1301 Kaidu–Kublai war Yuan dynasty
Ilkhanate
Chagatai Khanate
Golden Horde
Inconclusive
1277–1278 First Mongol invasion of Burma Yuan dynasty Pagan Empire Victory
1282–1284 The Mongol invasion of Champa Yuan dynasty Champa Military Defeat
1285 Dai Viet-Mongol War Yuan dynasty Tran dynasty Military Defeat
1285–1286 Second Mongol invasion of Hungary Golden Horde Kingdom of Hungary Defeat
1287–1288 Third Mongol invasion of Poland Golden Horde
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Hungary
Defeat
1287–1288 Third Mongol invasion of Vietnam Yuan dynasty Tran dynasty Defeat
1287–1288 Mongol invasion of Java Yuan dynasty Majapahit Empire
Kingdom of Singhasari
Kediri Kingdom
Defeat
1351–1368 Red Turban Rebellion Yuan dynasty Red Turban Army Defeat.Destruction of Yuan dynasty.
1380 Combining Blue-Horde and White-Horde Wings of the Golden Horde Wings of the Golden Horde Inconclusive
1380s and early 1390s Tokhtamysh–Timur war Golden Horde Timurid Empire Defeat
1380–1480 The overthrow of the Mongol domination in Moscow Golden Horde Grand Duchy of Moscow Defeat

Post-imperial Mongolia

This section contains list of wars involving different post-imperial Mongolian states (Northern Yuan Dynasty, Dzungar Khanate, Four Oirat)

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1388–1399 Rise of the Oirats Northern Yuan Dynasty Four Oirat Defeat. Creating a Western Mongolian state
1409 Battle of Kherlen Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Victory
1409–1412 First campaign Yongle Emperor's against the Mongols Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Defeat
1413–1414 Second campaign Yongle Emperor's against the Mongols Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Defeat
1422 Third campaign Yongle Emperor's against the Mongols Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Defeat
1423 Fourt campaign Yongle Emperor's against the Mongols Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Defeat
1424 Fifth campaign Yongle Emperor's against the Mongols Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Defeat
1449 Tumu Crisis Oirats Ming Dynasty Victory
1479–1510 Second concatenate Mongolian tribes Dayan Khan coalition Various Taishis Victory. Unification of the Mongols
1500–1501 Raid Dayan Khan on Ningxia Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Defeat
1501–1507 Northern Yuan-Ming Dynasty War Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Eventual Victory
1538 Uriankhai uprising Northern Yuan Dynasty Uriankhai The revolt is suppressed
1542 Dayan Khan deathbed clash with Chinese troops Northern Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Victory
1600–1635 Manchu conquest of Northern Yuan Northern Yuan Dynasty Later Jin Defeat. The Fall of the Northern Yuan.
1652–1718 Zunghar-Kazakh War Dzungar Khanate Kazakh Khanate Initial victory, later defeat
1687–1698 First Dzungar-Manchu War Dzungar Khanate Qing dynasty Defeat
1668 Siege of Selenga prison Mongol Tribes
Qing dynasty
Cossack
Tsardom of Russia
Defeat
1715–1739 Second Dzungar-Manchu War Dzungar Khanate Qing dynasty Peaceful agreement
1755–1759 Third Dzungar-Manchu War Dzungar Khanate Qing dynasty Defeat. Capture Dzungar Khanate.

Beginning of the 20th century

This section contains list of wars involving different Mongolian states existed in the first half of the 20th century (Mongolia (1911–24), Buryat-Mongolia, Tuva).

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1911 Mongolian Revolution of 1911 Mongolia (1911–24) Qing dynasty Victory. Establishment of an independent Mongolian state.
1914–1915 Releasing the Inner Mongolia Mongolia (1911–24) China Defeat.
1917–1923 Russian Civil WarEastern Front of the Russian Civil War Buryat-Mongolia
Green Ukraine
White Movement
Red Army
Defeat.
1919–1921 Occupation of Mongolia Mongolia (1911–24)
Buryat-Mongolia
White Movement
China Defeat.
* Mongolia military defeat
* Asiatic Cavalry Division liberated Mongolia of 1921
1921 Mongolian Revolution of 1921 Mongolia (1911–24)
White Movement
Mongolian partisans
Red Army
The defeat of the government forces.
* Creation of the Mongolian People's Republic

Mongolian People's Republic

This section contains list of wars involving Mongolian People's Republic (and Japanese puppet state Inner Mongolia)

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1935–1937 Demchugdongrub invasion of Suiyuan Inner Mongolian independence movement
 Empire of Japan
 Manchukuo
 Republic of China Defeat
1939 Battles of Khalkhin Gol  Mongolian People's Republic
 Soviet Union
 Empire of Japan
 Manchukuo
Victory
1939–1945 World War II Allies of World War II
 Soviet Union
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China
 France
 Poland
 Canada
 Australia
 New Zealand
 British Malaya
 British Burma
 India
 South Africa
 Yugoslavia
 Greece
 Denmark
 Norway
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Luxembourg
 Czechoslovakia
 Brazil
 Mexico
 Ethiopia
 Cuba
 Mongolian People's Republic
 Commonwealth of the Philippines
North Vietnam Viet Minh
Korea KLA
Axis powers
 Nazi Germany
 Empire of Japan
 Kingdom of Italy
 Italian Social Republic
Vichy France Vichy France
 Kingdom of Hungary
 Kingdom of Romania
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Iraq
 Finland
 Thailand
 Manchukuo
 Mengjiang
 Independent State of Croatia
 Slovak Republic (1939–1945)
Myanmar Burma
India Azad Hind
 KHM Kingdom of Kampuchea
 Laos Kingdom of Laos
Empire of Vietnam
 Second Philippine Republic
Russian Empire White Movement
 Albania
Victory
1946–1948 Battle of Baitag Bogd  Mongolia Mongolian People's Republic
 Soviet Union
 China Military Defeat

Sources

  • https://www.legendtour.ru/rus/mongolia/history/history.shtml
  • http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/HPH/index.html
  • http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/MAC/mac03.htm#para18
  • http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Altera/xianbei.html
  • http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/China/Bicurin/Sobr_sved_o_narodach/Tom_I/frametext4.htm
  • http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/china.htm
  • https://www.amazon.com/Secret-History-Mongol-Queens-Daughters/dp/0307407152/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1263523455&sr=1-1
  • http://www.litmir.net/br/?b=160749&p=
  • http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/China/XIII/1220-1240/Pen_Da_ja_Suj_Tin/frametext.htm
  • http://www.dk1868.ru/statii/Tstvetkov6.htm
  • http://kamsha.ru/journal/analitycs/mongolia.html

References

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