List of wars involving Iran

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The following is an historical overview of the list of wars and conflicts involving Iran (Persia). This list is far from complete.

Conflict Iran
and allies
Opponents Results
Median Empire
(678–549 BC)
Battle of Nineveh
(612 BC)
Medes
Babylonia
Assyrian Empire Victory
  • Destruction of Assyria's capital

Founding of Neo-Babylonian Empire

Fall of Assur
(614 BC)
Medes
Babylonia
Assyrian Empire Victory
Battle of Eclipse
(585 BC)
Medes Kingdom of Lydia Undecided
Battle of Hyrba
(552 BC)
Medes Persis Decisive Persian victory
Battle of the Persian border
(551 BC)
Medes Persis Victory
  • Persian retreat to Pasargadae
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 BC)
Persian Revolt
(552–549 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persis Median Empire Victory
  • By conquering Media, Iran became an empire.
Conquest of Lydia
(547 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Lydian Empire Victory
  • Lydia annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Babylonia
(540–539 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Victory
  • Neo-Babylonian Empire annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Egypt
(525 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Kingdom of Egypt Victory
  • Egypt annexed by Iran.
European Scythian camopaign
(513 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Scythians in European Scythia Expansive stalemate
  • Achaemenid domination of the European Black Sea regions.
Greco-Persian Wars
(499–449 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Greek city states
Delian League
Defeat
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC)
Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) Supported by:
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire
Delian League (led by Athens) Victory
  • Dissolution of the Delian League. Spartan hegemony over Athens and its allies.
Battle of Cunaxa
(401 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Cyrus the Younger Victory
Corinthian War
(395–387 BC)
Athens
Argos
Corinth
Thebes
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire
Other allies
Sparta
Peloponnesian League
Peace treaty dictated by Iran (Peace of Antalcidas)
Artaxerxes' II Cadusian Campaign
(385 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Cadusii Defeat, but diplomatic success
  • Negotiated peace with rival chiefs.
Revolt of the Satraps
(372–362 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Rebel satrapies Victory
  • Rebellions chrushed.
Battle of Pelusium (343 BC)
(343 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Egypt Victory
  • Egypt is conquered for a second time by Iran.
Macedon invasion of Iran
(355–328 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Macedon Defeat
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE–224 B)
Seleucid–Parthian Wars
(238 BC–129 BC)
Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Victory
  • Expulsion of the Seleucids from Iran.
Armenian–Parthian War
(87–85 BC)
Parthian Empire Kingdom of Armenia Defeat
Roman–Parthian Wars
(66 AD–217 AD)
Parthian Empire
Kingdom of Armenia
Roman Republic
Pontus
Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Sassanid Empire
(224–651)
Roman-Sassanid Wars
(232–440)
Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Byzantine–Sassanid Wars
(502–628)
Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Ethiopian–Persian Wars
(570–578)
Sassanid Empire Kingdom of Aksum Victory
First Perso-Turkic War
(588–589)
Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire
Göktürks
Victory
  • The Sassanids captured Balkh.
Second Perso-Turkic War
(588–589)
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Hephthalite Empire
Victory
  • Turkic invasion of Iran repelled.
Third Perso-Turkic War
(627–629)
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Byzantine Empire
Defeat
Muslim conquest of Persia
(633–644)
Sassanid Empire
Arab Christians
Rashidun Caliphate Defeat
Saffarid Dynasty
(861–1003)
Ghaznavid Dynasty
(962–1186)
Seljuq Empire
(1037–1194)
Battle of Manzikert
(1071)
Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire Victory
Byzantine–Seljuq wars
(1048–1308)
Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire
Empire of Trebizond
Crusader states
Victory
  • Most of Anatolia conquered by the Seljuks.
Khwarazmian Dynasty
(1077–1231)
Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
(1218–1221)
Khwarazmian dynasty Mongol Empire Defeat
  • Khwarezmia added to the Mongol Empire.
Timurid Dynasty
(1370–1507)
Campaigns of Timur
(1380–1402)
Timurid.svg Timurid dynasty Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Muzaffarids
Jalayirid Sultanate
Tughlaq dynasty
Victory
Timurid Civil Wars
(1405–~1501)
Timurid.svg Various factions Timurid.svg Various factions Collapse of the dynasty
Safavid Dynasty
(1501–1736)
Persian-Uzbek Wars
(1502–1510)
Flag of Persia (1502-1524).svg Safavid dynasty Shaybanids Victory
  • Fall of the Shaybanid Empire.
Battle of Chaldiran
(1514)
Flag of Persia (1502-1524).svg Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Defeat
  • End of Shia uprisings in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1523
(1532–1555)
Flag of Shah Tahmasp I.svg Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578
(1578–1590)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty
Coat of arms of Kartli Georgia.png Kingdom of Kartli
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1603
(1603–1618)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Victory
Mughal–Safavid War of 1622
(1622–1623)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Mughal Empire Victory
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623
(1623–1639)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Defeat
Mughal–Safavid War of 1649
(1649–1653)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty
War flag of Khanate of Bukhara.svg Khanate of Bukhara
Mughal Empire Victory
Russo-Persian War of 1651
(1651–1653)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty  Russia Victory
  • Russian fortress on the Iranian side of the Terek River destroyed, and its garrison expelled.
Hotaki-Safavid War
(1709–~1722)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Black flag.svg Hotaki dynasty Regime change
  • Afghan control of most of Iran.
Omani Invasion of Bahrain
(1717)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Imamate of Oman Defeat
  • Omani victory, Bahrain sold back to the Safavids.
Russo-Persian War of 1722
(1722–1723)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty  Russian Empire
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Знамено Картлі.gif Georgia
Coat of arms of Gyulistan.jpg Melikdoms of Karabakh and Armenian rebels
Defeat
Safavid-Hotaki War
(1726–1729)
Black flag.svg Hotaki dynasty Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty[1] Regime change
  • End of the Afghan rule in Persia.
Afsharid Dynasty
(1736–1796)
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1730
(1730–1735)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Victory
  • Persian reconquest of the entire Caucasus.
Nadir Shah's invasion of India
(1738–1739)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty   Mughal Empire Victory
  • Persian plundering of India.
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1743
(1743–1746)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Civil War between Afsharid and Qajar
(1747–1796)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar Dynasty Regime change
Qajar Dynasty
(1785–1925)
Battle of Krtsanisi
(1795)
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti.svg Kartli-Kakheti
Imereti - drosha.svg Imereti
Victory
Persian Expedition
(1796)
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar dynasty  Russian Empire Victory
  • Tactical Russian withdrawal from Iran.
Russo-Persian War of 1804
(1804–1813)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar dynasty  Russian Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Persian War of 1821
(1821–1823)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar dynasty  Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Russo-Persian War of 1826
(1826–1828)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar dynasty  Russian Empire Defeat
  • Treaty of Turkmenchay. Iran irrevocably cedes the remainder of its Caucasus territories comprising parts of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic that were not ceded yet in 1813, as well as all of what is nowadays the Republic of Armenia.
Siege of Herat
(1838)
Mohammad Shah Qajar Flag.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Afghanistan Defeat
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
Amir Kabir Flag.svg Qajar dynasty United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg East India Company
Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Afghanistan
Defeat
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Persian Campaign
(1914–1918)
Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg Qajar dynasty  Russian Empire
 British Empire
 British Raj
Stalemate
Pahlavi Dynasty
(1925–1979)
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
(1941)
State Flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg Iran  Soviet Union
United Kingdom United Kingdom
 India
Defeat
Iran-Azerbaijan Crisis
(1945–1946)
State Flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg Iran Mahabad
Azerbaijan
Victory
Dhofar Rebellion
(1973–1976)[2]
State Flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg Iran
 Oman
PFLOAG
PFLO
Victory
  • Defeat of insurgents, modernization of Oman.
Islamic Republic of Iran
(1979–)
Iran–Iraq War
(1980–1988)
 Iran
KDP
PUK
Badr Brigades
Iraq Iraq
MEK
PDKI
Stalemate
Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency
(2004–present)
 Iran Jundallah (Iran) Ongoing
Iran–PJAK Conflict
(2004–present)
 Iran
 Turkey
PJAK Ongoing
  • Clashes renew in 2013.
Syrian Civil War
(2011–present)
Syria Syria
Single Color Flag - FFFF00.svg Hezbollah
 Iran
 Russia
Syria Free Syrian Army
Islamic Front
al-Nusra Front
Islamic State
Ongoing
  • Rebel and Islamist uprising in much of Syria
  • Much of Syria controlled by the Islamic State.
Iraqi Civil War
(2014–present)
 Iraq
 Iraqi Kurdistan
 Iran
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq
Badr Organization
Hezbollah
Kata'ib Hezbollah
Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant Ongoing
  • Iran launches airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq.
  • Iranian military troops engage ISIL on ground.
  • Much of Iraq controlled by the Islamic State.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ De facto ruled by Nader Shah.
  2. ^ The rebellion started already in 1962, but Iran did not intervene before 1973.

External links

  • BBC WW2 People's War - Persia Invaded
  • The Document Collection on the 1945–46 Iranian Crisis at the Cold War International History Project
  • Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq: Symbol of Iranian Nationalism and Struggle Against Imperialism by the Iran Chamber Society
  • GlobalSecurity.org
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