List of wars involving India

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Part of a series on the
History of India
Satavahana gateway at Sanchi, 1st century CE

This is a historical overview of armed conflicts involving India.

Wars in the Indian subcontinent

The following is an exhaustive list of wars and conflicts that were fought in the historic Indian subcontinent. The wars listed below involve three of the prominent empires to rule over the subcontinent — The Mauryas, Mughals and the Marathas. The Company rule in India is also included.

Maurya Empire (322 BCE–185 BCE)
Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Conquest of the Nanda Empire
(321 BCE–320 BCE)
Maurya Empire Nanda Empire Maurya victory
Seleucid–Mauryan war
(305 BCE–303 BCE)
Maurya Empire Seleucid Empire Maurya victory
  • Maurya annexation of all of the Macedonian Satrapies in the Indus River Valley
  • 500 war elephants given to Seleucus
  • Marriage between Mauryan and Seleucid families
Kalinga War
(262 BCE–261 BCE)
Maurya Empire Kalinga Maurya victory
  • Maurya annexation of Kalinga
Mughal Empire (1526–1857)
Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Mughal-Rajput War (1525)
(1525)
Mughal Empire Rajputs Mughal victory
  • Expansion of Mughal influence in Punjab
First Battle of Panipat
(1526)
Mughal Empire Delhi Sultanate Mughal victory
  • Delhi Sultanate annexed by Mughals
  • Foundation of the Mughal Empire
Battle of Ghaghra
(1529)
Mughal Empire Sultanate of Bengal Mughal victory
  • Bihar annexed by the Mughals
Ahom–Mughal conflicts
(1615–1682)
Mughal Empire Ahom insignia plain.svg Ahom kingdom Ahom victory
  • Extension of Ahom influence to the Manas river
Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23)
(1622–1623)
Mughal Empire Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Persian victory
  • Safavid/Persian annexation of Kandahar
Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23)
(1649–1653)
Mughal Empire Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Persian victory
  • Safavid/Persian re-annexation of Kandahar
Mughal conquest of Chittagong
(1665–1666)
Mughal Empire Kingdom of Mrauk U Mughal naval and military victory
  • Mughal annexation of southeastern Bengal
Tibet-Ladakh-Mughal war of 1679-1684
(1679–1684)
Ladakh
Mughal Empire
Tibet
Zungar Empire
Mughal military victory
  • Mughal withdrawal after signing a treaty with the Ladakhis

Tibetan victory in another attack in 1684 with the assistance of reinforcements from the Zungar Empire

  • Treaty of Tingmosgang
Deccan Wars
(1681–1707)
Mughal Empire  Maratha Empire Maratha victory
  • Permanent end to Mughal expansion in Deccan/Peninsular India
Child's War
(1686–1690)
Mughal Empire East India Company Mughal victory
  • British conclusion of peace with the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1689
Nadir Shah's invasion of India
(1738–1739)
Mughal Empire Nadir Shah Flag.svg Afsharid dynasty Persian victory
  • Persian occupation and plundering of Delhi
Battle of Karnal
(1739–February 13, 1739)
Mughal Empire Nadir Shah Flag.svg Persian Afsharid Empire Persian victory
Siege of Trichinopoly (1741)
(1741)
Mughal Empire  Maratha Empire Maratha victory
Expeditions in Bengal
(1741–1748)
Mughal Empire  Maratha Empire Maratha victory
  • Maratha annexation of the territory up to the river Suvarnarekha from Bengal
Seven Years' War
(1754–1763)
 France

Austria Austria
Russian Empire Russia (until 1762)
Spain Spanish Empire (from 1761)
Sweden Sweden (1757–62)
 Saxony
  Mughal Empire (from 1757)

 Prussia

 Great Britain
Province of Hanover Hanover
Armoiries de La Falloise.svg Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Flag of the Iroquois Confederacy.svg Iroquois Confederacy
Portugal (from 1761)
Flag of Hesse.svg Hesse-Kassel
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Schaumburg-Lippe

Status quo ante in Europe, but transfer of colonial possessions between Britain, France and Spain
  • French cession of New France (excluding Louisiana) to Britain and recognition of British supremacy in Bengal
  • Spanish cession of Florida to Britain
  • French cession of Louisiana to Spain
  • British cession of Cuba and Manilla (Philippine Islands) to Spain
Indian Rebellion of 1857
(1857–1858)
Mughal Empire
 Maratha Empire
Company Raj British victory
  • Suppression of the rebellions
  • End of Mughal, Company and Maratha rule in India
  • Formation of the British Raj/Empire of India
Maratha Empire (1674–1818)
Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Deccan Wars
(1681–1707)
 Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Maratha victory
  • Permanent end to Mughal expansion in Deccan/Peninsular India
Battle of Vasai
(1739)
 Maratha Empire Flag of Portugal (1707).svg Portuguese Empire Maratha victory
Siege of Trichinopoly (1741)
(1741)
 Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Maratha victory
Expeditions in Bengal
(1741–1748)
 Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Maratha victory
  • Maratha annexation of the territory up to the river Suvarnarekha from Bengal
Maratha conquest of North-west India
(1757–1758)
 Maratha Empire Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Durrani Empire Maratha victory
First Anglo-Mysore War
(1767–1769)
Company Raj
 Maratha Empire
Nawab of the Carnatic
Hyderabad
 Mysore 'Stalemate
First Anglo-Maratha War
(1775–1782)
 Maratha Empire Company Raj Maratha victory
Maratha-Mysore War
(1785–1787)
 Maratha Empire  Mysore Maratha victory
  • Treaty of Gajendragad
Third Anglo-Mysore War
(1789–1792)
Company Raj
 Maratha Empire
Hyderabad
Travancore
 Mysore Maratha-Hyderabad-British victory
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
(1798–1799)
Company Raj
 Maratha Empire
Hyderabad
Travancore
 Mysore Maratha-Hyderabad-British victory
Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1803–1805)
 Maratha Empire Company Raj British victory
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818)
 Maratha Empire Company Raj British victory
Indian Rebellion of 1857
(1857–1858)
Mughal Empire
 Maratha Empire
Company Raj British victory
  • Suppression of the rebellions
  • End of Mughal, Company and Maratha rule in India
  • Formation of the British Raj
Company rule in India (1757–1858)
Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Battle of Plassey
(1757)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India Coat of Arms of Nawabs of Bengal.PNG Nawab of Bengal
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg French East India
Victory
  • British annexation of Bengal
Battle of Buxar
(1764)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India Mughal Empire Victory
First Anglo-Mysore War
(1767–1769)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India
 Maratha Empire
Nawab of the Carnatic
Hyderabad
 Mysore Stalemate
First Anglo-Maratha War
(1775–1782)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India  Maratha Empire Defeat
Second Anglo-Mysore War
(1779–1784)
 Great Britain

 Hanover

 Mysore
 France
 Dutch Republic
Defeat
Third Anglo-Mysore War
(1789–1792)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India
Maratha Empire
Hyderabad
Former Travancore flag-Martanda Varma.png Travancore
 Mysore Victory
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
(1798–1799)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India  Mysore Victory
  • British annexation of Mysore
Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1803–1805)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India  Maratha Empire Victory
Anglo-Nepalese War
(1814–1816)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India
Flag of Tehri Garhwal.svg Garhwal Kingdom
Patiala flag.svg Patiala State
Flag of Nepal (19th century-1962).svg Nepal Victory
Capture of East India Company ship Nautilus
(1815)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India United States United States Defeat
  • Capture of Nautilus by American forces
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India  Maratha Empire Victory
First Anglo-Burmese War
(1824–1826)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg Burmese Empire Victory
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–1842)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Emirate of Afghanistan Defeat
First Opium War
(1839–1842)
 Great Britain  Qing dynasty Victory
First Anglo-Sikh War
(1845–1846)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India
 Patiala
 Sikh Empire Victory
Second Anglo-Sikh War
(1848–1849)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India  Sikh Empire Victory
Second Anglo-Burmese War
(1852)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg Burmese Empire Victory
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Afghanistan

Amir Kabir Flag.svg Iran Victory
Indian Rebellion of 1857
(1857–1858)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Company rule in India
United Kingdom British Army
Mughal Empire
 Maratha Empire
Victory
  • Suppression of the rebellions
  • End of Mughal, Company and Maratha rule in India
  • Formation of the British Raj

British India (1858–1947)

Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India company came to end and the British crown now began to rule over India directly as per the Government of India Act 1858 through the British Raj. India was now a single empire comprising British India and the Princely states.

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Second Opium War
(1856–1860)
United Kingdom British Empire

French Empire

 China Victory
Ambela Campaign
(1863–1864)
 India Afghan Pashtuns
Yusufzai tribes
Victory
  • Bunerwals surrender.
  • Malka burned.
Bhutan War
(1864–1865)
 India Flag of Bhutan (1949-1956).svg Bhutan Victory
  • Bhutanese territorial cessions to India.
British Expedition to Abyssinia
(1867–1868)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg Ethiopian Empire Victory
  • British victory at the Battle of Magdala, Theodore II commits suicide.
Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1878–1880)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Afghanistan Victory
  • Treaty of Gandamak, British objectives attained.
  • Afghanistan's tribal frontier areas annexed into British India.
  • Afghanistan becomes a British Protectorate.
Mahdist War
(1881–1899)
United Kingdom United Kingdom

 Egypt
Ethiopian Pennants.svg Ethiopia

Mahdist Sudan Victory
Anglo-Egyptian War
(1882)
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg Tewfik Pasha

Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg Ahmed Orabi Victory
Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885)
 India Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg Burmese Empire Victory
  • The province of Burma became part of the British Raj.
Third Black Mountain Expedition
(1888)
 India Hassanzai and Akazai tribes. Victory
  • Allaiwal village of Pokal occupied and destroyed.
Sikkim Expedition
(1888)
 India Tibet Tibet Victory
  • Tibetan forces expelled from Sikkim.
Hunza-Nagar Campaign
(1891)
 India Hunza
Nagar
Victory
Chitral Expedition
(1895)
 India Chitralis Bajouri and Afghan Tribesmen Victory
  • Fort of Chitral relieved.
Anglo-Zanzibar War
(1896)
 British Empire Zanzibar Sultanate Victory
Tochi Expedition
(1896)
 India Waziris Victory
  • Rebellion put down.
Siege of Malakand
(1897)
 India پشتون Pashtun tribes Victory
  • Siege successful.
First Mohmand Campaign
(1897–1898)
 India Mohmands Victory
Tirah Campaign
(1897–1898)
 India Afridis
Orakzais
Chamkanis
Victory
  • Negotiations for peace were then begun with the Afridis.
Boxer Rebellion
(1899–1901)
Empire of Japan Empire of Japan
Russian Empire Russia
British Empire United Kingdom

France France
 United States
German Empire Germany
 Austria-Hungary
Kingdom of Italy Italy

Yihetuan Movement
 Qing dynasty
Victory
  • The rebellion was suppressed.
  • Signing of the Boxer Protocol.
  • Provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing.
Second Boer War
(1899–1902)
 United Kingdom  Orange Free State
 South African Republic
Victory
British expedition to Tibet
(1903–1904)
 India  Tibet Victory
Bambatha Rebellion
(1906)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Zulu people Victory
  • Rebellion suppressed
Bazar Valley Campaign
(1908)
 India Zakka Khel clan of the Afridi Victory
  • Rebellion suppressed
World War I
(1914–1918)
 France
 United Kingdom

 Russian Empire
 Italy
 United States
Republic of China (1912–1949) China
 Serbia
 Japan
 Belgium
 Greece
 Romania
 Portugal
 Brazil

 Germany  Austria-Hungary
 Ottoman Empire
 Bulgaria
South African Republic South African Republic
Victory
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
(1918–1920)
White movement
United Kingdom British Empire

 Japan
 Czechoslovakia
 Greece
 Poland
 United States
France France
 Romania
 Serbia
 Italy
Republic of China (1912–1949) China

 Russian SFSR
 Far Eastern Republic
Latvian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
Commune of Estonia
Mongolian communists
Withdrawal
  • Allied withdrawal from Russia.
  • Bolshevik victory over White Army.
Turkish War of Independence
(1919–1923)
 Greece

French Third Republic France

Armenia Armenia
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Ottoman Empire Istanbul Government

Kingdom of Italy Italy
Georgia

Ankara Government

Kuva-yi Milliye

Defeat[1]
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Afghanistan Armistice
  • Treaty of Rawalpindi
  • Afghan invasion repelled.
  • Afghanistan regains control of external affairs.
  • Reaffirmation of the Durand Line.
First Waziristan Campaign
(1919)
 India Flag of Waziristan resistance (1930s).svg Waziristan Victory
  • Suppression of insurrection by independent Wazir tribes.
Kuwait–Najd War
(1919–1920)
British Empire United Kingdom

Kuwait

Flag of the Second Saudi State.svg Sultanate of Nejd Victory
  • Ikhawan retreat.
Iraqi revolt
(1920)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Iraqi rebels Victory
Malabar rebellion
(1921)
 India Mappila Muslims Victory
  • Rebellion suppressed.
Pink's War
(1925)
 India Mahsud tribesmen Victory
  • Tribal leaders accept terms.
Second Mohmand Campaign
(1935)
 India Mohmands Victory
Second Waziristan Campaign
(1936–1939)
 India Flag of Waziristan resistance (1930s).svg Waziri tribesmen Victory
  • Suppression of insurrection by independent Wazir tribes.
World War II
(1939–1945)
 Soviet Union

 United States
 United Kingdom

 Republic of China
 South Africa
 Australia
 Canada
 New Zealand
 France
 Poland
 Yugoslavia
 Greece
 Denmark
 Norway
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Luxembourg
 Czechoslovakia

 Germany

 Italy
 Japan

 Hungary
 Romania
 Bulgaria

Victory
Indonesian National Revolution
(1945–1947)
Netherlands Netherlands
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Indonesia Indonesia Withdrawal
  • Indian withdrawal after independence in 1947.
  • The Netherlands recognises Indonesian independence.
Operation Masterdom
(1945–1946)
United Kingdom United Kingdom

France France
Japan Japan

Flag of North Vietnam (1945-1955).svg Viet Minh Victory

Dominion of India (1947–1950)

Following Indian independence, merger of the princely states remained a major question. The partition resulted in the creation of Pakistan.

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
(1947–1948)
 India  Pakistan
Liwa-e-Ahmadiyya 1-2.svg Furqan Force
Ceasefire
Integration of Junagadh
(1947)
 India Junagadh Victory
  • Incorporation of Junagadh into India
Operation Polo
(1948)
 India Hyderabad Victory
  • Incorporation of Hyderabad into India

Republic of India (1950–present)

India has fought many wars and minor conflicts during its period as a republic.

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Integration of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
(1954)
 India Portugal Portugal Victory
Congo Crisis
(1960–1964)
1960–63:

Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo
Supported by:
 Soviet Union (1960)
United Nations ONUC[a]

1960–63:

 Katanga
 South Kasai
Supported by:
 Belgium[b]


1960–62:
Democratic Republic of the Congo Stanleyville government
Supported by:
 Soviet Union

Victory
Operation Vijay
(1961)
 India Portugal Portugal Victory
Sino-Indian War of 1962
(1962)
 India  China Defeat
Insurgency in Northeast India
(1964–)
 India
 Bhutan
 Bangladesh (joined in 1971)
Ongoing
  • Ongoing low-level insurgency
  • Re-annexation of the territory held by MNF by Indian Army
  • Bhutanese victory in Operation All Clear
  • Introduction of AFSPA in seven north-eastern states, later repealed in Tripura[5] and Meghalaya.[6]
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
(1965)
 India  Pakistan Victory
  • Pakistan-backed insurgency in Kashmir halted
  • Counter-invasion up to outskirt of Lahore
  • India captured 740 square miles of territory against Pakistan gaining 210 square miles of territory before ceasefire put in place
  • Tashkent Declaration
  • Return to status quo ante bellum
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency
(1967–)
 India Ongoing
Nathu La and Cho La clashes
(1967)
 India  China Victory
Bangladesh Liberation War
(incl. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971)

(1971)
 India
Bangladesh Bangladesh
 Pakistan Victory
Siachen conflict
(1984–2003)
 India  Pakistan Victory
Insurgency in Punjab
(incl. Operation Blue Star)

(1984–1995)
 India Flagge Khalistans.svg Khalistani militants Victory
Operation Flowers are Blooming
(1986)
 India
 Seychelles
Flag of Seychelles.svg Military of Seychelles Victory
  • Aversion of the coup
  • Resignation of Berlouis
Sri Lankan Civil War
(1987–1990)
 India
 Sri Lanka
Tamil Eelam Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Withdrawal
Operation Cactus
(1988)
 India
Maldives Maldives
Bandera del PLOTE (Tàmils).svg PLOTE
Maldives Maldivian rebels
Victory
  • Restoration of government rule in Maldives
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
(1989–)
 India Flag of Jihad.svg Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami

Flag of Jihad.svg Lashkar-e-Taiba
Jaishi-e-Mohammed.svg Jaish-e-Mohammed
Flag of Jihad.svg Hizbul Mujahideen
Harakat flag.png Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
Al-badr flag.png Al-Badr
Kashmir independent.svg Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front


Supported by:
 Pakistan[8]
Afghanistan Taliban[9]
Flag of Jihad.svg al-Qaeda[9]

Ongoing
Kargil War
(1999)
 India  Pakistan

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ONUC, the United Nations Operation in the Congo, included troops from Ghana, Tunisia, Morocco, Ethiopia, Ireland, Guinea, Sweden, Mali, Sudan, Liberia, Canada, India, Indonesia and the United Arab Republic among others.[2]
  2. ^ The secession of Katanga and South Kasai was also supported by South Africa, France and the neighbouring Central African Federation.[3] However, it was never officially recognised by any other state.[4]

References

  1. ^ Chester Neal Tate, Governments of the world: a global guide to citizens' rights and responsibilities, Macmillan Reference USA/Thomson Gale, 2006, p. 205.
  2. ^ Haskin 2005, pp. 24–5.
  3. ^ Nzongola-Ntalaja 2007, p. 101.
  4. ^ Nugent 2004, p. 97.
  5. ^ http://www.asianage.com/debate/age-debate-after-tripura-it-time-revoke-afspa-jammu-and-kashmir-922
  6. ^ https://www.msn.com/en-in/news/newsindia/afspa-removed-from-meghalaya-eight-police-stations-in-arunachal-pradesh/ar-AAwdEbV?li=AAaeRVN&ocid=spartandhp
  7. ^ Asia Times Online :: Southeast Asia news and business from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam. Atimes.com (2010-04-22). Retrieved on 2014-05-21.
  8. ^ Ganguly, Sumit; Paul Kapur (7 August 2012). India, Pakistan, and the Bomb: Debating Nuclear Stability in South Asia. Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-231-14375-2. 
  9. ^ a b Gall, Carlotta (2007-01-21). "At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  10. ^ "Pakistani opposition presses for Sharif's resignation". Wsws.org. 1999-08-07. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
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