List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

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This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.

Wars and armed conflicts whose highest estimated casualties are 100,000 or more

This section lists all armed conflicts whose highest estimated casualties are one hundred thousand or more, this includes deaths of both soldiers and civilians, from causes both directly and indirectly caused by the war, including combat, disease, famine, massacres and genocide.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes, see also
World War II 60,000,000 118,357,000[2] 84,269,920 Worldwide 1939 1945 6 years and 1 day See also: World War II casualties.
Three Kingdoms War 36,000,000 40,000,000 37,947,332 China 184 280 96 years Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China.
Mongol conquests 30,000,000[3][unreliable source?] 40,000,000[citation needed] 34,641,016 Eurasia 1206 1368 163 years See also: Mongol Empire, Destruction under the Mongol Empire
European colonization of the Americas 8,400,000[4] 138,000,000[5] 34,047,026 Americas 1492 1691 199 years Death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which might never be accurately determined. The 90% death rate was mainly caused by disease.[a]
Spanish colonization of the Americas 15,000,000[8] 70,000,000[9] 32,403,703 Americas 1492 1542 50 years Most of the population decline was caused by infectious disease. Violence was also a minor significant cause of the death toll.

– Part of the European colonization of the Americas

Transition from Ming to Qing 25,000,000[10] 25,000,000 25,000,000 China 1618 1683 65 years See also: Qing dynasty
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire 24,300,000 24,300,000 24,300,000 Mexico 1519 1532 13 years – Part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Taiping Rebellion 10,000,000[11] 100,000,000[12][13][14] 31,622,777 China 1851 1864 14 years See also: Qing dynasty
Second Sino-Japanese War 20,000,000 25,000,000 22,360,680 China 1937 1945 8 years – Part of World War II
An Lushan Rebellion 13,000,000 36,000,000 21,633,308 China 755 763 8 years Also known as the An–Shi rebellion
World War I 8,545,800[15] 21,000,000 13,396,335 Worldwide 1914 1918 4 years, 3 months, 1 week
Conquests of Timur 8,000,000[16][unreliable source?][17][unreliable source?] 17,000,000[18][19] 12,649,111 Central, East and South Asia 1370 1405 35 years Up to 5% of the world's population at the time.
Dungan Revolt 8,000,000 12,000,000 9,797,959 Qing dynasty 1862 1877 15 years See also: Qing dynasty
Chinese Civil War 8,000,000[20] 11,692,000[21] 9,671,401 China 1927 1949 22 years
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire 8,400,000[citation needed] 8,400,000 8,400,000 Peru 1533 1620 87 years – Part of Spanish colonization of the Americas
Reconquista 7,000,000 7,000,000 7,000,000 Iberian Peninsula 711 1492 731 years Note: cannot be considered a single war
Russian Civil War 5,000,000[citation needed] 9,000,000[22] 6,708,204 Russia 1917 1921 5 years See also: Russian Revolution, List of civil wars
Thirty Years' War 3,000,000[23] 11,500,000[24][unreliable source?] 5,673,870 Holy Roman Empire, Europe 1618 1648 30 years Initially a religious war between Catholics and Protestants, it became a general European political war. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history.[citation needed]
Mughal–Maratha Wars 5,600,000 5,600,000 5,600,000 India 1680 1707 27 years
Napoleonic Wars 3,500,000
[citation needed]
7,000,000[25] 4,949,747 Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean 1803 1815 13 years See also: Napoleonic Wars casualties
Yellow Turban Rebellion 3,000,000[26] 7,000,000[26] 4,582,576 China 184 205 22 years – Part of the Three Kingdoms War
Second Congo War 2,500,000[27] 5,400,000[28] 3,674,235 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2003 6 years
French Wars of Religion 2,000,000 4,000,000[29][unreliable source?] 2,828,427 France 1562 1598 37 years Largely a religious war between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants)
Indian Rebellion of 1857 800,000 10,000,000 2,828,427 India 1857 1858 1 year
Hundred Years' War 2,300,000[30] 3,300,000[31] 2,754,995 Western Europe 1337 1453 116 years Edwardian War (1337–1360), Caroline War (1369–1389), Lancastrian War (1415–1453)
Vietnam War 966,000[32] 3,800,000[33] 2,383,000 Southeast Asia 1955 1975 21 years Cold War and First Indochina War
Crusades 1,000,000[34][unreliable source?] 3,000,000[35][unreliable source?] 2,000,000 Holy Land, Europe 1095 1291 196 years Christian military excursions in the Middle East.
Nigerian Civil War 1,000,000 3,000,000[citation needed] 2,000,000 Nigeria 1966 1970 4 years Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.
Mfecane 1,500,000[36] 2,000,000[37] 1,750,000 Southern Africa 1816 1828 13 years Ndwandwe–Zulu War
Punic Wars 1,250,000[38] 1,850,000 1,520,691 Medi­terranean 264 BC 146 BC 118 years See also: Carthage, Roman Republic
Spanish conquest of Yucatán 1,460,000 1,460,000 1,460,000 Central America 1519 1595 76 years – Part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Second Sudanese Civil War 1,000,000[39] 2,000,000 1,414,214 Sudan 1983 2005 23 years First Sudanese Civil War
Warring States period 1,200,000 1,500,000 1,341,641 China 475 BC 221 BC 255 years See also: History of China [40][41]
Korean War 1,200,000[42] 1,200,000[42] 1,200,000 Korean Peninsula 1950 1953 4 years Categorized as part of the Cold War.
Seven Years' War 868,000 1,400,000 1,102,361 Worldwide 1756 1763 7 years
Soviet–Afghan War 600,000[43][unreliable source?] 2,000,000[43][unreliable source?] 1,095,445 Afghanistan 1980 1988 9 years Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War.

– Part of the War in Afghanistan

Japanese invasions of Korea 1,000,000[44] 1,000,000 1,000,000 Korea 1592 1598 7 years
French Revolutionary Wars 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Worldwide 1792 1802 10 years
Mexican Revolution 500,000[45] 2,000,000[45] 1,000,000 Mexico, United States 1911 1920 10 years Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.
Italian conquest of the Horn of Africa 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Horn of Africa 1924 1940 16 years
Panthay Rebellion 890,000[citation needed] 1,000,000 943,398 China 1856 1873 18 years
Wars of the Three Kingdoms 876,000 876,000 876,000 British Isles 1639 1651 12 years
Conquests of Mehmed the Conqueror 873,000 873,000 873,000 Eastern Europe 1451 1481 30 years
Ethiopian Civil War 500,000 1,500,000 866,025 Ethiopia 1974 1991 17 years
Jewish–Roman wars 350,000 2,000,000 836,660 Roman Empire 66 136 70 years See also: Roman Empire
American Civil War 650,000 1,000,000 800,000 South­eastern United States and Pennsylvania 1861 1865 4 years See also: United States
Algerian War 350,000 1,500,000 724,569 Algeria 1954 1962 7 years, 4 months, 2 weeks, and 4 days [46]
War of the Spanish Succession 400,000 1,251,000 707,389 Europe, North America, South America 1702 1714 12 years
Spanish Civil War 500,000 1,000,000 707,107 Spain 1936 1939 4 years
Eighty Years' War 230,000 2,000,000 678,233 The Low Countries, South America, Caribbean Sea, East and Southeast Asia 1568 1648 80 years
Gallic Wars 400,000[citation needed] 1,000,000 632,445 France 58 BC 50 BC 9 years See also: Roman Empire
Spanish American wars of independence 600,000 600,000 600,000 Americas 1808 1833 25 years
Paraguayan War 300,000[47] 1,200,000[48] 600,000 Southern Cone 1864 1870 7 years Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias
Iran–Iraq War 289,220[citation needed] 1,100,000[citation needed] 564,041 Iran–Iraq border 1980 1988 8 years Iran claims: 123,220 KIA + 11,000 civilians

Iraq claims: 105,000 KIA + 50,000 in Kurdish Genocide Others claim 600,000 Iranians killed and 500,000 Iraqis[citation needed]

French invasion of Russia 540,000 540,000 540,000 Russia 1812 1812 5 months, 2 weeks and 6 days – Part of the Napoleonic Wars
English Civil War 356,000 735,000 511,527 England 1642 1651 9 years – Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Angolan Civil War 504,158 504,158 504,158 Angola 1975 2002 27 years
First Sudanese Civil War 500,000 500,000 500,000 Sudan 1955 1972 17 years
War on Terror 480,000[49] 507,000[49] 493,500 Worldwide 2001 2013 12 years Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.
Syrian Civil War 470,000 470,000 Syria 2011 Present 7 years
Albigensian Crusade 200,000 1,000,000 447,214 Southern France 1208 1229 21 years
First Congo War 250,000 800,000 447,214 Zaire 1996 1997 1 year
Maratha invasions of Bengal 400,000 400,000 400,000 India 1741 1751 10 years
First Indochina War 400,000 400,000 400,000 Southeast Asia 1946 1954 8 years Also known as the Indochina War
Continuation War 387,333 387,333 387,333 Northern Europe 1941 1944 3 years – Part of World War II
Somali Civil War 300,000 500,000 387,298 Somalia 1986 Present 32 years
Crimean War 356,000 410,000 382,047 Crimea 1853 1856 3 years
Iraq War 268,000[49] 461,000[50] 364,500 Iraq 2003 2011 8 years See also: Casualties of the Iraq War

– Part of the War on Terror

Cuban War of Independence 362,000 362,000 362,000 Cuba 1895 1898 3 years
Great Northern War 350,000 350,000 350,000 Northern and Eastern Europe 1700 1721 21 years
Italian Wars 300,000 400,000 346,410 Southern Europe 1494 1559 65 years Also known as the Great Wars of Italy
French conquest of Algeria 300,000 300,000 300,000 Algeria 1829 1847 18 years
Burundian Civil War 300,000 300,000 300,000 Burundi 1993 2005 12 years
War in Darfur 178,258 461,520 286,827 Sudan 2003 Present 15 years
Bangladesh Liberation War 26,000 3,000,000 279,285 East Pakistan 1971 1971 1 year See also: Bangladeshi Genocide casualties
Second Italo-Ethiopian War 278,350 278,350 278,350 Ethiopia 1935 1936 1 year Also known as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War
Papua conflict 150,000 400,000 244,949 New Guinea 1963 Present 55 years
Ten Years' War 241,000 241,000 241,000 Cuba 1868 1878 10 years Also known as the Great War
Philippine–American War 234,000 234,000 234,000 Philippines 1899 1912 13 years Also known as the Philippine War
Venezuelan War of Independence 228,000 228,000 228,000 Venezuela 1810 1823 13 years – Part of the Spanish American Wars of Independence
Ugandan Bush War 100,000 500,000 223,607 Uganda 1981 1986 5 years Also known as the Luwero War
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency 100,000 500,000 223,607 Central Africa 1987 Present 31 years
Franco-Dutch War 220,000 220,000 220,000 Western Europe 1672 1678 6 years Also known as the Dutch War
Colombian conflict 220,000 220,000 220,000 Colombia 1964 Present 54 years
Iraqi-Kurdish conflict 138,800 320,100 210,784 Iraq 1918 2003 85 years
Campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent 200,000 200,000 200,000 Eastern Europe, Middle East and North Africa 1521 1566 25 years
Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) 200,000 200,000 200,000 Western Europe 1635 1659 24 years
Carlist Wars 200,000 200,000 200,000 Spain 1820 1876 56 years
La Violencia 192,700 194,700 193,697 Colombia 1948 1958 10 years
Internal conflict in Myanmar 130,000 250,000 180,278 Myanmar 1948 Present 70 years
Kalinga War 150,000 200,000 173,205 India 262 BC 261 BC 2 years
Winter War 153,736 194,837 173,071 Finland 1939 1940 1 year – Part of World War II
Greek Civil War 158,000 158,000 158,000 Greece 1946 1949 3 years
North Yemen Civil War 100,000 200,000 141,421 Yemen 1962 1970 8 years
1991 Iraqi uprisings in Iraq 85,000 235,000 141,333 Iraq 1991 1991 1 month and 4 days
Balkan Wars 140,000 140,000 140,000 Balkans 1912 1913 1 year
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) 138,285 138,285 138,285 Europe and Americas 1585 1604 19 years
Saint-Domingue Expedition 135,000 135,000 135,000 Haiti 1802 1803 1 year
Yugoslav Wars 130,000 140,000 134,907 Balkans 1991 2001 10 years
Lebanese Civil War 120,000 150,000 134,164 Lebanon 1975 1990 15 years
Sierra Leone Civil War 50,000 300,000 122,474 Sierra Leone 1991 2002 11 years
Great Turkish War 120,000 120,000 120,000 Eastern Europe 1683 1699 16 years Also known as the War of the Holy League
Thousand Days War 120,000 120,000 120,000 Colombia 1899 1902 3 years
Moro conflict 120,000 120,000 120,000 Philippines 1969 Present 49 years
Arab–Israeli conflict 116,074 116,074 116,074 Middle East 1948 Present 70 years
Mexican Drug War 106,800 106,800 106,800 Mexico 2006 Present 12 years Also known as the Mexican War on Drugs
Aceh War 97,000 107,000 101,877 Indonesia 1873 1914 41 years Also known as the Infidel War
Bosnian War 97,214 104,732 100,903 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1991 1995 4 years – Part of the Yugoslav Wars
German Peasants' War 100,000 100,000 100,000 Germany 1524 1525 1 year Also known as the Great Peasants' War
Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 100,000 100,000 100,000 Middle East 1921 Present 97 years
Congo Crisis 100,000 100,000 100,000 Republic of the Congo 1960 1965 5 years
Insurgency in Laos 100,000 100,000 100,000 Laos 1975 2007 32 years
Kivu Conflict 100,000 100,000 100,000 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2004 Present 14 years – Part of the Second Congo War
Kashmir Conflict 80,000 110,000 93,808 North India, Pakistan 1947 Present 71 years
Algerian Civil War 44,000 200,000 93,808 Algeria 1991 2002 11 years
Angolan War of Independence 82,991 102,991 92,452 Angola 1961 1974 13 years
Sri Lankan Civil War 80,000 100,000 89,443 Sri Lanka 1983 2009 26 years
Indian annexation of Hyderabad 29,212 242,212 84,116 India 1948 1948 5 days Also known as Operation Polo

Genocides, ethnic cleansings, and mass ethnic/religious persecutions

This section lists events that entail the mass murder (or death caused by the forced eviction) of individuals on the basis of race, religion, or ethnicity.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
World War II casualties of the Soviet Union 13,684,700 40,000,000 23,396,324 German-occupied Europe and Russia 1939 1945 6 years Germany's extermination of Slavic peoples and citizens of the Soviet Union.

Figure given is both as intentional genocide and overall civilian war casualties.

Japanese war crimes 3,000,000 14,000,000 6,480,741[51] East Asia 1937 1945 8 years The systematic mass murders directed towards Korean and Chinese civilians by Japan and its puppet states.

Most people were killed by forced labor, guns, bayonets,[51] and biological weapons.[52] A small number of people were also killed by human experiments inside unit 731.[53] Japan's reasons for this were it was an enslavement policy towards subjugated peoples, a belief in the superior Japanese race, and a strong belief in superior Japanese values and State Shinto.

Not organized in the same effective way as the holocaust, but more people inside the army took part in the atrocities committed, such as two Japanese soldiers that had a competition about who could murder the most Chinese civilians being described as heroes inside Japanese papers.[54]

Soviet famine of 1932–33 4,400,000 9,100,000 6,327,717 Soviet Union 1932 1933 1 year The majority of famine victims were Ukrainian. Many nations, including Ukraine, regard the famine's effect in the Ukraine as a genocide against Ukraine, known as the Holodomor.[55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]

1.8 - 4.8 million: Ukraine

600,000 - 2.3 million: Kazakhstan

2 million: Elsewhere

The Holocaust 4,200,000[63] 6,300,000[64][65] 5,143,928 German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 4 years The systematic and bureaucratic genocide of European Jews by Germany and its puppet states.
Holodomor 2,711,000 7,811,000 4,601,698 Ukraine 1932 1933 1 year The term "Ukrainian Genocide" usually refers to the man-made famine of 1932 through 1933, called the Holodomor, in which the grain of Ukrainians was confiscated to the point where they could not survive off the amount of grain they had, and were also restricted from fleeing their villages to find food under threat of execution or deportation into a Gulag camp.

The term also includes the killing of Ukrainian intelligentsia during the Great Purge, especially the Orthodox Church.

The main advocate for this view was Raphael Lemkin, creator of the word genocide.

Data from after the opening of the Soviet archives records deaths at 2.4 to 7.5 million in famine, 300,000 during the purge, and 1,100 from the Law of Spikelets.

Some scholars dispute that the famine was deliberately engineered by the Soviet government or that it was a genocide.[66][67][68]

– Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33

Nazi crimes against the Polish nation 2,770,000 2,770,000 2,770,000 German-occupied Poland 1941 1945 4 years Genocide of Christian Poles during the invasion of Poland by Germany.
Three Alls Policy 2,700,000 2,700,000 2,700,000 China 1940 1942 2 years In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.[citation needed]– Part of the Japanese war crimes
Cambodian Genocide 1,386,734[69] 3,400,000[70] 2,171,381 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge.

Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.[citation needed]
Samuel Totten argues the mass killings were committed by fellow Khmer, and the Khmer were killed more in proportion to their population than other victims of the Khmer Rouge, making it more of a politicide.[71]

These killings have been described as autogenocide or civil genocide.

According to Samuel Totten 1,325,000 ethnic Khmers were killed.

Rwandan and Burundian genocides 905,000 1,595,000 1,234,190 Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire 1959 1997 38 years Combined death toll of all genocides and other massacres between the Hutus and the Tutsis.

Regarded as the most efficient genocide of the 20th century, the Rwandan genocide was the disorganized communal mass murder of Tutsis, by their rival tribe the Hutu through the Rwandan government and Hutu Power militias such as the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi.[citation needed]

Violence peaked in the hundred days between April 7, 1994 and July 15, 1994, during which time between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people were killed.[citation needed]

Population transfer in the Soviet Union 1,000,000 1,500,000 1,224,745 Soviet Union 1920 1951 31 years May include casualties of decossackization.
Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) 500,000 3,000,000 1,224,745 Eastern Europe 1944 1950 6 years Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.
Kazakh famine of 1932–1933 1,500,000 2,300,000 1,857,418 Kazakhstan 1932 1933 1 year – Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33
Armenian Genocide 800,000 1,500,000 1,095,445 Ottoman Empire 1914 1918 4 years The first genocide of the 20th century to kill over 1,000,000 people, this event was conducted by the Young Turks government of the Ottoman Empire under the administration of Talaat Pasha, Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha.
Punti-Hakka Clan Wars 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 China 1850 1867 17 years After the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom the Qing government cracked down on the Hakka ethnic group for allying with the kingdom slaughtering 30,000 per day. The death toll of the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars is estimated to be 1,000,000 and there was also a mass execution done during the Taiping Rebellion. It is unclear whether these events refer to the Qing crackdown. If this death toll is applied to the estimated death rate, the massacre likely took place over the course of a month.[72][73][74]
Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas 518,933

1,299,393

821,204 North and South America 1492 1996[75][76][77][78] 504 years While the overall toll of man made deaths of Amerindians is unknown, there have been a few known events in which many Amerindians perished.

Thousands to millions more killed in forced labor, wars and massacres; Covers both North and South America Unknown number of Apache killed for bounty

See also: Spanish colonization of the Americas, Encomienda system, Mexican Indian Wars, List of Indian massacres

French conquest of Algeria 500,000 1,000,000 707,107 Algeria 1827 1875 48 years Within the first three decades, the French military massacred between half a million to one million from approximately three million Algerian people.[79]
Partition of India 200,000 2,000,000 632,456 India 1947 1957 10 years In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide between Hindus and Muslims.[80][81][82]
Dzungar genocide 480,000 600,000 536,656 Dzungar Khanate 1755 1758 3 years The mass extermination of Dzungar Mongols by the Qing dynasty under the order of the Qianlong Emperor.
Greek genocide 289,000 750,000 465,564 Ottoman Empire 1913 1922 9 years Violent ethnic cleansing of Greeks from their historical homeland of Anatolia.
Circassian genocide 400,000 500,000 447,214 Circassia 1864 1867 3 years Deaths from mass expulsion of Circassians after Russian conquest.
Albigensian Crusade 200,000[83][unreliable source?] 1,000,000[83][unreliable source?] 447,214 Languedoc, France 1209 1229 20 years Raphael Lemkin, well known as the coiner of the term "genocide", referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".[84]
1971 Bangladesh genocide
3,000,000[96][unreliable source?] 446,774 East Pakistan March 21, 1971 December 16, 1971 8 months, 2 weeks and 3 days See also: Bangladesh Liberation War, Operation Searchlight, List of massacres in Bangladesh, Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War
Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946) 260,000 750,000 441,588 Soviet Union and Poland 1937 1946 9 years Includes deaths from the Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38).[97]
Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil 235,000 800,000 433,590 Brazil 1900 1985 85 years [98][unreliable source?] – Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Occupation of Tibet 144,000[99] 1,200,000[100] 415,692 Tibet 1950 present 68 years In 1960, the western-based nongovernmental International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) gave a report titled Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic to the United Nations. The report was prepared by the ICJ's Legal Inquiry Committee, composed of eleven international lawyers from around the world. This report accused the Chinese of the crime of genocide in Tibet, after nine years of full occupation, six years before the devastation of the cultural revolution began. The ICJ also documented accounts of massacres, tortures and killings, bombardment of monasteries, and extermination of whole nomad camps. Declassified Soviet archives provides data that Chinese communists, who received a great assistance in military equipment from the Soviets, broadly used Soviet aircraft for bombing monasteries and other punitive operations in Tibet.[101]
Persecution of Hazara people ? ? 400,000 (rough estimate)[102] Afghanistan 1888 1893 5 years Over 60% of the Hazara population were either massacred or displaced in Abdur Rahman Khan's crackdown of the Hazaras.
Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia

(and other minorities)

379,000 397,000 387,896 Independent State of Croatia 1941 1945 4 years Genocide of Serbs, Jews, and Romani by the Ustaše including between 322,000 and 340,000 Serbs, 25,000 Roma and 32,000 Jews; a relatively small but unspecified number of political dissidents (mostly ethnic Croats) were also murdered.[103] See also: The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia
Decossackization 300,000 500,000 346,410 Former Russian Empire 1917 1933 16 years Violent class purge, ethnic cleansing, and mass murder of Cossacks, especially Kuban and Don Cossacks, by the Bolsheviks.
Romani Genocide 220,000 500,000 331,662 Nazi occupied Europe 1941 1945 4 years The genocide of Romani by Nazi Germany and its puppet states.
Chinese genocide under Khmer Rouge 215,000[71][unreliable source?] 225,000 219,943 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years More than half of the Chinese population of Cambodia were slaughtered by the Khmer Rouge.[104]– Part of the Cambodian Genocide
Assyrian genocide 150,000 300,000 212,132 Ottoman Empire 1914 1920 6 years One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.
Cham genocide under Khmer Rouge 90,000[71] 500,000[105] 212,132 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years The genocide slaughtered over 70% of the Cham Muslim population in Cambodia according to themselves.

According to Ben Kiernan, Cham were subjected to the most brutal treatment of those persecuted by the Khmer Rouge and subjected to the slaughter of 36% of their population according to Samuel Totten.[citation needed]

– Part of the Cambodian Genocide

Massacres of Hutu refugees during the First Congo War 200,000 220,000[106] 209,762 Zaire 1996 1997 1 year During the First Congo War, Rwanda was able to destroy refugee camps, which the génocidaires had been using as their safe-bases, and forcibly repatriate Tutsi to Rwanda. During this process, Rwandan and aligned forces committed multiple atrocities, mainly against Hutu refugees. The true extent of the abuses is unknown because the AFDL and RPF carefully managed NGO and press access to areas where atrocities were thought to have occurred;[107] however, Amnesty International claimed as many as 200,000 Rwandese Hutu refugees were massacred by them and the Rwandan Defence Forces and aligned forces.[108] The United Nations similarly documented mass killings of civilians by Rwandan, Ugandan and the ADFL soldiers in the DRC Mapping Exercise Report.[citation needed]
Extermination of the Wu Hu 200,000 200,000 200,000 Northern China 350 351 1 year Ancient Chinese texts record that General Ran Min ordered the extermination of the Wu Hu, especially the Jie people, during the Wei–Jie war in the fourth century AD. People with racial characteristics such as high-bridged noses and bushy beards were killed; in total, 200,000 were reportedly massacred.[109]
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland 200,000 200,000 200,000 Ireland 1649 1653 4 years The Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, and Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland.[110] The extent to which Cromwell, who was in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day. Some historians[111] argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by later propagandists. These arguments, in turn, have been challenged by others.[112]
Caste War of Yucatán 200,000 200,000 200,000 Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico 1847 1901 54 years The Caste War of Yucatán against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote, "Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."[113]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Great Famine of Mount Lebanon 200,000 200,000 200,000 Mount Lebanon 1915 1918 3 years One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.
Third Punic War 150,000[114] 250,000[115] 193,649 Tunisia 149 BC 146 BC 3 years This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.
War in Darfur
  • 63,000[116]
  • 10,000 (Sudan)[117]
  • 450,000[118]
  • 300,000 (U.N.)[119]
  • 168,375 (non-government estimates)
  • 54,772 (government estimates)
Darfur, Sudan 2003 present 15 years The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.[120][121] The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.[122]
Polish Operation of the NKVD 110,000 250,000 165,831 Soviet Union 1937 1938 1 year The operation from 1937 to 1938 to eliminate the Polish minority in the Soviet Union.
Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush 123,000[123] 200,000[124] 156,843 Soviet Union February 1944 March 1944 1 month Expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia.
Hamidian Massacres 80,000 300,000 154,919 Ottoman Empire 1894 1896 2 years Mass murder of Armenian (and other Christian) civilians under Sultan Abdul Hamid II that foreshadowed the Armenian Genocide.
Indonesian Occupation of East Timor 60,000[125] 308,000[126] 135,941 East Timor 1974 1999 25 years The civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness,[127] resulted in an enormous proportional loss of life upon the island some estimating as high as 13% up to almost a third to almost 44% of the population.[126][128][129]
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia 60,000[130][131][132] 300,000[133] 134,164 Volhyn and Eastern Galicia 1943 1944 1 year Genocide[134][135] of Polish civilian population in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).[136][137][138][139][140]
1972 Burundian genocide of Hutus 80,000 210,000 129,615 Burundi 1972 1972 ? Communal mass murder of Hutus by their rival tribe the Tutsi in Burundi.

– Part of the Rwandan and Burundian genocides

Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire 52,000 254,500 115,039 Russian Empire 1903–1906 1917–1922 19 years The massacres of Jews in the Russian Empire reached their peak in the early 20th century, through the killing of thousands from 1903 to 1906[141] and tens to hundreds of thousands from 1917 to 1922.[142]
Kurdish Rebellions in Turkey 33,835 357,000 109,905 Turkey 1921 present 97 years All casualties from the various Kurdish uprisings against the Turkish state.
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars 100,000 100,000 100,000 Soviet Union 1944 1945 1 year Often considered an ethnic cleansing, and Ukraine considers the event genocide.
Massacres of European colonists during the rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari 100,000 100,000 100,000 Present day Peru 1780 1782 2 years The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia).[155]
Spanish repressions of Dutch Protestants 100,000 100,000 100,000 The Low Countries 1566 1609 43 years 100,000 massacred under Charles V and Philip II during the Eighty Years' War.[156]
Al-Anfal campaign 50,000[157] 182,000[158] 95,394 Baathist Iraq 1986 1989 3 years The Kurdish genocide led by Ali Hassan al-Majid under the order of Saddam Hussein
Atrocities against Harkis after the Algerian War 50,000[159] 150,000[159] 86,603 Algeria 1962 ? ? The Harkis were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture.[citation needed]
Aktion T4 70,273 93,521 81,068 Nazi Germany 1939 1941 2 years A euthanasia program in Nazi Germany used to purge those deemed genetically deficient.
Italian Pacification of Libya 80,000 80,000 80,000 Libya 1923 1932 9 years [160]
Guatemalan genocide 35,000 166,000 76,223 Guatemala 1960 1996 36 years According to the Historical Clarification Commission, 140,000 to 200,000 were killed or disappeared, and at least 42,275 were killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War, of which 93% were from officially sanctioned government terror and 83% of the victims were Maya.

– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Racial violence during the Rwandan Revolution 50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis Burundi and Rwanda 1959 1962 3 years [161]
Indian annexation of Hyderabad 27,000 200,000 73,485 Hyderabad State, India 1948 1948 5 days [162][163]
Effacer le tableau 60,000 70,000 64,807 Democratic Republic of Congo 1998 2003 5 years Pygmy peoples were murdered en masse as they were regarded as subhumans.[citation needed]
Herero and Namaqua genocide 34,000 110,000 61,156 German South-West Africa 1904 1907 3 years Genocides of the Herero and Nama peoples by the German Empire during the Herero Wars.
Ethnic cleansing and genocide committed by all sides during the Yugoslav Wars 52,856 64,917 58,577 Yugoslavia 1991 2001 10 years All civilians killed in the Yugoslav Wars including events such as the Srebrenica Massacre, Žepa Massacre, Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing, and other atrocities.

69.8% to 82% of civilian victims of the Bosnian War were Bosniak.

American Indian Wars of the United States 49,000 64,000 56,000 Now the United States 1511 1890 389 years From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894): "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white people, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given ... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate ..."[citation needed]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Massacres of Polish civilians during the Warsaw Uprising 50,000 60,000[170][171] 54,772 Occupied Poland 5 August 1944 12 August 1944 1 week Polish fatalities in districts of Wola and Ochota committed during Warsaw Uprising
1993 Burundian genocide of Tutsis 50,000 50,000 50,000 Burundi 1993 1993 ? Communal mass murder of Tutsis by their rival tribe the Hutu in Burundi.

– Part of the Rwandan and Burundian genocides

Witch trials in the early modern period 20,000 100,000 44,721 Europe 1400 1800 300 years [172][unreliable source?]
British concentration camps during the Second Boer War 26,000 40,000 32,249 Transvaal 1900 1902 2 years Lord Kitchener led the British army against the Boer Republics in the Second Boer War in Southern Africa. In an attempt to pacify Boer guerrillas, he targeted their families, and 116,000 Boer women and children were captured and jailed by the British, Within 2 years, 22,074 children died and 4,177 women died due to deliberate neglect by the British. 115,000 black people were separately jailed, of whom 15,000 died in prison camps.[173]
Great Fire of Smyrna 10,000[174][175] 100,000[176][177] 31,623 Smyrna, Ottoman Empire September 9, 1922 September 24, 1922 15 days Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).

The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the massacre of their populations.

After the attacks, 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.[citation needed]

Massacres of Kyrgyz people during the Central Asian revolt of 1916 3,000 270,000 28,460 Russian Empire, Kyrgyzstan 1916 1916 7 months In 1916, there was an uprising and crackdown of Kyrgyzstanis against and by Tsarist Russia in what is now known as the Urkun.

A public commission in Kyrgyzstan called the crackdown of 1916 that killed 100,000 to 270,000 Kyrgyzstanis a genocidethough Russia rejected this characterization.[178]

Russian sources put the death toll at 3,000.[179]

Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam 10,000 65,000 25,495 Canara 1784 1799 15 years A 15-year imprisonment of Mangalorean Catholics and other Christians at Seringapatam in the Indian region of Canara by Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.[citation needed]
1988 Burundian massacre of Hutus 25,000 25,000 25,000 Burundi 1988 1988 ? [161] – Part of the Rwandan and Burundian genocides
Parsley massacre 17,000[180][181] 35,000[180][181] 24,393 Dominican Republic October 2, 1937 October 8, 1937 6 days Genocidal massacre of people who say perejil (Spanish: "parsley") in a French accent in order to determine if they are Afro-Haitian or Afro-Dominican.
Australian frontier wars 22,000 22,500 22,249 Australia 1788 1934 146 years Wars between Indigenous Australians and settlers in which about 20,000 aboriginal were massacred, along with two to 2,500 settlers dying in combat.[citation needed]See also: List of massacres of Indigenous Australians
Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia 17,000 28,000 21,817 Abkhazia and Georgia 1992 1993 1 year The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia,[182][183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193] also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia",[194][195] and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia"[196] Refers to ethnic cleansing,[197] massacres[198] and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians
Dersim Massacre 7,594 40,000 17,429 Dersim, Turkey 1937 1937 8 months The Dersim massacre was a massacre of Kurdish people (Alevi Kurmanj and Zaza) by the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province.[199][200][201][202][203][204][205] The massacre occurred after a rebellion led by Seyid Riza against the Turkification policies of the Turkish government.[206] As a result of the Turkish military campaign against the rebellion, thousands of Alevi Zazas[207] died and many others were internally displaced due to the conflict.

– Part of the Kurdish Rebellions in Turkey

1966 anti-Igbo pogrom 10,000 30,000 17,321 Nigeria May 29, 1966 October 1966 4 months, 2 days [208]
Indian massacres in the United States frontiers 16,349 16,349 16,349 What is now the United States 1511 1890 379 years It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of Indian massacres. However, one book, The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, presents an estimate by counting every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890). The parameters were limited to the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The results revealed that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans.[209]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Persecution of Biharis in Bangladesh 1,000 150,000[210][211] 12,247 Bangladesh 1971 1971 ? Most extreme episode of the massacres of Biharis by Bengali mobs
Gukurahundi 3,750[212] 30,000[213] 10,607 Zimbabwe 1983 1987 5 years Ethnic cleansing and executions of members of the Ndebele by the Robert Mugabe's Fifth Brigade.
Vietnamese genocide by Khmer Rouge 10,000[71] 10,000 10,000 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years 100% of the Vietnamese in Cambodia were slaughtered during the genocide, according to Samuel Totten.

– Part of the Cambodian Genocide

Thai Genocide by Khmer Rouge 8,000[71] 8,000 8,000 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years 40% of Thai in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian Genocide according to Samuel Totten.

– Part of the Cambodian Genocide

1946 Bihar riots 2,000 30,000 7,746 Bihar, British India October 30, 1946 November 7, 1946 8 days Killings of Bihari Muslims by Bengali Hindus in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.[214][215]
Noakhali riots 5,000 10,000 7,071 Noakhali Region, Bengal, British India October 1946 November 1946 1 month Killings of Bengali Hindus by Bengali Muslims in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.
Sétif and Guelma massacre 1,020 45,000 6,775 Algeria 1945 1945 ? [216]
Deaths of indigenous children in the Canadian residential schools system 3,201[217][218] 32,010 17,606 Canada 1876 1996 120 years [219][75][76][77][220][221][78][222]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Genocide of native Tasmanians 3,000 15,000 6,708 Australia 1803 1905 102 years After the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith there were no non-mixed raced Tasmanians left in the world.[citation needed]
Massacres of Arabs and Indians during the Zanzibar Revolution 2,000 20,000 6,325 Zanzibar 1964 1964 ? Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar Revolution
1964 East Pakistan riots 5,590 5,690 5,640 East Pakistan January 2, 1964 March 28, 1964 2 months, 26 days All casualties from the various riots in East Pakistan during the year 1964.
  • Khulna: 200–300
  • Dhaka: 1,000
  • Narayangang: 3,500
  • Bhulta: 267
  • Golkandi: 623
Simele massacre 5,000[223] 6,000[224][225] 5,477 Simele, Kingdom of Iraq August 7, 1933 August 11, 1933 4 days The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide.[226]
1950 East Pakistan riots 4,803 4,833 4,818 East Bengal February 1950 March 1950 1 month All casualties from the various riots in East Pakistan during the year 1950.
  • 70–100: Nachole
  • 215: Dhaka
  • 2,500: Barisal
  • 17: Rajshahi
  • 2,000: Mymensingh
  • 1: Jessore
1984 Sikh Massacre 2,800 8,000 4,733 India October 31, 1984 November 3, 1984 1 month A series of pogroms against Sikhs primarily done by members of the Indian National Congress party due to the assassination of the prime minister.
Nellie massacre 2,191 10,000 4,681 Assam, India Six hours on February 18, 1983 Six hours on February 18, 1983 6 hours Killings of 2191 Bengali Musims after Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's decision to give 4 million Bengali Musilms in Assam the right to vote[227]
Laotian genocide by Khmer Rouge 4,000 4,000 4,000 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years 40% of Laotians in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian genocide according to Samuel Totten.[71]– Part of the Cambodian Genocide
Direct Action Day 4,000 4,000 4,000 India August 16, 1946 August 18, 1946 2 days Also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.
1804 Haiti massacre 3,000 5,000 3,873 Haiti Early February 1804 April 22, 1804 ? Genocide of French people in Haiti.[228]
Trail of Tears 2,000 6,000 3,464 United States 1830 1850 20 years The forced relocation of various Native American tribes under the order of Andrew Jackson.

– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL 2,000[229][230] 5,000 3,162 Sinjar, Iraq and Syria 2014 present 4 years Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Yazidis by ISIL
Selk'nam genocide 2,500[231] 3,900[232] 3,122 Tierra del Fuego, Chile Late 1800s Early 1900s ? Genocide of Selknam Native Chilean tribe.

– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Massacre of protesters at the Demolition of the Babri Masjid 2,000 2,000 2,000 Ayodhya, India 1992 1993 1 year The destruction of a prominent mosque in India by Hindu extremists and killings of Muslim protesters.[233]
2002 Gujarat riots 1,044 2,977[234] 1,763 Gujarat, India February 2002 March 2002 1 month Minimum death toll includes 790 Muslim death toll. Both death tolls include 254 Hindu deaths. Maximum death toll includes 223 presumed mixing as dead, and a higher 2,500 Muslim death toll.[citation needed]
Genocide of Shias by ISIL 1,566[235] 1,566 1,566 Iraq, Syria 2014 present 4 years Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Shiass by ISIL
Conquest of the Desert 1,300 1,300 1,300 Argentina Mid 1870s 1884 ? Military campaign, directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples.[236]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Genocide of Christians by ISIL 1,000[237] 1,000 1,000 Iraq, Syria, and Libya 2014 present 4 years Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Christians by ISIL
Black War 878 878 878 Australia Mid 1820s 1832 ? – Part of the Genocide of native Tasmanians
Biological warfare at the Siege of Fort Pitt ? ? ? Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania June 22, 1763 August 10, 1763 1 months, 18 days The death toll resulting from the event is unknown but here are some statistics that may allow for some extrapolations: The Fort Pit outbreak hit the Lenni Lenape and Shawnee.[238] The population of these two groups in 2008 were 16,000 and 14,000 respectively.[239][240] The US's population in 2008 was likely about 305 million as it was 281,421,906 in 2000 and grew by 1.9 million each year afterwards, meaning the two tribes were likely about one ten thousandth of the population. The population of the aforementioned tribes is unknown but the non-native population of the United States in 1760 was 1,593,625 and in 1770 was 2,148,076,.[241] Note that the census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860, but in 2010 Native Americans made up about 0.7% of the U.S. population.[242][243] The native populations grow at slower rates then non-native and sometimes even decreased. The mortality rates of disease on indigenous people can be as high as 90%.[244]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Political purges and repressions (politicides)

This section lists events that entail the mass killings of political opposition (such as those of certain ideology, class or political persuasion).

See also: Red Terror (disambiguation), White Terror, and Politicide.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
Mass killings of landlords under Mao Zedong 800,000 28,000,000 4,732,864 People's Republic of China 1947 1951 4 years Millions of landlords were killed during land reforms before the formation of the People's Republic of China because they were seen as class enemies.[245]
See also: Struggle session
Cultural Revolution 400,000[246] 10,000,000[247] 2,000,000 People's Republic of China 1966 1976 10 years The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society.
See also: Struggle session
Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries 712,000[248] 2,000,000[249] 1,193,315 People's Republic of China 1950 1951 1 year The Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries (Chinese: 镇压反革命; pinyin: zhènyā fǎn gémìng; literally: "suppressing counterrevolutionaries" or abbreviated as Chinese: 鎮反; pinyin: zhènfǎn) was the first political campaign launched by the People's Republic of China designed to eradicate opposition elements, especially former Kuomintang (KMT) functionaries accused of trying undermine the new Communist government.[248]
Great Purge 681,692[250] 1,704,230[251] 1,077,850 Soviet Union 1936 1938 2 years The Great Purge or Great Terror was a period of intense political repression in the Soviet Union including execution (especially through open air shootings) and forced labor through the Gulag system.[citation needed]
Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 500,000[252] 3,000,000[253] 1,224,745 Indonesia 1965 1966 1 year Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965-66 by the Indonesian Army and associated death squads with support from Western powers such as the United States.[254] Death tolls are difficult to estimate,[255] but it is widely accepted by scholars that roughly 1 million people were killed.[256]
White Terror (Russia) 300,000 300,000[257] 300,000 Former Russian Empire 1917 1923 6 years Political repression by the White movement during the Russian Civil War.
White Terror (Spain) 150,000[258] 400,000[259] 244,949 Spain during and after the Spanish Civil War 1936 1945 9 years In Spain, the White Terror (also known as "la Represión Franquista" or the "Francoist Repression") was the series of acts of politically motivated violence, rape, and other crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War (17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939) and during Francisco Franco's dictatorship (1 October 1936 – 20 November 1975)[260]
Qey Shibir 30,000 750,000[261] 150,000 People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1977 1978 1 year Violent purge of those deemed Anti-Communist in Ethiopia.[262][263][264][265][266]
Bodo League Massacre 100,000[267] 200,000[268] 141,421 Korea Summer 1950 Summer 1950 ? Massacre of communists and suspected communists during the Korean War.
Nazi suppression of the Freemasons 80,000[269] 200,000[269] 126,491 Nazi occupied territory 1933 1945 12 years The Nazis targeted Freemasons as they saw them as collaborators in a Jewish conspiracy.
Red Terror 10,000[270] 1,500,000[271] 122,474 Former Russian Empire during Russian Civil War 1918 1922 4 years Political repression by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War.
1991 uprisings in Iraq 25,000 180,000 67,082 Iraq March the 1st, 1991 April the 5th, 1991 1 month and 4 days The death toll of the uprising against Saddam Hussein's government during 1991 was high throughout the country. The rebels killed many Ba'athist officials and officers. In response, thousands of unarmed civilians were killed by indiscriminate fire from loyalist tanks, artillery and helicopters, and many historical and religious structures in the south were deliberately targeted under orders from Saddam Hussein. Saddam's security forces entered the cities, often using women and children as human shields, where they detained and summarily executed or "disappeared" thousands of people at random in a policy of collective responsibility. Many suspects were tortured, raped, or burned alive.[272]
Operation Condor 50,000 80,000[273] 63,246 South America 1975 1983 8 years A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States.[274][275]
Red Terror (Spain) 38,000[276] 72,344[277] 52,432 Spain during the Spanish Civil War 1936 1939 3 years The Red Terror in Spain (Spanish: Terror Rojo)[278] is the name given by historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".[279]
Land Reform in Vietnam 13,500[280] 200,000[281] 51,962 North Vietnam 1954 1956 2 years
Reign of Terror 16,000 42,000 25,923 France during the French Revolution 1793 1794 1 year The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and The Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".[citation needed]
1982 Hama Massacre 10,000 40,000 20,000 Hama, Syria February 2, 1982 February 28, 1982 26 days The Hama massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة) occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.[citation needed]
1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre 10,000 40,000[282] 20,000 El Salvador January 22, 1932 July 11, 1932 6 months and 20 days Many of the victims were indigenous people.
February 28 Incident 10,000 30,000 17,320 Taiwan 1947 1947 ? Crackdown by the Kuomintang government that ushered in the White Terror (Taiwan) era.
Dirty War 9,000[283] 30,000[284][unreliable source?] 16,432 Argentina 1976 1983 7 years At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).[citation needed]
Red and White terrors of the Finnish Civil War 11,650 11,650 11,650 Finland 1918 1918 3 months, 2 weeks and 4 days Both sides of the Finnish Civil War used Terrors where 10,000 were killed in the White Terror and 1,650 were killed in the Red Terror.[285]
1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 4,482 30,000 11,596 Iran 1988 1988 5 months Massacre of political prisoners in Iran.[286][287][288]
White Terror (Taiwan) 3,000 4,000 3,464 Taiwan 1949 1987 38 years An era of martial law in Taiwan in which 140,000 where imprisoned, and 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang.[citation needed]
1989 Tiananmen Square protests crackdown 241 10,000[289] 3,000 Tiananmen Square, People's Republic of China 1989 1989 1 month, 2 weeks and 6 days Crackdown of anti-government protest in the People's Republic of China.
Human rights violations in Pinochet's Chile 1,200 3,200 1,960 Chile 1974 1990 16 years 1,200 to 3,200 alleged communists were executed, 80,000 were forcibly interned and 30,000 were tortured under the reign of Augusto Pinochet.[290][291]

Forced labor/slavery, abuse of workers, and slave trades

This section lists deaths caused by poor labor conditions, executions for not performing labor satisfactorily, and deaths caused by mistreatment of the workforce both in transit and at work locations.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
Laogai system 15,000,000[292] 27,000,000 20,124,610 People's Republic of China 1945 1976 31 years Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which once took up more than half of the world's slaves.[citation needed] Laogai is different from laojiao, or re-education through labor, which was an administrative detention for a person who was not a criminal but had committed minor offenses, and was intended to reform offenders into law-abiding citizens.[293] Persons detained under laojiao were detained in facilities that were separate from the general prison system of laogai. Both systems, however, involved penal labor.[citation needed]
Atlantic Slave Trade 11,400,000 11,600,000 11,499,565 Africa, the Americas, and the Atlantic 1500s 1700s 200 years [294]
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire 10,500,000[295][296] 11,250,000 10,868,533 Eurasia, Middle East, North Africa 1450 1800 150 years There is no concrete number for the number of people killed due to the Barbary Slave Trade.

The method many people use is to estimate the mortality rate of slave raids and multiply them by the number people took as slaves. White estimates 3 people were killed for every 1 slave abducted. Includes Barbary Slave Trade.[citation needed]

Atrocities in the Congo Free State 3,000,000[b] 13,000,000[298] 6,244,998 Congo Free State 1885 1908 23 years Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[299] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[300]
Arab slave trade 4,300,000 4,600,000 4,447,471 Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa 1500s 1700s 200 years [294]
Gulag system 1,053,829[301][302] 6,000,000[303] 2,514,552 Soviet Union 1930s 1950s 20 years Gulag is an acronym for the organization that administered the forced labor system in the Soviet Union that became a colloquialism in the west for the camps themselves. The system was used to punish criminals, political dissidents, and prisoners of war.[citation needed] There is a growing consensus among scholars that, based on archival data, the number of deaths in the gulag system fall within the range 1.5 to 1.7 million.[304][305][306]
Forced labor in North Korea 400,000 1,500,000 774,597 North Korea 1972 ongoing 46 years [307][308]
Hacienda peonage and chattel slavery 173,000 2,015,000 590,419 Mexico 1900 1920 20 years R.J. Rummel, coiner of the word "Democide," estimated the mortality rate for Mexican Peonage, a form of debt labor, by comparing it to similar forced labor systems such as the Soviet Gulag, and then applying and reducing it accordingly to the population of Mexico at the time, coming up with an annual death rate of 69,000.[citation needed]
Forced labor of Koreans by Imperial Japan 270,000 810,000 467,654 Korea and Manchuria 1939 1945 6 years [309]
Slavery in the French colonial empire 200,000 13,000,000 1,612,452 Africa 1900 1940 40 years [310][unreliable source?]
Slavery in Portugal 325,000 325,000 325,000 Portuguese Empire 1900 1925 25 years [311][unreliable source?]
Barbary slave trade 245,000 380,000 305,123 Italy, Spain, and Portugal 1500s 1600s 100 years [294] – Part of Slavery in the Ottoman Empire
Slavery during the Amazon rubber boom 250,000 250,000 250,000 Amazon, Brazil 1900 1912 12 years [312][unreliable source?]
Construction of the Burma Railway 102,621[313] 102,621[313] 102,621 Burma 1943 1947 4 years

Forced labour was used in the construction of the Burma Railway. More than 180,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers (Romusha) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, estimates of Romusha deaths are little more than guesses, but probably about 90,000 died. 12,621 Allied POWs died during the construction. The dead POWs included 6,904 British personnel, 2,802 Australians, 2,782 Dutch, and 133 Americans.[313]

Construction of the Suez Canal 30,000 120,000 67,082 Egypt, and Sudan 1859 1868 9 years French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps had obtained many concessions from Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan in 1854–56 to build the Suez Canal. Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000,[314] but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue, and disease, especially cholera.[315]
Forced labor of Allied POWs during World War II 35,000 35,000 35,000 In and around the Pacific 1939 1945 6 years According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps, where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 27%).[316][317]
FIFA World Cup related abuses of Human rights in Qatar 1,200 1,800 1,342 Qatar 2013 ongoing 5 years Out of at least 100,000 laborers.[318]

War crimes, massacres and ancient war atrocities

This section lists non-combatant deaths during wars that were committed or caused by military or quasi-military forces. They may not particularly target ethnic, religious, or political groups but are usually part of a military strategy that disregards civilian lives, or they may be arbitrary acts of cruelty.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
War crimes during World War II 29,000,000 30,500,000 29,074,054 Worldwide 1939 1945 6 years See also: World War II casualties.
Japanese war crimes 3,000,000[319] 14,000,000[320] 6,480,741 In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific 1937 1945 8 years Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. These incidents have also been described as an Asian Holocaust[321] and Japanese war atrocities.[322][323][324] Some war crimes were committed by military personnel from the Empire of Japan in the late 19th century, although most took place during the first part of the Shōwa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan, in 1945.[citation needed]
Three Alls Policy 2,700,000 2,700,000 2,700,000 China 1940 1942 2 years In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.[citation needed]
War crimes during the Chinese Civil War 1,800,000 3,500,000[325] 2,509,980 China 1927 1950 23 years During the war, both Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants deliberately killed by both sides.[326]
War crimes during the First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 Sudan 1956 2005 49 years [327]
War crimes during the Soviet–Afghan War 500,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 Afghanistan 1979 1989 10 years Some refer to the mass murder of civilians during the Soviet Invasion as a genocide, however those killed were on the basis of political alignment making it a politicide.

[328][329]

War crimes of Zhang Xianzhong 1,000,000 1,000,000[330] 1,000,000 Sichuan, China 1644 1646 2 years Committed during a bloody peasant revolt that massacred a large portion of Sichuan's population.[citation needed]
War crimes during Warlord Era China 910,000 910,000 910,000 China 1900 1927 27 years [331]
War crimes during theSecond Italo-Ethiopian War 62,000[332][unreliable source?] 485,000[332][unreliable source?] 173,407 Ethiopia 1935 1941 6 years Angelo Del Boca, The Ethiopian War 1935–1941 (1965), cites a 1945 memorandum from Ethiopia to the Conference of Prime Ministers, which tallies 760,300 natives dead; of them: battle deaths: 275,000, hunger among refugees: 300,000, patriots killed during occupation: 78,500, concentration camps: 35,000, Feb. 1937 massacre: 30,000, executions: 24,000, civilians killed by air force: 17,800.[citation needed]
Mongol sacking after the Siege of Baghdad (1258) 200,000[333] 2,000,000[334] 632,456 Baghdad January 29, 1258 February 10, 1258 12 days Mass slaughter of civilians by the Mongols in Baghdad. Considered to be the end of the "Islamic Golden Age."
War crimes during the Angolan Civil War 500,000 500,000 500,000 Angola 1975 2002 27 years The 27-year war can be divided roughly into three periods of major fighting – 1975-91, 1992–94, and 1998 to 2002 – broken up by fragile periods of peace. By the time the MPLA achieved victory in 2002, more than 500,000 people had died and over one million had been internally displaced. The war devastated Angola's infrastructure, and severely damaged the nation's public administration, economic enterprises, and religious institutions.[citation needed]
Biological warfare and human experimentation by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II 400,000[335] 580,000[336] 481,664 Parts of Russia and China especially Manchuria 1931 1945 14 years See also: Unit 731 and the Asian Holocaust.
War crimes during the Maratha invasions of Bengal 400,000[337][338] 400,000[337][338] 400,000 Bengal and Bihar regions of Indian subcontinent 1741 1751 10 years Maratha Empire invaded Bengal Subah, occupied the western Bengal and Bihar regions, and perpetrated atrocities against the local population.[337][338]
War crimes during La Violencia 200,000[339] 300,000[339] 244,949 Colombia 1948 1958 10 years

La Violencia was a ten-year period of civil war and violence in Colombia from 1948–58, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the rural countryside.
Death toll may include non-civilian victims.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 109,000 200,000[340] 147,648 Japan during World War II 1945 1945 3 days
War crimes during the Philippine-American War 200,000 250,000 223,607 Philippines 1899 1902 3 years [341][342][343][c]
Manila Massacre 100,000 500,000 223,607 Manila, Philippines 1945 1945 1 month [344][unreliable source?][345][346][347]
War crimes during the Iran–Iraq War 61,000 282,000 131,156 Iran and Iraq 1980 1988 8 years 11,000 to 100,000[348] civilians killed on both sides, plus 50 to 182 killed in Kurdish Genocide.
War crimes during the Colombian conflict 177,307 177,307 177,307 Colombia 1964 present 54 years [349]
War crimes during the Iraq War 155,923 186,355 170,461 Iraq 2003 2011 8 years Numbers come from Iraq Body Count Project[350][351]
War crimes during the War in the Vendée 100,000[352][353] 250,000[354][355] 158,114 France during the French Revolution 1793 1796 3 years Described as genocide by some historians,[353] but this claim has been widely discounted.[356] See also: French Revolution.
War crimes of the Viet Cong 36,725[357] 227,000[358] 131,863 Vietnam 1955 1975 20 years
Islamist terrorism 125,000[359] 203,865[360] 164,433 Worldwide 2001 present 17 years Death toll depends on how terrorist attack is defined.
War crimes during the First and Second Chechen Wars 55,000 330,000 134,722 Chechnya 1994 2009 15 years [361][362][363][364]

[365][366]

War crimes committed bySouth Vietnam during the Diem era and Vietnam War 57,000 284,000 127,232 Vietnam 1954 1975 21 years [367]
War crimes during the Second Italo-Senussi War 80,000 125,000 100,000 Libya 1923 1932 9 years Specific war crimes alleged to have been committed by the Italian armed forces against civilians include deliberate bombing of civilians, killing unarmed children, women, and the elderly; rape and disembowelment of women; throwing prisoners out of aircraft to their death, running over others with tanks, regular daily executions of civilians in some areas, and bombing tribal villages with mustard gas bombs, beginning in 1930.[citation needed]
War crimes of the Lord's Resistance Army 100,000 100,000 100,000 Uganda, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo 1986 2009 23 years The Guardian reported in 2015 that Kony's forces had been responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 people and the kidnapping of at least 60,000 children. Various atrocities committed include raping young girls and abducting them for use as sex slaves.[citation needed]
War crimes of the National Islamic Front 100,000 100,000 100,000 Sudan 1964 1999 35 years Alleged human rights abuses by the NIF regime included war crimes, ethnic cleansing, a revival of slavery, torture of opponents, and an unprecedented number of refugees fleeing into Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, Egypt, Europe and North America.[368]
War crimes during the Papua conflict 100,000[369] 100,000[370] 100,000 West Papua 1963 present 55 years Since Indonesia has taken control of West Papua in 1963, the population of West Papua has recorded more than 100,000 unnatural deaths. The administration of West Papua has been called a police state.[citation needed]
War crimes during the Syrian Civil War 106,390 110,218 108,287 Syria 2011 present 7 years See also: List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War
War crimes during the Kashmir Conflict 47,000[371] 100,000[372] 68,556 Jammu and Kashmir, India 1947 present 71 years See also: Human Rights Abuses in Jammu and Kashmir, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, List of massacres in Jammu and Kashmir
The Rape of Nanking 13,000[373]
(all victims)
5,000[373]
(Civilian massacre victims)
400,000[374]
(all victims)
100,000[375]
(Civilian massacre victims)
72,111
(all victims)
22,361
(Civilian massacre victims)
Nanking, China 1937 1938 1 year The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.
See: Death toll of the Nanking Massacre.
War crimes during the Internal conflict in Peru 61,007[376] 77,552 68,784 Peru 1980 2000 20 years In the late 20th century, the Peruvian government (armed forces and civil rondas) fought against communist terrorists in Peru. The principal actors in the war were the Communist Party of Peru or "Shining Path" and the government of Peru; the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement was also involved and other paramilitary entities. Terrorists deliberately targeted and killed civilians, kidnap and torture civil people and even force indigenous people to live in slavery, on the other side, some military forces, due to bad strategies, attacked civilian people in the highlands making the conflict more bloody than any other war in Peruvian history since the European colonization of the country.
Death toll may include non-civilian victims.[citation needed]
War crimes during the Sheikh Said rebellion 15,000

20,000[145]

40,000

250,000[146]

24,495

70,711

Turkey 1925 1925 1 month The Sheikh Said Rebellion was a rebellion to revive the Islamic Caliphate System, and used elements of Kurdish nationalism for recruiting.[377] It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers, known as Hamidiye soldiers. The rebellion was of two Kurdish groups, the Zaza people and the speakers of the related Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish: it "was led specifically by the Zaza population and received almost full support in the entire Zaza region and some of the neighbouring Kurmanji-dominated regions".[378]
War crimes during the War in Afghanistan 26,270 26,270 26,270 Afghanistan 2001 2014 13 years [379]
Violations of Human rights in ISIL-controlled territory 18,800 18,800 18,800 Iraq, Syria, sporadic terrorism worldwide 2011 present 7 years The death toll may be higher, considering that these figures are only taken over the course of two years and only account occurrences in Iraq.[380]
War Crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War 7,000[381] 40,000[382] 16,733 Sri Lanka 1983 2009 26 years There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers.[383][384]
Sack of Thessalonica (904) 15,000 15,000[385] 15,000 Byzantine Empire 904 904 ? The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed, the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.[citation needed]
Use of child soldiers in Iran during the Iran–Iraq war 6,000 18,000 10,392 Iran 1980 1988 8 years 3% of two to six hundred thousand casualties.[386][387][388][389][390][391][392][393][394][395]
Massacres during the Algerian Civil War 10,000 10,000 10,000 Algeria 1991 2002 11 years [396][397]
War crimes during theBalochistan conflict 7,628 7,628 7,628 Balochistan, Pakistan 1937 present 81 years [398][unreliable source?][399][400]
War crimes during theAmerican-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) and Syrian Civil War 6,575 6,575 6,575 Syria and Iraq September 2014 present 4 years [401] See also: American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War and American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present).
Civilians killed by South Korea in the Vietnam War 5,000[402][403][404] 9,000[405][406][407] 7,000 Vietnam 1964 1973 9 years
Civilians killed by U.S. soldiers in the Vietnam War 5,000 6,000 5,477 Vietnam 1955 1975 20 years [367][408]
War crimes during the Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War 5,013 5,013 5,013 Syria September 2015 present 3 years [409] S ee also: Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War.
September 11 attacks 2,977 2,977 2,977 United States 11 September 2001 11 September 2001 1 day [410]
War crimes during the War in Donbass 2,000 2,000 2,000 Donbass, Ukraine 2014 present 4 years [411]
Sabra and Shatila massacre 460[412] 3,500[413] 1,269 West Beirut, Lebanon September 16, 1982 September 18, 1982 2 days Massacre of a Palestinian refugee camp by Lebanese Christians.
Civilian casualties from U.S. drone strikes 138[414] 965[415] (+/- hundreds more)[416] 365 Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen 2006 present 12 years
Fort Pillow massacre 235 235 235 Lauderdale County, Tennessee April 12, 1864 April 12, 1864 1 day Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. U.S. dead includes those both killed in combat and murdered by the Confederates afterwards.
Lawrence massacre 204 204 204 Douglas County, Kansas August 21, 1863 August 21, 1863 1 day Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. Deadliest terrorist attack in U.S. history until the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995.

Human sacrifice and ritual suicide

This section lists deaths from the practice of human sacrifice or suicide.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geom. mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture 20,000[417] 5,000,000[418] 316,228 Mexico 14th century 1521 200 years Skull racks: 60,000[419] to 136,000[420] See also: Aztecs
Human sacrifice in Shang dynasty China 13,000[421][unreliable source?] 13,000 13,000 China 1300 BC 1050 BC 250 years Last 250 years of rule
Suicide bombings during the Iraq War 12,284 12,284[422] 12,284 Iraq 2003 2011 8 years See also: Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)
Sati ritual suicides 7,941[423][unreliable source?] 7,941 7,941 India 1815 1828 13 years
Kamikaze suicide pilots 3,912[424] 3,912[424] 3,912[424] Pacific theatre 1944 1945 1 year See also: Empire of Japan
Mass suicide at Masada 967[citation needed] 967 967 Masada Spring 73 CE Spring 73 CE ?
Palestinian suicide attacks 804 804 804 Israel and Palestine July 6, 1989 April 18, 2016 27 years May only include victims

Prisons, concentration and extermination camps

This section lists deaths that occurred in particular prisons, concentration and/or extermination camps, deaths are from both the conditions within the camps and from the active murder/execution of prisoners.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
Auschwitz concentration camp 800,000 1,500,000 1,095,445 Oświęcim, Poland 1940 1945 5 years [425][426]
Treblinka extermination camp 700,000 1,000,000 836,660 Treblinka, Poland 1942 1943 1 year [427][428]
Bełżec extermination camp 480,000 600,000 536,656 Bełżec, Poland 1942 1943 1 year [429][430][431]
Jasenovac concentration camp 100,000 700,000 264,575 Croatia 1941 1945 4 years [432][433][434]
Kolyma 130,000 500,000 254,951 Kolyma, Soviet Union 1932 1954 22 years [435]
Stutthof concentration camp 85,000 85,000 85,000 Stutthof, Poland 1939 1945 6 years See also: Second World War
Stara Gradiška concentration camp 12,790 75,000 30,972 Croatia 1941 1945 4 years Primarily for women and children.[436][437]
Tuol Sleng 17,000 17,000 17,000 Phnom Penh, Cambodia 1975 1979 4 years [438]
Camp Sumter 13,171 13,171 13,171 Andersonville, Georgia, United States 1864 1865 1 year [439]
Crveni Krst concentration camp 12,000 12,000 12,000 Niš, Serbia 1941 1944 3 years [440]
Tammisaari prison camp 2,963 2,963 2,963 Tammisaari, Finland 1918 1918 4 months
Elmira Prison 2,963 2,963 2,963 Elmira, New York, U.S. 1864 1865 1 year [441]
Shark Island concentration camp 1,032 4,000[442] 2,032 Luderitz, German South-West Africa 1905 1907 2 years The minimum death toll is out of a camp population of 1,795 people, and the maximum total includes those who died in the Luderitz area.

List of political leaders by death toll

This section lists deaths that occurred under certain heads of state, deaths are from both the conditions within the country due to national policy, and active killings by forces loyal to the leader in question.

Leader(s) Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geom. mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
Mao Zedong 16,997,000 70,000,000[443][444] 34,493,333 People's Republic of China 1946 1976 30 years Critics of Mao Zedong have argued Mao's China saw unprecedented losses of human life through inhuman economic policies such as the Great Leap Forward, slave labor through the Laogai, violent political purges such as the Cultural Revolution the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and class extermination through land reform. The estimate of the minimum death toll is the sum of the minimum estimate of famine dead (15 million),[445] land reform dead (800,000),[446] Counterrevolutionaries dead (712,000),[248] and Cultural Revolution dead (400,000)[246] plus the minimum killed in the 1959 Tibetan uprising (85,000 to 87,000).
Adolf Hitler 13,518,250 25,495,692 18,564,944 German-occupied Europe 1934 1945 11 years The Holocaust against the Jews, plus the genocide and mass murder of Gypsies, Serbs, East Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Freemasons, POWs, and the Jehovah's Witnesses
Joseph Stalin 8,773,521 22,192,230 13,953,637 Soviet Union 1922 1953 31 years The millions murdered by the regime of Joseph Stalin by famine, purges, labor camps, population transfer, deportations, and NKVD massacres. The minimum death toll (to the left) uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the Soviet regime of those not killed in famine which range from four to ten million,[470][471][472] plus the minimum of those killed in famine which range from 6 to 8 million. Robert Conquest, writer of the book The Great Terror, first stated an estimate of 30 million, then a few years later lowering it to 20 million,[473] and finally saying that no fewer than 15 million perished.[474][unreliable source?] Estimates before the release of the archives put those killed by Stalin as low as three million and as high as 60 million.[474][unreliable source?]

The low end is the sum of the low end of the following figures excluding the second post war famine as it's debated as to if the War or the Soviet government was more to blame, while the high end includes the high end of said famine along with the high end of the other events.

Famine:1.8[475] to 4.8 million[476] (Ukraine)

0.6 to 2.3 million[477] (Kazakhstan)

2 million[478] (North Caucasus and elsewhere)

1 to 1.5 million Soviet famine of 1946-47

Gulags: 1,053,829 to 6,000,000

Great Purge: 681,692 to 1,704,230

Population transfers: 1 to 1.5 million
Occupation of Poland: 150,000 to 500,000

German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union: 600,000 to 1 million

Rape during the occupation of Germany: 240,000

Siege of Budapest: 38,000

Forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union: 200,000

Battle of Berlin: 125,000

NKVD prisoner massacres: 100,000

Shooting of deserters: 185,000

Timur 8,000,000[479][unreliable source?][17][unreliable source?] 17,000,000[18][19] 12,649,111 Central, East and South Asia 1370 1405 35 years Up to 5% of the world's population at the time.
Chiang Kai-Shek 5,965,000[480] 18,522,000[480] 10,511,124 Republic of China 1928 1946 18 years {{nts| Primarily from conscription campaigns but also grain confiscations and other atrocities.
Genghis Khan 3,750,000 16,250,000+ 7,806,247 Eurasia 1206 1227 22 years
Hirohito 3,000,000[319] 14,000,000[320] 6,480,741 In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific 1895 1945 50 years See also: Japanese war crimes
Leopold II of Belgium 3,000,000[d] 13,000,000[298] 6,244,998 Congo Free State 1885 1908 13 years Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[299] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably due to the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[300] See also: Atrocities in the Congo Free State
Ranavalona I 2,500,000 2,500,000 2,500,000 Madagascar 1829 1842 13 years Putting an end to most foreign trade relationships, Ranavalona I pursued a policy of self-reliance, made possible through frequent use of the long-standing tradition of fanompoana—forced labor in lieu of tax payments in money or goods. Ranavalona continued the wars of expansion conducted by her predecessor, Radama I, in an effort to extend her realm over the entire island, and imposed strict punishments on those who were judged as having acted in opposition to her will. Due in large part to loss of life throughout the years of military campaigns, high death rates among fanompoana workers, and harsh traditions of justice under her rule, the population of Madagascar is estimated to have declined from around 5 million to 2.5 million between 1833–39, and from 750,000 to 130,000 between 1829-42 in Imerina.[484] These statistics have contributed to a strongly unfavorable view of Ranavalona's rule in historical accounts.[485]
Pol Pot 1,386,734[69] 3,400,000[70] 2,171,381 Cambodia 1975 1979 4 years Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.[citation needed]See also: Cambodian Genocide
the Young Turks 1,439,000 2,750,000 1,989,284 Ottoman Empire 1913 1922 9 years The Young Turks Holocaust is a collective term to refer to the various genocides and Ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks. The death toll is derived from the sum of the death tolls of the Armenian Genocide (800,000 to 1,500,000), Assyrian Genocide (150,000 to 300,000), Greek Genocide (289,000 to 750,000), and the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (200,000).
Omar al-Bashir 1,063,000 2,450,000 1,613,800 Sudan 1989 present 29 years 1 to 2 million: Second Sudanese Civil War
63,000 to 450,000: Darfur genocide
Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, and Kim Jong-un 710,000 3,500,000 1,576,388 North Korea 1948 present 70 years North Korea continues to be one of the most repressive governments in the world.[308] Over two-hundred thousand people are interned in concentrations camps for being political dissidents or being related to political dissidents. They are subject to slavery, torture, starvation, shootings, gassing, and human experimentation.[486] See also: Human rights in North Korea
Suharto 240,500 3,418,000+ 906,658+ Indonesia 1965 1998 33 years 65/66 Politicide: 78,500 to 3,000,000 "communists"
East Timor Atrocities: 60,000 to 308,000 East Timorese
West Papua Atrocities: 100,000 papuans
Petrus Killings: 2,000 to 10,000 suspected criminals
Mengistu Haile Mariam 225,000[487] 2,000,000[488][unreliable source?] 670,820 Ethiopia 1977 1987 10 years Manmade Famine: 400,000 to 1,000,000
Politicide: 30,000 to 750,000
Ante Pavelić and Nikola Mandić 300,000[489] 700,000[489] 458,258 Croatia[489] 1941 1945 4 years See also: Independent State of Croatia
Josip Broz Tito 200,000[490][unreliable source?] 802,000[491] 400,500 Yugoslavia 1944 1987 43 years
Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong 145,225 1,082,000 396,401 Vietnam 1954 2000 46 years 95,000: re-education camps[358]
13,500[280]–200,000:[281] land reform
36,725[357] to 227,000:[358] war crimes
200,000 to 560,000:[358][492] boat people
The minimum death toll is the same of minimum estimates for war crimes, re-education camps, and land reform. The maximum death toll is the combination of the maximum estimated death toll of land reform, war crimes, re-education camps and boat people, which may or may not be attributable to the regime.
Benito Mussolini 158,000 628,000 314,998 Italy, Libya, Ethiopia, Yugoslavia, Greece 1922 1945 24 years
Saddam Hussein 250,000[499] 250,000 Baathist Iraq 1979 2003 24 years

Excludes casualties resulting from the Iran–Iraq War and Gulf War.

Francisco Franco 195,000 265,000 227,321 Spain, Austria, and Russia 1939 1975 36 years Diseases and starvation: 130,000 (1939–1943)
Repression: 30,000–100,000 (1939–1948)
Prison camps: 20,000 (1939–1943)
Spanish Maquis: 5,548 (1939–1965)
World War II: 5,000 (Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria)
Blue Division: Casualties in the Russo-German conflict totalled 22,700. In action against the Blue Division, the Red Army suffered 49,300 casualties.
Idi Amin 100,000[500] 500,000[501] 223,607 Uganda 1971 1979 8 years Idi Amin's rule of Uganda saw excessive and egregious human rights abuses toward ethnic minorities and political opposition, earning him the nickname "The Butcher of Uganda."
Various leaders 60,000[502] 435,000[503] 161,555 Romania 1945 1964 19 years Total does not take into account the Romanian orphans who perished under Nicolae Ceaușescu's policies.
FRELIMO 83,000[504] 250,000[504] 144,049 Communist Mozambique 1975 1999 24 years See also: Mozambican Civil War
Ivan the Terrible 60,000[505][unreliable source?] 200,000[505] 109,545 Russian Empire 1533 1584 51 years
Siad Barre 50,000 200,000 100,000 Somalia 1988 1991 3 years See also: Isaaq genocide
Bashar al-Assad 100,000[506] 100,000 100,000 Syria 2011 present 9 years see also: Syrian Civil War
Various leaders 31,000[507][508] 220,000[503] 81,240 Bulgaria 1944 1989 45 years Collecitization and political repression in Bulgaria.
Various leaders 65,000[503] 65,000[503] 65,000 Czechoslovakia 1948 1968 20 years See also: Communist repression in Czechoslovakia
Francisco Macías Nguema 50,000[509] 80,000[509] 63,246 Equatorial Guinea 1968 1979 11 years Macías Nguema is regarded as one of the most kleptocratic, corrupt, and dictatorial leaders in post-colonial African history. Sources vary, but he was responsible for the deaths of anywhere from 50,000 to 80,000 of the 300,000 to 400,000 people living in the country at the time.[citation needed]
Rafael Trujillo 50,000[510][511][512] 50,000[510][511][512] 50,000 Dominican Republic 1930 1938 8 years
François Duvalier 30,000[513] 60,000[513] 42,426 Haiti 1957 1971 14 years Duvalier's rule based on a purged military, a rural militia known as the Tonton Macoute, and the use of cult of personality, resulted in the murder of 30,000 to 60,000 Haitians, and the exile of many more.[citation needed]
Hissène Habré 40,000 40,000 40,000 Chad 1982 1990 8 years In May 2016, Hissène Habré was found guilty of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery, and ordering the killing of 40,000 people. He was sentenced to life in prison. He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.[514]
Communist rule in Cuba, various leaders 9,240[515] 92,400[515] 29,219 Cuba 1976 present 42 years Human rights in Cuba are under the scrutiny of Human Rights Watch, which accuses the Cuban government of systematic human rights abuses. This includes offenses such as arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial execution.[516][517] See also: Human rights in Cuba
Ruhollah Khomeini and Ali Khemenei 10,482 48,000 22,431 Iran 1979 present 39 years 4,482 to 30,000 in P.O.C. massacre
6,000 to 18,000 child soldiers killed
(refer to earlier tables on page)
Communist rule in Poland, various leaders 22,000[503] 22,000 22,000 Communist Poland 1945 1989 44 years See also: Communist Repression in Poland
Various leaders 7,000 27,000[503] 13,748 Hungary 1948 1956 8 years Minimum death toll does not take into account those out of the 150,000 who perished in concentration camps, and only counts the 5,000 alleged spies and 2,000 party members executed, noting that 5,000 spies came from only 98,000 out of 700,000 alleged spies.[518][519] See also: Communist Repression in Hungary
Enver Hoxha 5,000 28,000 11,832 Albania 1941 1985 44 years
Ferdinand Marcos 3,257[520] 80,000[521] 41,629 Philippines 1965 1986 21 years The conservative estimate is recorded from 1975 to 1985, while the maximum estimate is recorded from 1965 to 1976. Also Includes those from the Moro conflict.
South African Apartheid, various leaders 18,997[522][unreliable source?] 21,000 19,999 South Africa and Namibia 1948 1994 46 years Maximum death toll does not include deaths from the South African Border War.
Tiberius 9,500[523][unreliable source?] 9,500 9,500 Ancient Rome 14 37 23 years
Caligula 9,000[523] 9,000 9,000 Ancient Rome 37 41 4 years
Johnny Paul Koroma 6,000[523] 6,000 6,000 Sierra Leone 1997 1998 1 year
Nero 5,750[523] 5,750 5,750 Ancient Rome 54 68 14 years
Jean-Bedel Bokassa 100[524] 90,000[525] 3,000 Central African Republic 1966 1976 10 years It was found that Bokassa personally oversaw the massacre of 100 school children.[524]
Claudius 2,935[523] 2,935 2,935 Ancient Rome 41 54 13 years
Various leaders 327[526] 1,500[526][527] 929 East Germany[526] 1949[526] 1989[526] 40 years See also: Berlin Wall deaths

Anthropogenically exacerbated famines and disease outbreaks

This section includes famines and disease outbreaks that were caused or exacerbated by human action.

Note: Some of these famines diseases were partially caused by nature.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geom. mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
Diseases caused by smoking 71,000,000 90,000,000 79,937,476 Worldwide 1930 1999 69 years [528][unreliable source?][529][unreliable source?]
Great Chinese Famine 15,000,000[445] 55,000,000[530] 28,722,810 People's Republic of China 1958 1962 4 years During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death.[531] State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.[532]
Famine and disease caused by World War II 19,000,000 28,000,000 23,065,130 Worldwide 1939 1945 6 years See also: World War II casualties
All famines in India under the British Raj 12,000,000[533] 29,000,000[533] 20,500,000 India 1757 1947 190 years Between 12 and 29 million Indians died of starvation while India under the British Raj. Millions of tonnes of wheat were exported to Britain as famine raged.[533]
Famine and disease caused by Japanese imperialism 8,136,000 14,936,000 11,023,579 Japanese Empire 1937 1945 8 years Combined death tolls from famine and disease from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 9,000,000[citation needed] 13,000,000 10,816,650 China 1876 1879 3 years ENSO famine.
Great Bengal famine of 1770 10,000,000[534] 10,000,000[534] 10,000,000 British Bengal 1769 1773 4 years The famine killed a third of the Bengali population at the time.[535] It is attributed to the policies of the ruling British East India Company.[535]
Russian famine of 1921–22 5,000,000[536] 10,000,000[536] 7,071,072 Soviet Russia 1921 1922 1 year May have been exacerbated by War Communism policies, but it is debatable to which extent.

See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, and Russian Civil War, with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka.

Famine and disease caused by the Second Sino-Japanese War 5,000,000 10,000,000 7,071,068 China 1937 1945 8 years See also: World War II casualties.
Soviet famine of 1932–33 4,400,000 9,100,000 6,327,717 Soviet Union 1932 1933 1 year The majority of famine victims were Ukrainian. Many nations, including Ukraine, regard the famine's effect in the Ukraine as a genocide against Ukraine, known as the Holodomor.

1.8 - 4.8 million: Ukraine

600,000 - 2.3 million: Kazakhstan

2 million: Elsewhere

Famine and disease caused by World War I 5,411,000 6,100,000 5,745,181 Worldwide 1914 1918 4 years See also: World War I casualties.
Great Famine of 1876–78 6,100,000[537] 10,320,000[538] 8,300,000[539][unreliable source?] British India 1876 1878 2 years ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.
Famine and disease caused by the Second Congo War 3,800,000 5,400,000 4,529,901 Africa 1998 2004 6 years Majority of those who died in war perished from famine and disease.
Famine and disease caused by Decommunization 3,000,000[540][unreliable source?] 6,000,000[541][unreliable source?] 4,242,641 Former States of the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc 1991 2000 9 years Deaths caused by decrease in living conditions in Russia and other former Communist States after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Bengal famine of 1943 3,000,000[citation needed] 4,000,000 3,464,100 British India 1943 1944 1 year The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports,[542] however, war-related administrative policies in British India ultimately helped to cause the massive death toll.[543][544]
Indian famine of 1896–97 and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 8,400,000[537] 19,000,000[545] 13,700,000 British India 1896 1900 4 years ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.
Famine and diseased caused by the Biafran Blockade during Nigeria's Civil War 2,000,000[546] 3,000,000[547][548] 2,449,490 Nigeria 1967 1970 3 years More than two million Igbo died from the famine imposed deliberately through blockades during the war. Lack of medicine also contributed. Thousands starved to death daily as the war progressed.[citation needed]
Famine and disease during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies 2,400,000[549] 2,400,000 2,400,000 Indonesia 1944 1945 1 year An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but the main cause was the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.[549]
Soviet famine of 1946–47 1,000,000 1,500,000 1,224,745 Soviet Union 1946 1947 1 year Debated as to whether it was caused by war or government policy.
Great Irish Famine 750,000[550][551] 1,500,000[552] 1,060,660 Ireland 1846 1849 3 years Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland, where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food, was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors, which continue to remain the subject of historical debate.[553][554]
Vietnamese Famine of 1945 400,000[555] 2,000,000[556] 894,427 Vietnam 1944 1945 1 year The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.[556]
Cambodian Holocaust Famine 800,000[557] 950,000[558] 871,780 Cambodia 1975 1979 4 years An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor, and famine, perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, nearly half of which was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.
1983–85 famine in Ethiopia 400,000[559] 1,000,000[560] 632,456 Ethiopia 1983 1985 2 years The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, especially the one of 1983–1985, were in large part created by government policies.[559]
Famine and disease during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines 336,000 336,000 336,000 Philippines 1942 1945 3 years See also: World War I casualties.
North Korean famine 240,000[561] 420,000[561] 330,000 North Korea 1994 1998 4 years The famine stemmed from a variety of factors. Economic mismanagement and the loss of Soviet support caused food production and imports to decline rapidly. A series of floods and droughts exacerbated the crisis, but were not its direct cause. The North Korean government and its centrally-planned system proved too inflexible to effectively curtail the disaster. Recent research suggests the likely number of excess deaths between 1993 and 2000 was about 330,000.[561][562]
Cuban War of Independence Famine 300,000 300,000[563][564] 300,000 Cuba 1895 1898 3 years Most of dead in this war perished from famine and disease.
Great Famine of Mount Lebanon 200,000 200,000 200,000 Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire 1915 1918 3 years Around 200,000 people starved to death at a time when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated at 400,000.[565] The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population of World War I. Bodies were piled in the streets, and people were reported to be eating street animals, while some resorted to cannibalism.[89][566]
1998 Sudan famine 70,000[567] 70,000 70,000 Sudan 1998 1998 ? The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.[568]
Famine in Yemen (2016–present) 50,000 children[569] 50,000 children[569] 50,000 children[569] Yemen 2016 present 2 years The famine was triggered by Saudi Arabia's intervention into the Yemeni Civil War, which is backed by Western powers including the United States.[570] Around 13 million people, or roughly half of the country's population, is facing starvation in what the UN calls "the worst famine in the world in 100 years".[571]
2018 Canadian heatwave 70[572] 70[572] 70[572] Canada 2018 2018 ?
Starvation caused by the draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes 0? 275,000? n/a Mesopotamian Marshes, Iraq and Iran 1950s 1990s 40 years Only 20,000 Marsh Arabs were left in the region after the draining, though it is unknown whether this was caused by famine or migration.[573][574]

Anthropogenically exacerbated floods and landslides

These are floods and landslides that have been partially caused by humans, for example by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

Event Death toll Location Date
1931 China floods 2,500,000–3,700,000[575] China 1931
1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood 900,000–2,000,000[citation needed] China 1887
1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood 500,000–700,000[citation needed] China 1938
Flight of the Boat People 200,000–560,000[358][492] Gulf of Thailand and Pacific Ocean 1978–79
The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina. 26,000[576]-230,000[577] China August 1975
1935 Yangtze river flood 145,000[citation needed] China 1935
St. Felix's Flood, storm surge more than 100,000[citation needed] Netherlands 1530
Hanoi and Red River Delta flood 100,000[citation needed] North Vietnam 1971
1911 Yangtze river flood 100,000[citation needed] China 1911
St. Lucia's flood, storm surge 50,000–80,000[citation needed] Netherlands, England 1287
Vargas Tragedy, landslide 10,000–50,000[citation needed] Venezuela 1999
North Sea flood, storm surge 2,400[citation needed] Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium 31 January 1953
Johnstown Flood 2,209[citation needed] Pennsylvania 31 May 1889

Riot or political unrest

Only riots and incidents where at least four people died are listed here.

Event Victims Country Locale(s) Date
Partition of India and Pakistan 200,000–2,000,000 British India Punjab and Bengal 1947
La Violencia 200,000–300,000 Colombia Country-wide 1948–1960
1959 Tibetan uprising 85,000–87,000 Tibet, China Lhasa 1959
Nika riots 30,000 Byzantium Constantinople 532
La semaine sanglante 6,667–20,000 France Paris 1871
February 28 Incident 10,000–30,000 Taiwan (Republic of China) 1947
Jeju Uprising 14,000–30,000 Southern Korea, present-day South Korea Jeju island 1948
August Uprising 13,000–15,500 Georgia 1924
1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising 10,000–40,000 El Salvador 1932
Romanian Peasants' Revolt 10,000–20,000 Romania 1907
Kronstadt rebellion 10,000 Russia Kronstadt 1921
1984 anti-Sikh riots 2,800–8,000 India New Delhi 1984
March 1st Movement 7,500 Japanese Korea, present-day South Korea Seoul 1919
Second Intifada 4,179–4,354 Israel/Palestinian territories 2000–2005
Pitchfork Uprising 3,800 Russia 1920
Iranian Revolution[578] 2,781 Iran 1979
8888 Uprising 3,000–10,000 Burma/Myanmar 1987–1993
First Intifada 2,204 Israel/Palestinian territories 1987
Banana Massacre 47–2,000 Colombia Ciénaga 1928
Santa María School massacre 2,300 Chile Iquique 1907
Assam Movement 2,191+ India Assam 1979–1985
1994 South African transitional violence 1,652[579] South Africa 1994
Romanian Revolution of 1989 1,104 Romania Bucharest and major cities 1989
May 1998 riots of Indonesia 1,000–1,200 Indonesia Jakarta, Medan, Surakarta 1998
2008 Kenyan election protests 1,000[580][581] Kenya 2008
2005 Togolese democracy protests 500–1,000[582][583] Togo 2005
1989 Bhagalpur violence 1,000 India Bhagalpur district, Bihar 1989
1905 Bloody Sunday 132–4,000 Russia Saint Petersburg 1905
2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes 893 Kyrgyzstan 2010
Iranian pilgrim riot 400 Saudi Arabia Mecca 1987
Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) massacre 379–1,526 British India Amritsar 1919
Telangana movement (Hyderabad) 360+ India Hyderabad 1969
Tunisian Revolution 338 Tunisia 2010–2011
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 300–10,454 China Beijing 1989
Kengir uprising 700 Soviet Union Kazakhstan 1954
2018 Nicaraguan protests 317[584] Nicaragua Country-wide 2018
Gordon Riots 285 Great Britain 1780
1929 Palestine riots 249 British Mandate for Palestine 1929
Military Police of Espírito Santo strike 215 Brazil Espírito Santo 2017
13 May incident 196 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 1969
Andijan massacre 187–1,500 Uzbekistan Andijan 2005
2017 Venezuelan protests 165 Venezuela Nationwide 2017
Gwangju Uprising 144–2,000 South Korea Gwangju 1980
Durban riots 142 South Africa Durban 1949
2017 Brazil prison riots 140+ Brazil 2017
Muhammad cartoon riots 139[585] Nigeria, Libya, Pakistan, and Afghanistan 2006
Euromaidan 121–797 Ukraine Kiev 2014
Carandiru massacre 111 Brazil São Paulo 1992
New York City draft riots 119–120 United States New York City 1863
Georgian de-Stalinization riots 22–100 Georgia Country-wide 1956
Napoleon's "whiff of grapeshot" 100 France Paris 1795
Jaffa riots 95 British Mandate for Palestine Jaffa 1921
1947 Jerusalem riots 94 British Mandate for Palestine Jerusalem 1947
July Revolt of 1927 94 Austria Vienna 1927
Bahraini uprising of 2011 93 Bahrain 2011
2012 Rakhine State riots 88 Myanmar 2012
Riot and crushing during mass arrests 84 Thailand Narathiwat Province 2004
Port Said Stadium riot 74 Egypt Port Said 2012
Sharpeville massacre 69 South Africa Sharpeville 1960
Vorkuta uprising 66 Soviet Union Russia 1953
March 2008 South African anti-immigrant violence[586] 7[586] South Africa[586] Atteridgeville[586] 2008[586]
May 2008 South African anti-immigrant pogroms[587][588] 62[589] South Africa Gauteng, Durban, Mpumalanga, Southern Cape, the North West, and Free State 2008
1992 Los Angeles riots 53 United States Los Angeles 1992
2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots 50 Myanmar 2013
Champ de Mars Massacre 50 France Paris 1791
Marikana killings 47 South Africa Rustenburg 2012
Boipatong massacre 46 South Africa Boipatong 1992
Polish 1970 protests 45 Poland Gdynia, Szczecin, Gdańsk, and Elbląg 1970[590]
Attica Prison riot 43 United States Attica, New York 1971
1967 Detroit riot 43 United States Detroit 1967
2014 Venezuelan protests 43 Venezuela Nationwide 2014
2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests 41 Afghanistan 2012
Paris massacre of 1961 40–200 France Paris 1961
Midland Revolt 40–50 England Newton, Northamptonshire 1607
Tulsa riot 39+ United States Tulsa, Oklahoma 1921
1964 race riots in Singapore 36 Singapore 1964
Watts Riots 34 United States Los Angeles 1965
Tlatelolco massacre 30–300 Mexico Mexico City 1968
Khujand prison riot 27[591] Tajikistan Khujand 2018
August 2006 South African anti-Somali violence[592] 26[592] South Africa[592] Western Cape[592] 2006[592]
Agricultural Penitentiary of Monte Cristo riot 25 Brazil Roraima 2016
Palingoproer 25 Netherlands Amsterdam 1886
Corpus Christi massacre 25 Mexico Mexico City 1971
Soweto uprising 23–600 South Africa Soweto 1976
Eureka Rebellion 22 Australia Ballarat 1854
July 2006 South African anti-Somali violence[592] 21[592] South Africa[592] Western Cape[592] 2006[592]
Ludlow Massacre 20 United States Ludlow, Colorado 1914
Maria Hertogh riots 18 Singapore 1950
6 February 1934 crisis 17 France Paris 1934
Cadereyta state prison riot[593] 16[593] Mexico[593] Cadereyta[593] 2017[593]
1921 Bloody Sunday 16 (+ 11 more killed or fatally wounded over the following week) United Kingdom Belfast, Northern Ireland 1921
Islamabad mosque mass shooting 16 Pakistan Islamabad 1999
1972 Bloody Sunday 14 United Kingdom Derry, Northern Ireland 1972
Socialist riot of 1932 13 Switzerland Geneva 1932
Chinese middle schools riots 13 Singapore 1956
Mendiola Street massacre 13 Philippines 1987
2011 Nakba Day 12 Israel/Palestinian territories 2011
2013 Venezuelan presidential election protests 11 Venezuela Nationwide 2013
Peterloo Massacre 11 United Kingdom Manchester 1819
Colonia Agroindustrial prison riot[594] 9[594] Brazil[594] Goiania[594] 2018[594]
1920 Nebi Musa riots 9 British Mandate for Palestine Jerusalem 1920
Fusillade de Fourmies 9 France Fourmies 1891
2000 South African anti-immigrant violence[595] 7[595] South Africa[595] Cape Flats[595] 2000[595]
2015 South African anti-immigrant violence 7 South Africa Durban and Johannesburg 2015
Ådalen shootings 5 Sweden Ådalen 1931
2011 England riots 5 United Kingdom England 2011
Boston Massacre 5 British America Boston 1770
Greensboro massacre 5 United States Greensboro, North Carolina 1979
Tshwane riots 5 South Africa Tshwane 2016
Battle of Ventersdorp 4 South Africa Ventersdorp 1991
2013 protests in Brazil 4+ Brazil 2013
2005–2006 South African anti-immigrant violence[596] 4[596] South Africa[596] Olievenhoutbosch[596] 2005–2006[596]
Kent State shootings 4 United States Kent, Ohio 1970
Hock Lee bus riots 4 Singapore 1955

See also

Other lists organized by death toll

Other lists with similar topics

Topics dealing with similar themes

Notes

  1. ^ Spanish Empire, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American disease and epidemics. These death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which some say might never be accurately determined. Modern scholarship tend to side with the higher estimates, but there is still variance based on calculation methods used. Even using conservative populations estimates, however, "one dreadful conclusion is inescapable: the 150 years after Columbus's arrival brought a toll on human life in this hemisphere comparable to all of the world's losses during World War II. ... Against the alien agents of disease, the indigenous people never had a chance. Their immune systems were unprepared to fight smallpox and measles, malaria and yellow fever. The epidemics that resulted have been well documented."[6] A small industry of researchers in recent years have focused their attention on Native American population size in 1492, and the subsequent decimation of the population after contact with Europeans.[7] They have stated that their findings in no way diminish the "dreadful impact Old World diseases had on the people of the New World. But it suggests that the New World was hardly a healthful Eden." For example, they note that as the previously thriving indigenous peoples became more urbanized and less mobile, they succumbed to the same declining sanitation and health conditions of other urban cultures, including tuberculosis. The researchers stress, however, that "their findings in no way mitigated the responsibility of Europeans as bearers of disease devastating to native societies."[6]
  2. ^ The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".[297]
  3. ^ While there are many estimates for civilian deaths, with some even going well over a million for the war, modern historians generally place the death toll between 200,000 and 250,000; see "Casualties".
  4. ^ The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".[297]

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  424. ^ a b c This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
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  448. ^ Early efforts by scholars to determine the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis were limited by a lack of access to pertinent records. The genocide seldom entered Western discourse, both due to ignorance and to the Cold-War politics which made West Germany a new ally of the United States.The first significant work on the subject published in English was Gerald Reitlinger's Final Solution (1953), which, relying almost exclusively on German documentation, estimated 4.9 million dead. This figure is now considered extremely conservative. Raul Hilberg's 1961 The Destruction of the European Jews became a classic in the field of Holocaust literature and made the genocide of the Jews known to the wider public, Hilberg estimated its victims to be 5.1 million lives, or 4.9 - 5.4 million broadly construed. The trial of Adolph Eichmann further raised awareness of the genocide, Eichmann also provided documentation and testimony which revised the number of the dead.The first work to arrive at a figure comparable to modern estimates was Lucy Dawidowicz's The War Against the Jews, published in 1975, the book provided detailed listings by country of the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust which are still used as a reference in modern Holocaust studies. Dawidowicz researched birth and death records in many cities of prewar Europe to come up with a death toll of 5,933,900 Jews. After the opening of Soviet records, scholarship arrived at a death toll of about 6 million Jews. Gutman and Rozett's Encyclopedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990 and estimated slightly over 5.9 million Jews were murdered.Wolfgang Benz's The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide, published 1995, gave a toll of 6.2 million.
  449. ^ Davies, Norman (2012). God's Playground [Boze igrzysko]. Otwarte (publishing). p. 956. ISBN 8324015566. Polish edition, second volume. "To, co robili Sowieci, bylo szczególnie mylace. Same liczby bylSacramentsie wiarygodne, ale pozbawione komentarza, sprytnie ukrywaly fakt, ze ofiary w przewazajacej liczbie nie byly Rosjanami, ze owe miliony obejmowaly ofiary nie tylko Hitlera, ale i Stalina, oraz ze wsród ludnosci cywilnej najwieksze grupy stanowili Ukraincy, Polacy, Bialorusini i Zydzi. Translation: The Soviet methods were particularly misleading. The numbers were correct, but the victims were overwhelmingly not Russian, and came from either one of the two regimes."
  450. ^ Zemskov, Viktor N. (2012). "О масштабах людских потерь CCCР в Великой Отечественной Войне" [The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War]. Military Historical Archive (Военно-исторический архив) (in Russian). 9: 59–71 – via Demoskop Weehly vol. 559-560 (2013)
    Excludes:
    • Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2)
    • 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 January 2016..
  451. ^ Includes:
    • Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence 7,420,379-(see: ????????? 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.)
    • Deaths of forced laborers in Germany 2,164,313-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131.)
    • Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions 4,100,000-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease.)
    Excludes:
    • Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2)
    • 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  452. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War (1997): "an estimated 500,000 Soviet citizens died from German bomb attacks."
  453. ^ Christian Streit: Keine Kameraden: Die Wehrmacht und die Sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen, 1941–1945, Bonn: Dietz (3. Aufl., 1. Aufl. 1978), ISBN 3-8012-5016-4 — "Between 22 June 1941 and the end of the war, roughly 5.7 million members of the Red Army fell into German hands. In January 1945, 930,000 were still in German camps. A million at most had been released, most of whom were so-called ‘volunteers’ (Hilfswillige) for (often compulsory) auxiliary service in the Wehrmacht. Another 500,000, as estimated by the Army High Command, had either fled or been liberated. The remaining 3,300,000 (57.5 percent of the total) had perished." Nazi persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War United States Holocaust Memorial Museum — "Existing sources suggest that some 5.7 million Soviet army personnel fell into German hands during World War II. As of January 1945, the German army reported that only about 930,000 Soviet POWs remained in German custody. The German army released about one million Soviet POWs as auxiliaries of the German army and the SS. About half a million Soviet POWs had escaped German custody or had been liberated by the Soviet army as it advanced westward through eastern Europe into Germany. The remaining 3.3 million, or about 57 percent of those taken prisoner, were dead by the end of the war." Jonathan North, Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II Archived March 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. — "Statistics show that out of 5.7 million Soviet soldiers captured between 1941 and 1945, more than 3.5 million died in captivity." Peter Calvocoressi, Guy Wint, Total War — "The total number of prisoners taken by the German armies in the USSR was in the region of 5.7 million. Of these, the astounding number of 3.5 million or more had been lost by the middle of 1944 and the assumption must be that they were either deliberately killed or done to death by criminal negligence. Nearly two million of them died in camps and close on another million disappeared while in military custody either in the USSR or in rear areas; a further quarter of a million disappeared or died in transit between the front and destinations in the rear; another 473,000 died or were killed in military custody in Germany or Poland." They add, "This slaughter of prisoners cannot be accounted for by the peculiar chaos of the war in the east. ... The true cause was the inhuman policy of the Nazis towards the Russians as a people and the acquiescence of army commanders in attitudes and conditions which amounted to a sentence of death on their prisoners." Minus 5% of Jewish POWs British Imperial War Museum — Invasion of the Soviet Union display (Holocaust Exhibition) Berkeleyinternetsystems.com http://www.berkeleyinternet.com/iwm/soviet.html
  454. ^ https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005473 "Polish Victims". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  455. ^ Tomasz Szarota; Wojciech Materski, eds. (2009). Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami [Poland 1939–1945. Human Losses and Victims of Repression under two Occupations]. Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance (IPN). Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. - Janusz Kurtyka; Zbigniew Gluza. Preface.: "ze pod okupacja sowiecka zginelo w latach 1939–1941, a nastepnie 1944–1945 co najmniej 150 tys [...] Laczne straty smiertelne ludnosci polskiej pod okupacja niemiecka oblicza sie obecnie na ok. 2 770 000. [...] Do tych strat nalezy doliczyc ponad 100 tys. Polaków pomordowanych w latach 1942–1945 przez nacjonalistów ukrainskich (w tym na samym Wolyniu ok. 60 tys. osób [...] Liczba Zydów i Polaków zydowskiego pochodzenia, obywateli II Rzeczypospolitej, zamordowanych przez Niemców siega 2,7– 2,9 mln osób." Translation: "It must be assumed losses of at least 150.000 people during the Soviet occupation from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1944 to 1945 [...] The total fatalities of the Polish population under the German occupation are now estimated at 2,770,000. [...] To these losses should be added more than 100,000 Poles murdered in the years 1942–1945 by Ukrainian nationalists (including about 60,000 in Volhynia [...] The number of Jews and Poles of Jewish ethnicity, citizens of the Second Polish Republic, murdered by the Germans amounts to 2.7–2.9 million people." - Waldemar Grabowski. German and Soviet occupation. Fundamental issues.: "Straty ludnosci panstwa polskiego narodowosci ukrainskiej sa trudne do wyliczenia," Translation: "The losses of ethnic Poles of Ukrainian nationality are difficult to calculate." Note: Polish losses amount to 11.3% of the 24.4 million ethnic Poles in prewar Poland and about 90 percent of the 3.3 million Jews of prewar times. The IPN figures do not include losses among Polish citizens of Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnicity. https://web.archive.org/web/20120323161233/http://niniwa2.cba.pl/polska_1939_1945.htm
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  463. ^ Peter Hoffmann "The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945"p.xiii
  464. ^ The number of Slovenes estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation (not including those killed by Slovene collaboration forces and other Nazi allies) is estimated between 20,000 and 25,000 people. This number only includes civilians: Slovene partisan POWs who died and resistance fighters killed in action are not included (their number is estimated at 27,000). These numbers however include only Slovenes from present-day Slovenia: it does not include Carinthian Slovene victims, nor Slovene victims from areas in present-day Italy and Croatia. These numbers are result of a 10-year-long research by the Institute for Contemporary History (Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino) from Ljubljana, Slovenia. The partial results of the research have been released in 2008 in the volume Žrtve vojne in revolucije v Sloveniji (Ljubljana: Institute for Contemporary History, 2008), and officially presented at the Slovenian National Council http://www.ds-rs.si/sites/default/files/dokumenti/zbornik_zrtve_vojne_in_revolucije.pdf
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  474. ^ a b "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". See also: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's 1973–1976 opus: The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956; ISBN 0-8133-3289-3
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  487. ^ de Waal, Alex. Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. London: Africa Watch / Human Rights Watch, 1991., page 110.
  488. ^ White 2011, pp. 455-456: "For those who prefer totals broken down by country, here are reasonable estimates for the number of people who died under Communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats: China: 40,000,000 Soviet Union: 20,000,000 North Korea: 3,000,000 Ethiopia: 2,000,000 Cambodia: 1,700,000 Vietnam: 365,000 (after 1975) Yugoslavia: 175,000 East Germany: 100,000 Romania: 100,000 North Vietnam: 50,000 (internally, 1954-75) Cuba: 50,000 Mongolia: 35,000 Poland: 30,000 Bulgaria: 20,000 Czechoslovakia: 11,000 Albania: 5,000 Hungary: 5,000 Rough Total: 70 million (This rough total doesn't include the 20 million killed in the civil wars that brought Communists into power, or the 11 million who died in the proxy wars of the Cold War. Both sides probably share the blame for these to a certain extent. These two categories overlap somewhat, so once the duplicates are weeded out, it seems that some 26 million people died in Communist-inspired wars.)"
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  494. ^ John Wright, A History of Modern Libya (1982) http://necrometrics.com/20c100k.htm#Libya
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  496. ^ Doxiadis, Sacrifices of Greece, Claims and Reparations, no.19, p.75-77
  497. ^ Rudolph J. Rummel. "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900." LIT Verlag, 1998. Page 168.
  498. ^ Italians Raze 100 Sloven Villages
  499. ^ "War in Iraq: Not a Humanitarian Intervention". Human Rights Watch. 2004-01-25. Retrieved 2019-01-11. We have no illusions about Saddam Hussein's vicious inhumanity. Having devoted extensive time and effort to documenting his atrocities, we estimate that in the last twenty-five years of Ba'th Party rule the Iraqi government murdered or 'disappeared' some quarter of a million Iraqis, if not more.
  500. ^ Ullman, Richard H. (April 1978). "Human Rights and Economic Power: The United States Versus Idi Amin". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 26 March 2009. The most conservative estimates by informed observers hold that President Idi Amin Dada and the terror squads operating under his loose direction have killed 100,000 Ugandans in the seven years he has held power. [dead link]
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  514. ^ "Chad's former president has been found guilty of crimes against humanity. Who's next?". The Economist. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  515. ^ a b "It has so far verified the names of 9,240 victims of the Castro regime and the circumstances of their deaths. Archive researchers meticulously insist on confirming stories of official murder from two independent sources.
    Cuba Archive President Maria Werlau says the total number of victims could be higher by a factor of 10."
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  551. ^ Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society pg. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
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  553. ^ Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1.
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  557. ^ Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
  558. ^ Marek Sliwiński (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, pg. 82.
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External links

  • Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II
  • Top 100 aviation disasters on AirDisaster.com

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