List of parrots

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Parrots, also known as psittacines (/ˈsɪtəsnz/),[1][2] are the 402 species of birds that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions, of which 387 are extant. The order is subdivided into three superfamilies: the Psittacoidea ("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea (cockatoos), and the Strigopoidea (New Zealand parrots).[3][4] Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is in South America and Australasia.[5]

The Cacatuoidea are quite distinct, having a movable head crest, a different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones,[6] and lack the Dyck texture feathers that—in the Psittacoidea—scatter light to produce the vibrant colours of so many parrots.[7] Lorikeets were previously regarded as a family, Loriidae,[8]:45 but are now considered a tribe (Loriini) within the subfamily Loriinae, family Psittaculidae.[9][10][11] Some species, such as the Puerto Rican amazon (Amazona vittata) have had a population bottleneck (in this case reduced to 13 individuals in 1975) and subsequently have low genetic variability and low reproductive success, leading to complications with conservation.[12]

No consensus existed regarding the taxonomy of Psittaciformes until recently. The placement of the Strigopoidea species has been variable in the past.[13] They were once considered part of the Psittacoidea, but recent 21st-century studies place this group of New Zealand species as their own superfamily next to the Cacatuoidea and remaining members of the Psittacoidea.[9][10][11] Many studies have confirmed the unique placement of this group at the base of the parrot tree.[3][9][11][10] Most authors now recognize this group as a separate taxon[3][14][15] containing two families: Nestoridae and Strigopidae.[3][16] Conversely, the relationships among various cockatoo genera are largely resolved.[9][17][18][19]

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
EX Extinct (15 species)
EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
CR Critically endangered (17 species)
EN Endangered (38 species)
VU Vulnerable (54 species)
NT Near threatened (59 species)
CD Conservation dependent (N/A)
LC Least Concern (219 species)
Other category
DD Data deficient (0 species)
NE Not evaluated (5 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the bird's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN red list for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species listed went extinct after 1500 CE (recently extinct[20]), and are indicated by a dagger symbol "†".

Classification

The order Psittaciformes consists of 387 extant species belonging to 87 genera. The following classification is based on the most recent proposals as of 2012.[9][10][3]

Superfamily Psittacoidea: true parrots[21]

Superfamily Cacatuoidea: cockatoos[17]

Superfamily Strigopoidea: New Zealand parrots[23]

True parrots

Family Psittacidae

Subfamily Psittacinae

Genus Psittacus (grey parrots) Brisson, 1760 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
African grey parrot P. erithacus
Linnaeus, 1758
gVU IUCN Range includes southern regions of Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon, and throughout Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo and Democratic Republic of the Congo. A grey parrot with black beak, white face and a short red tail
Timneh parrot P. timneh
Fraser, 1844
gVU IUCN Range is from Guinea-Bissau east through southern Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia east to at least 70 km east of the Bandama River in Côte d'Ivoire. A grey parrot with a white mask. The dark bill has a lighter colouring on the upper mandible.
Genus Poicephalus Swainson, 1837 – nine species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Senegal parrot P. senegalus
Linnaeus, 1766
LC IUCN West Africa (excluding the Maghreb) A parrot with a yellow underbelly, green upper chest and grey head
Red-bellied parrot P. rufiventris
Rüppell, 1845
LC IUCN Eastern Horn of Africa, eastern Kenya, and northeast Tanzania Two parrots with grey heads. One has an orange-red belly, the other is green.
Rüppell's parrot P. rueppellii
Gray, 1849
LC IUCN Northern Namibia and the coast of Angola A grey parrot with blue belly and yellow legs. The top of the wings near the shoulders is almost white.
Cape parrot P. robustus
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Range includes: Angola; Botswana; Burundi; Cameroon; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Rwanda; South Africa; Swaziland; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe. A parrot with a brown head, brown neck and white bill is peering out of a hole in a tree.
Meyer's parrot P. meyeri
Cretzschmar, 1827
LC IUCN Range includes Angola; Botswana; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Rwanda; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe. Two brown parrots. Their underplumage is turquoise-green.
Red-fronted parrot P. gulielmi
Jardine, 1849
LC IUCN Range includes Angola; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Ghana; Kenya; Liberia; Nigeria; Tanzania; Uganda. A green parrot with an orange-yellow forehead.
Yellow-fronted parrot P. flavifrons
Rüppell, 1845
LC IUCN Western Ethiopia A green parrot with a yellow face
Brown-headed parrot P. cryptoxanthus
Peters, 1854
LC IUCN Southeast African coast A green parrot with a light-brown head
Niam-Niam parrot P. crassus
Sharpe, 1884
LC IUCN Central Central African Republic

Subfamily Arinae (neotropical parrots)

Tribe Arini

Genus Cyanoliseus Bonaparte, 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Burrowing parrot C. patagonus
Vieillot, 1818
LC IUCN Central Argentina stretching to the coasts A green parrot with a black breast and a white eye-spot
Genus Enicognathus Gray, 1840 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Slender-billed parakeet E. leptorhynchus
King, 1831
LC IUCN Central Chilean coast (central meaning halfway between the northern and southern extremes) A green parrot with sea-green wings and a red tail
Austral parakeet E. ferrugineus
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Eastern Patagonian coast, southern Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, South Sandwich Islands and South Georgia A yellow-green parrot with green wings and orange underside
Genus Rhynchopsitta Bonaparte, 1854 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Thick-billed parrot R. pachyrhyncha
Swainson, 1827
eEN IUCN Sierra Madre Occidental A green parrot with a bright red forehead
Maroon-fronted parrot R. terrisi
Moore, 1947
eEN IUCN Sierra Madre Oriental A green parrot with a maroon forehead
Genus Pyrrhura Bonaparte, 1856 – 31 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Ochre-marked parakeet P. cruentata
Wied-Neuwied, 1820
gVU IUCN Scattered populations around the southeastern coast of Brazil (north of São Paulo) A green parrot with a maroon head and tail
Maroon-bellied parakeet P. frontalis
Vieillot, 1818
LC IUCN Southwest Brazil, northern Uruguay, and southern Paraguay A green parrot with a maroon underside and tail with a white eye-spot
Blaze-winged parakeet P. devillei
Massena and de Souancé, 1854
iNT IUCN Northern Paraguay and Southwest Brazil along the Brazil/(northern) Paraguay border
Crimson-bellied parakeet P. perlata
Spix, 1824
gVU IUCN Central Brazil and along the Brazil/Bolivia border A teal parrot with a yellow cheek, dark-purple forehead, bright red underside, and blue wings
Pearly parakeet P. lepida
Wagler, 1832
gVU IUCN Northeast Brazil south of the Amazon river A green parrot with a black head and a grey neck with blue-tipped wings
Green-cheeked parakeet P. molinae
Massena and de Souancé, 1854
LC IUCN Central and southern Bolivia extending into northern Argentina A green parrot with a black head, blue wings, and a red tail with a white eye-spot
Painted parakeet P. picta
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Northeast South America, north of the Amazon river and east of the Venezuela/Colombia border A green parrot with a black head and a red tail with a white eye-spot
Sinú parakeet P. subandina
Todd, 1917
CR IUCN Sinú Valley in northern Colombia near (but not bordering) the Gulf of Darien
Perijá parikeet P. caeruleiceps
Todd, 1947
eEN IUCN Along the northern Venezuela/Colombia border
Azuero parakeet P. eisenmanni
Delgado, 1985
eEN IUCN Southwest Azuero Peninsula A green parrot with a teal forehead and neck, a maroon head, and a black eye-spot
Venezuelan parakeet P. emma
Salvadori, 1891
LC IUCN Northern coast of Venezuela A green parrot with a maroon face, tail, and underside with a grey neck, a blue forehead, and a black eye-spot
Santarem parakeet P. amazonum
Hellmayr, 1906
eEN IUCN Central and southeast Amazon in Brazil
Madeira parakeet P. snethlageae
Joseph and Blake, 2002
gVU IUCN Eastern Brazil, west of the Brazil/Bolivia border, south of the Madeira river, and north of the Araguaia river
Bonaparte's parakeet P. lucianii
Deville, 1851
LC IUCN Northwest Amazon rainforest in Brazil A green parrot with blue-tipped wings. Males have a red tail and underside with a brown head and neck
Rose-fronted parakeet P. roseifrons
Gray, 1859
LC IUCN Along the Peru/Brazil border and Peru/Bolivia border A green parrot with a brown head and a red forehead
Wavy-breasted parakeet P. peruviana
Hocking, Blake, and Joseph, 2002
LC IUCN Along the Marañón river in northern Peru and Ecuador
White-eared parakeet P. leucotis
Kuhl, 1820
iNT IUCN Southeast Brazilian coast, north of Rio de Janeiro and south of Salvador de Bahia A green parrot with a maroon face and underside, a white cheek, and a taupe forehead
Grey-breasted parakeet P. griseipectus
Salvadori, 1900
CR IUCN Scattered populations in northern Ceará, a state in Brazil A green parrot with a maroon face and underside, a white cheek, a taupe forehead
Pfrimer's parakeet P. pfrimeri
de Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920
eEN IUCN Dry forest near the Serra Geral
Fiery-shouldered parakeet P. egregia
Sclater, 1881
LC IUCN Venezuela west of the Rio Caroni, and Guyana east of the Mazaruni River A green parrot with a black tail and yellow wings with red shoulders
Santa Marta parakeet P. viridicata
Todd, 1913
eEN IUCN Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta A green parrot with blue wings and yellow shoulders
Maroon-tailed parakeet P. melanura
Spix, 1824
LC IUCN Northwest South America, east of the Andes Mountains A green parrot with a white throat, red shoulders, blue-tipped wings, and a maroon forehead and tail
El Oro parakeet P. orcesi
Ridgely & Robbins, 1988
eEN IUCN El Oro Province in Ecuador
Black-capped parakeet P. rupicola
Tschudi, 1844
iNT IUCN Around the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia border within the State of Acre and west of the Andes mountains A green parrot with a black forehead, underside, and tail with a black-and-white collar
White-breasted parakeet P. albipectus
Chapman, 1914
gVU IUCN Zamora-Chinchipe Province A green parrot with a pantone-brown tail and forehead, a peach neck, and red-and-yellow cheeks
Flame-winged parakeet P. calliptera
Massena and de Souancé, 1854
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in Colombia A green parrot with yellow-tipped wings, a peach throat, a white forehead and eye-spot, and a red tail
Blood-eared parakeet P. hoematotis
de Souancé, 1857
LC IUCN Northern coast of Venezuela A green parrot with a red tail, blue-tipped wings, maroon cheeks, a red forehead, and white eye-spots
Rose-crowned parakeet P. rhodocephala
Sclater and Salvin, 1871
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Venezuela, near Lake Maracaibo A green parrot with a red tail, blue-tipped wings, maroon cheeks, a red forehead, and white eye-spots
Sulphur-winged parakeet P. hoffmanni
Cabanis, 1861
LC IUCN Continental Divide running through Costa Rica and Panama A green parrot with a red tail, blue-tipped wings, maroon cheeks, a red forehead, and white eye-spots
Garlepp's parakeet P. parvifrons
Arndt, 2008
LC IUCN Two separate populations in northeast San Martin Province and western Loreto Province
Choco parakeet P. pacifica
Chapman, 1915
LC IUCN Northern Ecuador and southwest Colombia along the Colombia/Ecuador border on the coast
Genus Anodorhynchus von Spix, 1824 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Glaucous macaw A. glaucus
Veiellot, 1816
CR IUCN A small population in northeast Argentina near the Argentina/Brazil/Paraguay border A blue macaw with a pale-blue underside and peach eye-spots
Hyacinth macaw A. hyacinthinus
Latham, 1790
gVU IUCN Central South America around the Bolivia/Brazil/Paraguay border with scattered populations in eastern Brazil A violet-blue macaw with yellow eye-spots
Lear's macaw A. leari
Bonaparte, 1856
eEN IUCN two populations in eastern Brazil near the Atlantic Ocean A blue macaw yellow cheeks and eye-spots
Genus Leptosittaca von Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Golden-plumed parakeet L. branickii
von Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in Peru, Colombia, and near the Ecuador/Peru and Ecuador/Colombia borders A green parrot with a yellow underside and streak on the cheeks, with white eye-spots
Genus Ognorhynchus Bonaparte, 1857 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Yellow-eared parrot O. icterotis
Massena and de Souancé, 1854
eEN IUCN Along the Chocó Department/Antioquia Department border A green parrot with a yellow forehead and cheeks
Genus Diopsittaca Ridgway, 1912 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Southern red-shouldered macaw D. cumanensis
Lichtenstein, 1823
LC IUCN Brazil, south of the Amazon rainforest A green parrot with a blue-green forehead, red shoulders, a white beak, a black jaw, and white eye-spots
Northern Red-shouldered Macaw D. nobilis
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Northern coasts of French Guyana and Suriname, northern Guyana, and eastern Venezuela A green parrot with a dark-green forehead, red shoulders, a white beak, a black jaw, and white eye-spots
Genus Guaruba Lesson, 1830 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Golden parakeet G. guarouba
Gmelin, 1788
gVU Southern border of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil, but regionally extinct near the coast A yellow parrot with green-tipped wings and tan eye-spots
Genus Conuropsis Salvadori, 1891 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Carolina parakeet C. carolinensis
Linnaeus, 1758
aEX IUCN Formerly the eastern and southern United States A green parrot with light-blue wings, yellow cheeks, an orange forehead, and a white eye-spot
Genus Cyanopsitta Bonaparte, 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Spix's macaw C. spixii
Wagler, 1832
CR IUCN[a] Central eastern Brazil A blue-grey parrot with a brown-gray head
Genus Orthopsittaca Ridgway, 1912 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Red-bellied macaw O. manilatus
Boddaert, 1783
LC IUCN Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, eastern Venezuela, and northwestern Brazil stretching over into Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia A green parrot with a light-yellow face, a blue forehead and blue speckles across the body
Genus Ara de Lacépède, 1799 – nine species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Great green macaw A. ambiguus
Bechstein, 1811
EN IUCN Panama stretching over into Costa Rica and Colombia A green parrot with a light-pink face, a red forehead, and blue-tipped wings
Blue-and-yellow macaw A. ararauna
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Northern South America excluding the Andes mountains and the coast of Brazil south of the Amazon river delta A blue parrot with a white face, a green forehead, and a yellow underside and tail
Red-and-green macaw A. chloropterus
Gray, 1859
LC IUCN Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, along the Panama/Colombia border, and western Brazil stretching over into Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela A red parrot with a white face, blue wings, and green shoulders
Blue-throated macaw A. glaucogularis
Dabbene, 1921
CR IUCN Central Bolivia A blue parrot with a white eye-patch and a yellow throat, cheeks, and underside
Scarlet macaw A. macao
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Northern Brazil stretching over into Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana, and French Guiana. A second population lives on the coasts of Central America A red parrot with a light-pink face, a white beak, a black jaw, yellow shoulders, and blue wings
Military macaw A. militaris
Linnaeus, 1766
gVU IUCN Southern Mexico, along the Colombia/Venezuela border, the northern Peru/Brazil border, and central Bolivia A green parrot with a black beak, a light-pink face, a red forehead, and blue-tipped wings
Red-fronted macaw A. rubrogenys
de Lafresnaye, 1847
eEN IUCN Central Bolivia A green parrot with a red forehead and shoulders, blue-tipped wings, and white eye-spots
Chestnut-fronted macaw A. severus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Northern South America, excluding the Andes mountains and the Brazil/Venezuela border A green parrot with a white face, a maroon forehead, red shoulders, and blue-tipped wings
Cuban macaw A. tricolor
Bechstein
aEX IUCN Formerly Cuba and Isla de la Juventud until 1885 A red parrot with a yellow nape, blue wings, and white eye-patches
Genus Primolius Bonaparte, 1857 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Golden-collared macaw P. auricollis
Cassin, 1853
LC IUCN Southeastern Bolivia stretching over into Brazil A green parrot with a white face, a black forehead, blue-tipped wings, and a yellow nape
Blue-headed macaw P. couloni
Sclater, 1876
gVU IUCN Southern Peru east of the Andes, and the along the northern Bolivia/Brazil and Bolivia/Peru borders A green parrot with a blue head and wing-tips
Blue-winged macaw P. maracana
Vieillot, 1816</small
iNT IUCN Southern Brazil A green parrot with a white face, a blue-and-red forehead, blue-tipped wings, and a red underside
Genus Aratinga von Spix, 1824 – six species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Golden-capped parakeet A. auricapillus
Kuhl, 1820
iNT IUCN Scattered populations in southeast Brazil, north of São Paulo A green parrot with a yellow forehead and white eye-spots
Jandaya parakeet A. jandaya
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Eastern Brazil A yellow parrot with green wings and white eye-spots
Sulphur-breasted parakeet A. maculata
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Scattered populations in Pará and Amapá (states in Brazil) A yellow parrot with green wings and black eye-spots
Nanday parakeet A. nenday
Vieillot, 1823
LC IUCN Central Paraguay, spilling over to the southeastern Bolivia/Brazil border A green parrot with a black face and forehead
Sun parakeet A. solstitialis
Linnaeus, 1758
eEN IUCN Northwest Roraima (a state in Brazil), and along the Brazil/Guyana border A yellow parrot with orange cheeks, green-tipped wings and tail, and white eye-spots
Dusky-headed parakeet A. weddellii
Deville, 1851/small>
LC IUCN Eastern South America, east of the Andes, south of the Colombia/Peru border, and north of central Bolivia A green parrot with a light-grey head and white eye-spots
Genus Eupsittula Bonaparte, 1853 – six species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Aztec parakeet E. astec
de Souancé, 1857
LC IUCN Middle America along the Caribbean Sea A green parrot with a red-green underside and white eye-spots
Peach-fronted parakeet E. aurea
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Brazil (excluding northwest Brazil), eastern Bolivia, and central Paraguay A green parrot with a yellow underside and eye-spots, an orange forehead, and blue-tipped wings
Caatinga parakeet E. cactorum
kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN The Caatinga region in Brazil A green parrot with a yellow underside and white eye-spots
Orange-fronted parakeet E. canicularis
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Middle America bordering the Pacific Ocean (excluding the Gulf of California), and introduced to Puerto Rico A green parrot with a light-green underside, pale-yellow eye-spots, and a blue-and-red forehead
Jamaican parakeet E. nana
Vigors, 1830
iNT IUCN Jamaica A green parrot with white eye-spots and blue-tipped wings
Brown-throated parakeet E. pertinax
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Northern South America and Panama, introduced to the British Virgin Islands and Dominica
A green parrot with a brown throat and cheeks, a blue forehead, a light-green underside, white eye-spots, and blue-tipped wings
A green parrot with a yellow head, black eye-spots, and a light-green underside
Mainland phenotype left, Antillean phenotype right
Genus Psittacara Vigors, 1837 – 12 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Blue-crowned parakeet P. acuticaudatus
Vieillot, 1818
LC IUCN Northern Venezuela, southwest Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina (west of the Andes and excluding the coast), and the Caatinga A green parrot with a blue forehead, yellow eye-spots, orange irises, and a light-green underside
Socorro parakeet P. brevipes
Lawrence, 1871
NE IUCN [b] Socorro Island
Hispaniolan parakeet P. chloropterus
de Souancé, 1856
gVU IUCN Scattered areas in Hispaniola A green parrot with white eye-spots
Red-masked parakeet P. erythrogenys
Lesson, 1844
iNT IUCN Ecuador and northern Peru, west of the Andes mountains A green parrot with a red face, forehead, and shoulders, with white eye-spots
Cuban parakeet P. euops
Wagler, 1832
gVU IUCN Scattered areas in Cuba A green parrot with red shoulders and white eye-spots
Finsch's parakeet P. finschi
Salvin, 1871
LC IUCN Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and western Panama (along the Pacific Ocean) A green parrot with red shoulders and forehead, and white eye-spots
Cordilleran parakeet P. frontatus
Cabanis, 1846
iNT IUCN Peru west of the Andes mountains
Green parakeet P. holochlorus
Sclater, 1859
LC IUCN Mexico east of the Sierra Madre Oriental and west of the Sierra Madre Occidental, and Honduras and Guatemala bordering the Pacific Ocean A green parrot with black eye-spots
Guadeloupe parakeet P. labati
Rothschild, 1905
aEX IUCN Formerly Guadeloupe until the mid-18th century A green parrot with a red forehead
White-eyed parakeet P. leucophthalmus
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Central South America and the northeaster coast A green parrot with red shoulders and white eye-spots
Puerto Rican parakeet P. maugei
Souancé, 1856
NE IUCN [c] Formerly Puerto Rico until the mid-19th century A green parrot with a red forehead
Mitred parakeet P. mitratus
von Tschudi, 1844
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Argentina A green parrot with a red face and forehead, and white eye-spots
Red-throated parakeet P. rubritorquis
Sclater, 1887
LC IUCN Honduras, southern Guatemala, and northern Nicaragua, excluding the coasts A green parrot with a light-green underside and a yellow-speckled throat
Pacific parakeet P. strenuus
Ridgway, 1915
NE IUCN [d] western Nicaragua A green parrot
Scarlet-fronted parakeet P. wagleri
Gray, 1845
iNT IUCN Andes mountains in Colombia and Venezuela A green parrot with a red forehead and shoulder
Genus Pionites (caiques) Heine, 1890 – four species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Green-thighed parrot P. leucogaster
Kuhl, 1820
eEN IUCN North central Brazil A green parrot with a yellow head, an orange forehead and nape, a white underside, pink eye-spots, and red irises
Black-legged parrot P. xanthomerius
Sclater
LC IUCN Northern Bolivia, eastern Peru, and western Brazil around the Peru/Brazil and Bolivia/Brazil borders A parrot with green wings, yellow legs and cheeks, a white underside, and an orange forehead and nape
Yellow-tailed parrot P. xanthurus
Todd, 1925
gVU IUCN Northwest Brazil
Black-headed parrot P. melanocephalus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, and Northern Brazil stretching over into Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela A parrot with green wings, yellow legs and cheeks, a white underside, an orange nape, and a black forehead
Genus Deroptyus Wagler, 1832 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Red-fan parrot D. accipitrinus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, and Northern Brazil stretching over into Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela A brown-grey parrot with a white forehead and speckles spanning the head and neck, a red strip of feathers with blue-tips on the nape which also cover the underside, and green wings

Tribe Forpini

Genus Forpus Bonaparte, 1857 – eight species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Pacific parrotlet F. coelestis
Lesson, 1847
LC IUCN Ecuador and northern Peru, west of the Andes mountains A white parrot with beige and blue-tipped wings, a green tail, a yellow-green face and forehead, and a violet nape
Spectacled parrotlet F. conspicillatus
de Lafresnaye, 1848
LC IUCN Northern Colombia and eastern Panama A green parrot whose males have blue eye-spots and blue tipped wings, whereas females have black-tipped wings and no eye-spots
Mexican parrotlet F. cyanopygius
de Souancé, 1856
iNT IUCN Sierra Madre Occidental
Dusky-billed parrotlet F. modestus
Cabanis, 1849
LC IUCN Northern Bolivia, northern and eastern Peru, southern Colombia, western Brazil, and the mouth of the Amazon river A yellow-green parrot with green wings, nape, and tail
Green-rumped parrotlet F. passerinus
Linnaeus, 1766
LC IUCN Northern Atlantic coast of South America, and introduced to Barbados and Jamaica A green parrot with blue wings
Turquoise-winged parrotlet Forpus spengeli
Hartlaub, 1885
LC IUCN Pacific coast of Colombia
Yellow-faced parrotlet F. xanthops
Salvin, 1895
gVU IUCN Marañón Valley, Peru A blue-grey parrot with a yellow underside, cheeks, and forehead, and blue-tipped wings
Blue-winged parrotlet F. xanthopterygius
von Spix, 1824 [e]
LC IUCN Eastern Brazil, central Bolivia, and Peru east of the Andes mountains A green parrot with blue-tipped wings
Large-billed parrotlet F. crassirostris
Taczanowski, 1883
NE Southeastern Colombia to western Brazil and northern Peru

Tribe Amoropsittacini

Genus Psilopsiagon Ridgway, 1912 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Mountain parakeet P. aurifrons
Lesson, 1830
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina A green parrot with a yellow face and underside, and blue-tipped wings
Gray-hooded parakeet P. aymara
d'Orbigny, 1839
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Bolivia and Argentina A green parrot with a white underside and cheeks, and a black forehead
Genus Bolborhynchus Bonaparte, 1857 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Rufous-fronted parakeet B. ferrugineifrons
Lawrence, 1880
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in southern Colombia
Barred parakeet B. lineola
Cassin, 1853
LC IUCN Andes mountains excluding those in Chile and Argentina, and the mountains of Central America A green parrot with dark-green wing-tips
Andean parakeet B. orbygnesius
de Souancé, 1853
LC IUCN Andes mountains of Bolivia and Peru A green parrot with a light-green underside
Genus Nannopsittaca Ridgway, 1912 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Manu parrotlet N. dachilleae
O'Neill, Munn, and Franke, 1991
iNT IUCN Southern Peru, north of the Andes mountains, along the Peru/Bolivia border
Tepui parrotlet N. panychlora
Salvin and Godman, 1883
LC IUCN Scattered in southern Venezuela A green parrot with a light-green underside
on top
Genus Touit Gray, 1855 – eight species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Lilac-tailed parrotlet T. batavicus
Boddaert, 1783
LC IUCN Northern Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana A parrot with grey wings, a light-blue underside, blue-tipped wings, a violet tail, and a light-green head
Scarlet-shouldered parrotlet T. huetii
Temminck, 1830
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in Peru and Ecuador, western Venezuela, northern Guyana, and north central Brazil Green parrot with yellow head and black tail tips
Red-fronted parrotlet T. costaricensis
Cory, 1913
gVU IUCN Mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama
Blue-fronted parrotlet T. dilectissimus
Sclater and Salvin, 1871
LC IUCN Ecuador and Colombia west of the Andes mountains A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a black face, and white eye-spots
Brown-backed parrotlet T. melanonotus
Wied-Neuwied, 1820
eEN IUCN Southeast coast of Brazil Green parrot with blue back and yellow eye-spot
Sapphire-rumped parrotlet T. purpuratus
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Northeast South America, stretching to the Peru/Colombia/Ecuador border
Spot-winged parrotlet T. stictopterus
Sclater, 1862
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in Ecuador A green parrot with a light-green underside, red shoulders and marks around the eyes, a white forehead, and black eye-spots
Golden-tailed parrotlet T. surdus
Kuhl, 1820
gVU IUCN Coast of Brazil, excluding the northeast coast

Tribe Androglossini

Genus Pionopsitta Bonaparte, 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Pileated parrot P. pileata
Scopili, 1769
LC IUCN Southern Paraguay, and the southeast coast of Brazil A green parrot with a red forehead, and blue eye-spots and wings
Genus Triclaria Wagler, 1832 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Blue-bellied parrot T. malachitacea
von Spix, 1824
iNT IUCN Fragmented populations near Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul A green parrot whose males have a purple patch on their belly
Genus Pyrilia Bonaparte, 1856 – seven species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Bald parrot P. aurantiocephala
Gaban-Lima, Raposo, and Hofling, 2002
iNT IUCN Lower Madeira and Upper Tapajós rivers A green parrot with blue-tipped wings and no feathers on the head, revealing orange skin
Orange-cheeked parrot P. barrabandi
Kuhl, 1820
iNT IUCN Northwest South America east of the Andes mountains A green parrot red-tipped wings, a yellow collar and cheek, a black head, and white eye-spots
Caica parrot P. caica
Latham, 1790
iNT IUCN Roraima, Pará, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and eastern Venezuela A green parrot with a yellow neck, a black head, and red irises
Brown-hooded parrot P. haematotis
Sclater and Salvin, 1860
LC IUCN Central America, excluding the mountain ranges A green parrot with a yellow neck, a brown head and tail and white eye-spots
Rose-faced parrot P. pulchra
von Berlepsch, 1897
LC IUCN Ecuador and Colombia west of the Andes mountains
Saffron-headed parrot P. pyrilia
Bonaparte, 1853
iNT IUCN Andes mountains in Colombia and western Venezuela A green parrot with orange-yellow cheeks and nape, a maroon face and forehead, and white eye-spots
Vulturine parrot P. vulturina
Kuhl, 1820
gVU IUCN Pará south of the Amazon river
Genus Pionus Wagler, 1832 – nine species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Bronze-winged parrot P. chalcopterus
Fraser, 1841
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela A blue parrot with a beige throat and speckles extending across the underside, brown wings with blue-edges, and a red underside of the tail
Dusky parrot P. fuscus
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Northeast South America and along the Colombia/Venezuela border west of Lake Maracaibo A grey parrot with dark grey wings and nape, and blue-tipped wings
Scaly-headed parrot P. maximiliani
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN Paraguay, southern Brazil, and east and central Bolivia A green-yellow parrot with a light-grey collar and face, white eye-spots, and a red underside of the tail
Blue-headed parrot P. menstruus
Linnaeus, 1776
LC IUCN Northern and central South America, excluding the Andes A green parrot with a blue head and dark-grey eye-spots
Blue-breasted parrot P. reichenowi
Heine, 1884
LC IUCN Southern coast of Brazil north of Rio de Janeiro
White-crowned parrot P. senilis
von Spix, 1824
LC IUCN Central America bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Sierra Madre Oriental A blue-grey parrot with a light-blue underside, green wings, brown shoulders, a white forehead, orange eye-spots, and a red underside of the tail
White-capped parrot P. seniloides
Massena and de Souancé, 1854
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru
Red-billed parrot P. sordidus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador, northern Peru, and southern Colombia A green parrot with a violet collar, a black mark in front of their eyes above the beak, and a red underside of the tail
Speckle-faced parrot P. tumultuosus
von Tschudi, 1844
LC IUCN Andes mountains in southern Peru and northern Bolivia A green parrot with a blue collar and a red head with white speckles
Genus Graydidascalus Bonaparte, 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Short-tailed parrot G. brachyurus
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN Along the Amazon river A green parrot with a light-green underside and head
Genus Alipiopsitta Caparroz and Pacheco, 2006 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Yellow-faced parrot A. xanthops
von Spix, 1824
iNT IUCN Central Brazil south of the Amazon A green parrot with a yellow head, white eye-spots, and blue horizontal stripes across its body except for the head
Genus Amazona (Amazon parrots) Lesson, 1830 – 36 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Turquoise-fronted amazon A. aestiva
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Paraguay, western Bolivia, northern Argentina, southern Brazil A green parrot with red-tipped wings, a yellow face and forehead, and light-blue marks above the beak
Black-billed amazon A. agilis
Linnaeus, 1758
VU IUCN Central Jamaica A green parrot with violet-edged wings, and black eye-spots
White-fronted amazon A. albifrons
Sparrman, 1788
LC IUCN Northwest Costa Rica, western Nicaragua, western Honduras, Wwestern Mexico, and the Yucatán Peninsula A green parrot with a red face, a white-and-blue forehead, and grey eye-spots
Orange-winged amazon A. amazonica
Linnaeus, 1766
LC IUCN Northern South America and the southeast coast of Brazil A green parrot with yellow cheeks and a black face
Red-necked amazon A. arausiaca
Müller, 1776
gVU IUCN Central Dominica A green parrot with red-tipped wings and a blue face whose males have a red mark on their throat
Yellow-naped amazon A. auropalliata
Lesson, 1842<
gVU IUCN Pacific coast of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, northern Costa Rica, and southern Mexico A green parrot with a yellow nape and forehead
Red-lored amazon A. autumnalis
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Central America, northern Colombia, and the Sierra Madre Oriental A green parrot with a red forehead and yellow cheeks
Yellow-shouldered amazon A. barbadensis
Gmelin, 1788
gVU IUCN Margarita Island, Blanquilla Island, Curaçao, Bonaire, and northern Venezuela A green parrot with yellow shoulders and head, and white eye-spots
Northern Festive Amazon A. bodini
Finsch, 1873
iNT IUCN Along the Orinoco River A green parrot with a blue head and a red forehead
Red-tailed amazon A. brasiliensis
Linnaeus, 1758
gVU IUCN Southern coast of São Paulo A green parrot with light-brown cheeks, a red forehead, and white eye-spots
Yellow-billed amazon A. collaria
Linnaeus, 1758
gVU IUCN Jamaica A green parrot with blue-edged wings, a light-brown forehead, and white eye-spots
Diademed amazon A. diadema
von Spix, 1824
eEN IUCN Northeast Amazonas A green parrot with red-tipped wings and forehead, and white eye-spots
Blue-cheeked amazon A. dufresniana
Shaw, 1812
iNT IUCN Suriname, French Guiana, Guyana, and east Venezuela A green parrot with light-blue cheeks, a yellow forehead, and white eye-spots
Southern mealy amazon A. farinosa
Boddaert, 1783
iNT IUCN North central South America, excluding the Andes, and the southwest coast of Brazil A green parrot with black-tipped wings and white eye-spots
Southern festive amazon A. festiva
Linnaeus, 1758
iNT IUCN Along the Amazon river A green parrot with a red forehead and eye, and blue eyebrows
Lilac-crowned amazon A. finschi
Sclater, 1864
eEN IUCN Pacific coast of Mexico A green parrot with a red forehead and grey eye-spots
Northern mealy amazon A. guatemalae
Sclater, 1860
iNT IUCN Caribbean coast of Central America, excluding Panama and the Yucatán Peninsula A green parrot with a blue forehead and white eye-spots
Saint Vincent amazon A. guildingii
Vigors, 1837
VU IUCN Northeast St Vincent and the Grenadines A brown parrot with blue-tipped wings, a yellow-tipped tail, a green nape, a yellow head, a white forehead, and light-blue eye-spots
Imperial amazon A. imperialis
Richmond, 1899
eEN IUCN Dominica A green parrot with a violet underside, a dark-violet head, and a dark-purple nape
Kawall's amazon A. kawalli
Grantsau and Camargo, 1989
iNT IUCN Southern Amazonas and eastern Pará A green parrot
Cuban amazon A. leucocephala
Linnaeus, 1758
iNT IUCN Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Abaco Islands, Great Inagua, and the Cayman Islands A green parrot with a pink throat and cheeks, a white face and forehead, and blue-tipped wings
Lilacine amazon A. lilacina
Lesson, 1844
eEN IUCN Ecuador west of the Andes mountains A green parrot with yellow cheeks and a red forehead
Martinique amazon A. martinicana
Clark, 1905
aEX IUCN Formerly Martinique until 1779 A green parrot with a blue-grey head and a red forehead
Scaly-naped amazon A. mercenarius
von Tschudi, 1844
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and northern Bolivia A green parrot with a green-yellow underside
Yellow-crowned amazon A. ochrocephala
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Northern South America, east of the Andes A green parrot with a yellow forehead, blue underarms, and white eye-spots
Yellow-headed amazon A. oratrix
Ridgway, 1887
eEN IUCN Scattered coastal areas of southern Mexico A green parrot with a yellow forehead, red wing-tips, and white eye-spots
Red-spectacled amazon A. pretrei
Temminck, 1830
gVU IUCN Scattered populations in central Rio Grande do Sul A green parrot with a red forehead, blue-tipped wings, and white eye-spots
Red-browed amazon A. rhodocorytha
Salvadori, 1890
eEN IUCN Scattered populations along the southeast coastline of Brazil A green parrot with light-blue cheeks, a yellow mark between the eyes and the beak, a red forehead, a brown nape, and light-grey eye-spots
Tucumán amazon A. tucumana
Cabanis, 1885
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia A green parrot with black-tipped wings, a red forehead, and white eye-spots
Hispaniolan amazon A. ventralis
Müller, 1776
gVU IUCN Hispaniola, Grande Cayemite, Gonâve, Beata, and Saona Island, and introduced to Puerto Rico, St Croix, and St. Thomas Island A green parrot with a pink-speckled belly, dark-grey cheeks, and a white forehead and eye-spots
Saint Lucia amazon A. versicolor
Müller, 1776
gVU IUCN St Lucia A green parrot with a dark-blue head, and a black forehead and wing-tips
Vinaceous-breasted amazon A. vinacea
Kuhl, 1820
eEN IUCN Southern Brazil no farther south than the southern tip of Paraguay A green parrot with a light-brown throat, a dark red mark between the eyes and the beak, and white eye-spots
Guadeloupe amazon A. violacea
Gmelin, 1789
aEX IUCN Formerly Guadeloupe until 1779 A green parrot with a dark grey head and underside
Red-crowned amazon A. viridigenalis
Cassin, 1853
eEN IUCN Sierra Madre Occidental A green parrot with a blue-grey nape, and a red forehead
Puerto Rican amazon A. vittata
Boddaert, 1783
CR IUCN Formerly in all of Puerto Rico and small adjacent islands, now northeastern Puerto Rico
Former range left, current range right
A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a red forehead, and white eye-spots
Yucatán amazon A. xantholora
Gray, 1859
LC IUCN Yucatán Peninsula A green parrot with a blue forehead, grey-tipped feathers on the throat, a yellow mark between the eyes and beak, and white eye-spots
Genus Hapalopsittaca Ridgway, 1912 – four species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Rusty-faced parrot H. amazonina
des Murs, 1845
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in Colombia and Venezuela A green parrot with a red-orange head, a yellow throat, a light-green underside, blue-tipped wings and tail, and pink eye-spots
Fuertes's parrot H. fuertesi
Chapman, 1912
CR IUCN Andes mountains in central Colombia
Black-winged parrot H. melanotis
de Lafresnaye, 1847
LC IUCN Andes mountains in northern Bolivia and central Peru A green parrot a light-blue head, green cheeks, black shoulders and eye-spots, and blue-edged wings
Red-faced parrot H. pyrrhops
Salvin, 1876
gVU IUCN Andes mountains in southern Ecuador A green parrot with red shoulders and face, a light-blue forehead, violet-tipped wings, a blue-tipped tail, and grey eye-spots
Genus Brotogeris Vigors, 1825 – eight species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Yellow-chevroned parakeet B. chiriri
Vieillot, 1818
LC IUCN Southern Brazil, eastern Bolivia and Paraguay, and introduced to California around Los Angeles and San Francisco, and southern Florida A green parrot with white eye-spots and yellow shoulders
Golden-winged parakeet B. chrysoptera
Linnaeus, 1766
LC IUCN French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, eastern Venezuela, and northeast Brazil A green parrot with a red forehead, yellow shoulders, and white eye-spots
Cobalt-winged parakeet B. cyanoptera
Salvadori, 1891
LC IUCN Northwest South America, east of the Andes mountains A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a light-blue forehead, and white eye-spots
Orange-chinned parakeet B. jugularis
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, southern El Salvador and Guatemala, northern Colombia, and northwest Venezuela A green parrot with a light green underside and an orange mark under the jaw
Grey-cheeked parakeet B. pyrrhoptera
Latham, 1801
eEN IUCN Ecuador, west of the Andes mountains A green parrot with yellow cheeks and shoulders, blue marks between the eyes and beak, and white eye-spots
Tui parakeet B. sanctithomae
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Northern Bolivia, eastern Peru, and along the Amazon river in Brazil A green parrot with a light-green underside, yellow forehead, and white eye-spots
Plain parakeet B. tirica
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Southern coast of Brazil A light-green parrot with dark-green wings
White-winged parakeet B. versicolurus
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN Along the Amazon river, and introduced to California around Los Angeles and San Francisco A green parrot with white eye-spots and mark around the beak
Genus Myiopsitta Bonaparte, 1854 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Cliff parakeet M. luchsi
Finsch, 1868
LC IUCN Andes mountains in Bolivia A green parrot with a white head and chest, a light-green belly, blue-tipped wings and a blue-tipped tail
Monk parakeet M. monachus
Boddaert, 1783
LC IUCN Paraguay, Uruguay, and eastern Argentina, introduced to Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, Japan, Virgin Islands, the southern and eastern United States, and western Europe A green parrot with a white head and chest, a light-green belly, blue-tipped wings and a blue-tipped tail

Family Psittaculidae

Subfamily Platycercinae

Tribe Platycercini (broad-tailed parrots)

Genus Platycercus (rosellas) Vigors, 1825 – six species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Western rosella P. icterotis
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN Southwest Australia [25] A red parrot with black-and-green wings and tail, blue-edged wings, yellow cheeks, and grey eye-spots
Crimson rosella P. elegans
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Tasmania and the coast of New South Wales, Victoria, and mid-Queensland A red parrot with a violet chin with white speckles, navy blue wings with red-tipped feathers, blue-tipped wings, and a blue tail
Green rosella P. caledonicus
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands [26] A green-yellow parrot with a blue chin, navy blue wings with blue-tipped feathers, blue-tipped wings, and a green-grey tail
Pale-headed rosella P. adscitus
Latham, 1790
LC IUCN Cape York Peninsula and northeastern New South Wales [27] A light-blue parrot with a white chin, navy blue wings with blue-tipped feathers, blue-tipped wings, a green-grey tail, and a black nape with yellow-tipped wings
Eastern rosella P. eximius
Shaw, 1792
LC IUCN Eastern Australia and Tasmania, naturalized in New Zealand [28] A red parrot with a yellow belly, black wings with yellow-tipped feathers, blue-tipped wings, blue tail, and a white chin
Northern rosella P. venustus
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN Western half of the Gulf of Carpentaria to the Kimberley [29] A parrot with a white underside with black-tipped feathers, black wings with white-tipped feathers, lavender-edged wings, a lavender chin, and a black forehead
Genus Prosopeia (shining parrots) Bonaparte, 1854 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Masked shining parrot P. personata
Gray, 1848
iNT IUCN Viti Levu, the largest island of Fiji A green parrot with a yellow underside, blue-tipped wings, and a black face and tail
Maroon shining parrot P. tabuensis,
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Vanua Levu and Taveuni, which are two islands of Fiji A dark-red parrot with green wings, blue-tipped wings, and a blue tail
Crimson shining parrot P. splendens,
Peale, 1848
gVU IUCN Kadavu and Ono, which are part of the Kadavu Group in Fiji A dark-orange parrot with green wings, blue-tipped wings, and a blue tail
Genus Eunymphicus Peters, 1937 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Horned parakeet E. cornutus,
Gmelin, 1788
gVU IUCN New Caledonia A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a yellow nape, a black face, a red forehead, and two long, black tufts of feathers extending from the forehead to behind the head with red at the ends
Ouvea parakeet E. uvaeensis
Layard, 1882
eEN IUCN Uvea, an island of Loyalty Islands, and New Caledonia A green parrot with a dark-green face
Genus Cyanoramphus Bonaparte, 1854 – seven species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Yellow-crowned parakeet C. auriceps
Kuhl, 1820
iNT IUCN New Zealand, Stewart Island, and Auckland Island A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, an orange forehead, and a red mark above the beak
Malherbe's parakeet C. malherbi
de Souancé, 1857
CR IUCN South Island (of New Zealand) A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a yellow forehead, and an orange mark above the beak
Red-crowned parakeet C. novaezelandiae
Sparrman, 1787
iNT IUCN New Zealand and several nearby islands, New Caledonia, and Norfolk Island A green parrot with blue-tipped wings and a red forehead
Society parakeet C. ulietanus
Gmelin, 1789
aEX IUCN Formerly Raiatea, an island of the Society Islands in French Polynesia until 1777
Antipodes parakeet C. unicolor
Lear, 1831
gVU IUCN Antipodes Islands of New Zealand A green parrot with a light-green underside
Black-fronted parakeet C. zealandicus
Latham, 1790
aEX IUCN Formerly Tahiti and French Polynesia until 1844 A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a red back and cheeks, and brown eye-spots
Genus Barnardius Bonaparte 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Australian ringneck B. zonarius
Shaw, 1805
LC IUCN Australian mainland, excluding the northern and eastern coasts A green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a dark-green throat, a black head, a red forehead, a dark-violet chin, and a green-yellow underside
Genus Purpureicephalus Bonaparte 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Red-capped parrot P. spurius
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN Southwestern tip of Australia A dark-green parrot with blue-tipped wings, a blue-tipped tail, yellow cheeks, and a red forehead
Genus Lathamus Lesson 1830 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Swift parrot L. discolor
White 1790
CR IUCN Coast of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania A green parrot with blue shoulders, a blue-green head, a blue forehead, and a red mark above and below the beak
Genus Northiella Mathews 1912 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Eastern bluebonnet N. haematogaster
Gould, 1838
LC IUCN New South Wales and into Southern Australia and the southeastern corner of West Australia A grey parrot with yellow-and-blue-tipped wings, red ankles, and a violet face
Naretha bluebonnet N. narethae
HL White, 1921
NE IUCN [f] southeastern Western Australia, southwestern South Australia
Genus Psephotus Gould 1845 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Red-rumped parrot P. haematonotus
Gould, 1838
LC IUCN New South Wales and southern Queensland The females are brown with a white underside with several black, half-circular marks across the body. The males are green with a bright-blue face and wings, blue-tipped wings, and a yellow belly
Genus Psephotellus Mathews 1913 – four species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Mulga parrot P. varius
Clark, 1910
LC IUCN Southern and central Australia The females have a brown head and neck, a green belly, and blue-green wings and tail. The males are blue-green with orange shoulders and mark above the beak, and red ankles
Hooded parrot P. dissimilis
Collett, 1898
LC IUCN Northern Territory The females are green with a grey forehead and bright-blue tail. The males are bright-blue with a black forehead, yellow shoulders, and brown wings
Golden-shouldered parrot P. chrysopterygius
Gould, 1858
eEN IUCN Cape York Peninsula The females are green. The males are bright-blue with a black forehead, yellow shoulders, grey wings, and a red belly
Paradise parrot P. pulcherrimus
Gould, 1845
aEX IUCN Formerly eastern Australia until 1928 The females are yellow-brown with a black forehead and wings, and red shoulders. The males are blue with a black forehead, nape, wings, and tail; and red shoulders, belly, and mark above the beak

Tribe Pezoporini
Bonaparte, 1837

Genus Neophema Salvadori 1891 – six species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Blue-winged parrot N. chrysostoma
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN Western New South Wales, eastern Southern Australia, and a resident population in Tasmania and the southern coast of New South Wales A yellow parrot with blue-tipped wings and blue marks between the eyes and the beak
Elegant parrot N. elegans
Gould, 1837
LC IUCN Southwestern Western Australia and southeastern South Australia A yellow parrot with blue wingtips and marks between the eyes and the beak
Rock parrot N. petrophila
Gould, 1841
LC IUCN Spencer Gulf, Peron Peninsula, and the southwest coast of West Australia A green-brown parrot with a blue mark above the beak
Orange-bellied parrot N. chrysogaster
Latham, 1790
CR IUCN Melaleuca, Tasmania and they spend winter in the southern coast of Victoria A light-green parrot with a green-yellow underside, and blue wingtips and marks above the beak
Turquoise parrot N. pulchella
Shaw, 1792
LC IUCN Coast of New South Wales A blue parrot with a yellow underside and a green nape. The females have a green head and the males have a blue head
Scarlet-chested parrot N. splendida
Gould, 1841
LC IUCN Large patches in the southern half of Australia A green parrot with a red chest, a yellow underside, and a blue head
Genus Neopsephotus Mathews 1912 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Bourke's parrot N. bourkii
Gould, 1841
LC IUCN Western and South Australia, and central Australia A purple parrot with a pink underside, blue-edged wings, and black wings with white-edged feathers
Genus Pezoporus Illiger 1811 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Night parrot P. occidentalis
Gould, 1861
eEN IUCN Sighted in western central Australia 4 times in total twice in 1979-1980, 1990, and 2006. Sighted 3 times in total in northern West Australia twice in 1979-1980, and in 2005
Known locations since 1950
A green parrot with black-edged feathers and wing-tips, and a light green underside
Eastern ground parrot P. wallicus
Kerr, 1792
LC IUCN Tasmania and the coast of southeast Australia
in orange
A green parrot with black-edged feathers and wing-tips, and a light green underside
Western ground parrot P. flaviventris
North, 1911
NE IUCN [g] western Australia
in green
A green parrot with black-edged feathers and wing-tips, and a light green underside

Subfamily Psittacellinae

Genus Psittacella (tiger parrots) Schlegel 1871 – four species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Madarasz's tiger parrot P. madaraszi
Meyer, 1886
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands
Modest tiger parrot P. modesta
Schlegel, 1873
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands
Painted tiger parrot P. picta
Rothschild, 1896
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands on the Papua New Guinea side A green parrot with a red forehead, a black face, blue eye-spots, an orange underside-of-the-tail, a yellow nape, and a light green belly, whose males have a blue chest and females have a yellow chest
Brehm's tiger parrot P. brehmii
Schlegel, 1872
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands A green parrot with a dark green forehead, black-tipped feathers on the nape, and a light green underside

Subfamily Loriinae

Tribe Loriini
Selby, 1836

Genus Chalcopsitta Bonaparte 1850 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Black lory C. atra
Scopoli, 1786
LC IUCN West Papua A dark purple parrot with a yellow tail and a red underside-of-the-tail
Brown lory C. duivenbodei
Dubois, 1884
LC IUCN Northern New Guinea A gray parrot with yellow marks above and below the beak, yellow streaks on the nape, and brown wings
Yellowish-streaked lory C. scintillata
Temminck, 1835
LC IUCN New Guinea, south of the New Guinea Highlands A green parrot with a red forehead, yellow streaks on the underside, and a brown underside
Genus Eos Wagler 1832 – six species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Black-winged lory E. cyanogenia
Bonaparte, 1850
gVU IUCN Schouten Islands A red parrot with blue cheeks extending to the eyes, black eye-spots and wings
Violet-necked lory E. squamata
Boddaert, 1783
LC IUCN North Maluku A red parrot with a violet neck and underside, and black eye-spots and wingtips
Blue-streaked lory E. reticulata
Müller, 1841
iNT IUCN Banda Sea islands A red parrot with a dark blue streak behind the eyes, dark blue eye-spots, and black-tipped wings
Red-and-blue lory E. histrio
Müller, 1776
eEN IUCN Talaud Islands A red parrot with a blue chest, nape, and forehead
Red lory E. bornea
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Seram Island, an island of the Maluka archipelago between the Banda and Ceram seas A red parrot with a blue underside-of-the-tail
Blue-eared lory E. semilarvata
Bonaparte, 1850
LC IUCN Central Pulua Seram, and island of the Maluka archipelago between the Banda and Ceram seas A red parrot with black eye-spots, a dark blue streak behind the eyes, and black wingtips and shoulders
Genus Pseudeos Peters 1935 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Dusky lory P. fuscata
Blyth, 1858
LC IUCN New Guinea A black parrot with orange stripes
Cardinal lory P. cardinalis[h]
Gray, 1849
LC IUCN Solomon Islands A red parrot with black eye-spots
Genus Trichoglossus Stephens 1826 – seven species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Ornate lorikeet T. ornatus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Sulawesi and surrounding islands A green parrot with a black throat and forehead, red cheeks, and a yellow nape
Rainbow lorikeet T. moluccanus
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Eastern Australian coast, introduced to Perth A green parrot with a yellow nape and spots on the legs, a red chest with black-tipped feathers, and a blue-purple face
Sunset lorikeet T. forsteni
Bonaparte, 1850

i

NT IUCN Islands of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Tanahjampea, and Kalaotoa A green parrot with a black head and belly, a red chest, and a yellow nape
Leaf lorikeet T. weberi
Büttikofer, 1894
iNT IUCN Flores A green parrot with a yellow-green chest and nape
Marigold lorikeet T. capistratus
Bechstein, 1811
LC IUCN Timor A green parrot with a yellow chest, nape, and legs, and a blue forehead
Coconut lorikeet T. haematodus
Linnaeus, 1771
LC IUCN Maluku, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia A green parrot with blue head and belly, and an yellow chest
Biak lorikeet T. rosenbergii
Schlegel, 1871
gVU IUCN Biak, and island of the Schouten Islands A green parrot with a black head and underside, and a dark blue face
Red-collared lorikeet T. rubritorquis
Vigors and Horsfield, 1827
LC IUCN Northern Australia, excluding Cape York Peninsula A green parrot with a blue head, an orange neck, and a black mark behind the nape and on the legs
Olive-headed lorikeet T. euteles
Temminck, 1835
LC IUCN East Nusa Tenggara and Timor A green parrot with a yellow-green underside and a yellow head
Citrine lorikeet T. flavoviridis
Wallace, 1863
LC IUCN Sula Islands A green parrot with light-green stripes on the underside
Mindanao lorikeet T. johnstoniae
Hartert, 1903
iNT IUCN Mindanao, the second largest island of the Philippines A green parrot with a red-brown area around the beak, a red-violet stripe going around the head over the eyes, and yellow-tipped feathers on the underside
Pohnpei lorikeet T. rubiginosus
Bonaparte, 1850
iNT IUCN Pohnpei, and island of Micronesia A red-violet parrot with a yellow underside-of-the-tail
Scaly-breasted lorikeet T. chlorolepidotus
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN Eastern Australia A green parrot with yellow stripes on the underside
Genus Psitteuteles Bonaparte 1854 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Varied lorikeet P. versicolor
Lear, 1831
LC IUCN Northern Australia A green parrot with yellow spots on the body excluding the wings, and a red forehead
Iris lorikeet P. iris
Temminck, 1835
LC IUCN Timor A green parrot with a light green underside, a red forehead, and a violet mark behind the eyes
Goldie's lorikeet P. goldiei
Sharpe, 1882
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands A green parrot with a light green underside, black-tipped wings, violet cheeks, a purple streak behind the eyes, and a red forehead
Genus Lorius Vigors 1825 – six species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Chattering lory L. garrulus
Linnaeus, 1758
gVU IUCN North Maluku A red parrot with green wings and ankles
Purple-naped lory L. domicella
Linnaeus, 1758
eEN IUCN Seram, Ambon, and possibly Haruku and Saparua of South Maluku A green parrot with a red head and underside, a black forehead, and a violet nape
Black-capped lory L. lory
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN New Guinea, excluding the New Guinea Highlands A red parrot with a black forehead, a purple belly, a blue underside-of-the-tail, a yellow tail, and green wings
Purple-bellied lory L. hypoinochrous
Gray, 1859
LC IUCN New Britain, New Ireland, and the eastern coastline of the Papuan Peninsula A red parrot with a black forehead, a dark purple belly, a blue underside-of-the-tail, and a yellow tail
White-naped lory L. albidinucha
Rothschild and Hartert, 1924
iNT IUCN New Ireland
Yellow-bibbed lory L. chlorocercus
Gould, 1856
LC IUCN Southern Solomon Islands A red parrot with a black forehead, a yellow throat, green wings, white shoulders, and blue ankles
Genus Phigys Gray, 1870 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Collared lory P. solitarius
Suckow, 1800
LC IUCN Fiji A green parrot with a red head and underside, and a black forehead
Genus Vini Lesson, 1833 – five species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Blue-crowned lorikeet V. australis
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Various islands east of Fiji, including Samoa, and formerly Tonga and Wallis and Futuna A green parrot with a red chin and throat, a violet belly, a blue forehead, and a small crest
Kuhl's lorikeet V. kuhlii
Vigors, 1824
eEN IUCN Washington Island, Fanning Island, and Christmas Island of Kiribati, and Rimatara of French Polynesia Drawing of two parrots with a green back, red throat and belly, blue nape, and yellow central tail
Stephen's lorikeet V. stepheni
North, 1908
gVU IUCN Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Islands (UK) Drawing of green parrot with red face and belly, green and black wings, and yellow tail
Blue lorikeet V. peruviana
Müller, 1776
gVU IUCN Eastern French Polynesia, and formerly central French Polynesia Blue parrot with white chin and neck
Ultramarine lorikeet V. ultramarina
Kuhl, 1820
eEN IUCN Marquesas Islands Drawing of a green parrot with a brown face and chest with white spots, a black chest ring below, and white belly. A Blue lorikeet is also pictured above.
Genus Parvipsitta Mathews, 1916 – two species [i]
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Purple-crowned lorikeet P. porphyrocephala [j]
Dietrichsen, 1837
LC IUCN Coastal south and south-western Australia Green parrot with orange brow and cheeks, purple crown, and yellow tail
Little lorikeet P. pusilla [k]
Shaw, 1790
LC IUCN Coastal eastern Australia Green parrot with a red face
Genus Glossopsitta Bonaparte, 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Musk lorikeet G. concinna
Shaw, 1791
LC IUCN Southeast Australia and Tasmania Green parrot with yellow spots on its back and a red stripe across the eyes
Genus Charmosyna Wagler, 1832 – 14 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Josephine's lorikeet C. josefinae
Finsch, 1873
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands Red parrot with black crown and green wings with yellow spots
Duchess lorikeet C. margarethae
Tristram, 1879
iNT IUCN Bougainville Island and six islands of the Solomon Islands Drawing of a red parrot with black crown, yellow neck ring and tail tips, and green wings
Meek's lorikeet C. meeki
Rothschild and Hartert, 1901
iNT IUCN Bougainville Island and six islands of the Solomon Islands
Striated lorikeet C. multistriata
Rothschild, 1911
iNT IUCN New Guinea Highlands
Palm lorikeet C. palmarum
Gmelin, 1788
gVU IUCN Santa Cruz and Vanuatu
Papuan lorikeet C. papou
Scopoli, 1786
LC IUCN West Papua Green parrot with red head, black stripe across the eyes, blue inner wings and yellow tail and wing tips
Red-flanked lorikeet C. placentis
Temminck, 1834
LC IUCN New Guinea (excluding the New Guinea Highlands), North Maluku, Maluku, New Britain, New Ireland, and Bougainville Island Two green parrots with red beaks, one male with red sides and blue cheeks, and one female with yellow flecked cheeks
Fairy lorikeet C. pulchella
Gray, 1859
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands, West Papua, and Papuan Peninsula Drawing of red parrot with green wings, nape, and upper tail, with yellow flecked chest
Red-chinned lorikeet C. rubrigularis
Sclater, 1881
LC IUCN New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover Island, and Karkar Island
Red-fronted lorikeet C. rubronotata LC IUCN Northern New Guinea and West Papua
Pygmy lorikeet C. wilhelminae
Meyer, 1874
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands
New Caledonian lorikeet C. diadema
Verreaux and des Murs, 1860
CR IUCN Last official sighting in 1913 in New Caledonia Drawing of two light green parrots with darker wings, red beaks, and yellow chins and tail tips
Red-throated lorikeet C. amabilis
Ramsay, 1875
CR IUCN Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni and Ovalau (islands of Fiji) Drawing of two green parrots with lighter bellies and red faces and necks, and one with no red and yellow and maroon stripes on underside of wings
Blue-fronted lorikeet C. toxopei
Siebers, 1930
CR IUCN Buru of Maluku
Genus Oreopsittacus Salvadori, 1877 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Plum-faced lorikeet O. arfaki
Meyer, 1874
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands Two green parrots with red tails and belly patches, deep purple faces with a white stripe, one with a red crown
Genus Neopsittacus Salvadori, 1875 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Yellow-billed lorikeet N. musschenbroekii
Schlegel, 1871
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands Two green parrots with red bellies and large yellow beaks
Orange-billed lorikeet N. pullicauda
Hartert, 1876
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands Drawing of two green parrots with orange beaks and red bellies and tail and wing tips

Tribe Melopsittacini

Genus Melopsittacus Gould, 1840 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Budgerigar M. undulatus
Shaw, 1805
LC IUCN Non-coastal Australia Green parrot with yellow head and yellow and black patterned wings

Tribe Cyclopsittini (fig parrots)

Genus Cyclopsitta Reichenbach, 1850 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Orange-breasted fig parrot C. gulielmitertii
Schlegel, 1866
LC IUCN Western coast of West Papua
A green parrot with blue-edged wings and orange cheeks
A green parrot with blue-edged wings and white cheeks and throat
Female left, male right
Double-eyed fig parrot C. diophthalma
Hombron and Jacquinot, 1841
LC IUCN Aru Islands, Waigeo, New Guinea, and the eastern coast of Cape York Peninsula Green parrot with red cheeks and brow, and blue temples
Genus Psittaculirostris G. R. Gray and J. E. Gray, 1859 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Large fig parrot P. desmarestii
Desmarest, 1826
LC IUCN West Papua Green parrot with yellow head, red crown, and blue eye and wing markings
Edwards's fig parrot P. edwardsii
Oustalet, 1885
LC IUCN Northern coast of Papua New Guinea Green parrot with blue, light blue, red, and yellow head markings
Salvadori's fig parrot P. salvadorii
Oustalet, 1880
LC IUCN Northern coast of Papua Province

Subfamily Agapornithinae

Genus Agapornis (lovebirds) Selby, 1836 – nine species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Rosy-faced lovebird A. roseicollis
Vieillot, 1818
LC IUCN Southwestern Africa Green parrot with pink face and blue tail tips
Yellow-collared lovebird A. personatus LC IUCN Eastern Africa around Tanzania Green parrot with yellow neck, black head, and red beak
Fischer's lovebird A. fischeri
Reichenow, 1887
iNT IUCN Eastern Africa around Tanzania Three green parrots with yellow neck and crown, orange face, and red beak
Lilian's lovebird A. lilianae
Shelley, 1896
iNT IUCN Southeastern Africa around Malawi Green parrot with orange chin and face and red forehead
Black-cheeked lovebird A. nigrigenis
Sclater, 1906
gVU IUCN Southwest Zambia Two bright green parrots with orange chin, black head, and red beak
Gray-headed lovebird A. canus
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Coast of Madagascar and formerly Comoros Two green parrots, the right with white chest and head
Female left, male right
Black-winged lovebird A. taranta
Smith-Stanley, 1814
LC IUCN Ethiopia and central Eritrea Green parrot with red crown and orange beak
Red-headed lovebird A. pullarius
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Sub-Saharan Africa north of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and around the Gulf of Guinea Two green parrots with orange faces
Black-collared lovebird A. swindernianus
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN West equatorial Africa Light green parrot with orange chest marking and black neck marking
Genus Loriculus (hanging parrots) Blyth, 1849 – 13 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Moluccan hanging parrot L. amabilis
Wallace, 1862
LC IUCN North Maluku Drawing of two green parrots, one with red crown and central tail, and yellow back
Orange-fronted hanging parrot L. aurantiifrons
Schlegel, 1873
LC IUCN New Guinea, excluding the New Guinea Highlands Drawing of green parrot with darker wings, red crown, and red central tail
Sri Lanka hanging parrot L. beryllinus
Forster, 1781
LC IUCN Southern Sri Lanka Green parrot with darker wings and a red crown and beak
Sangihe hanging parrot L. catamene
Schlegel, 1873
iNT IUCN Sangihe Islands Drawing of two green parrots with red central tail and a blue underside of dark green wings
Pygmy hanging parrot L. exilis
Schlegel, 1866
iNT IUCN Sulawesi Drawing of green parrot with darker wings and red central tail
Wallace's hanging parrot L. flosculus
Wallace, 1864
eEN IUCN Flores
Blue-crowned hanging parrot L. galgulus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Sumatra, Borneo and the Malay Peninsula
A green parrot with a short tail and black bill
A green parrot with a red tail and blue patch on top of his head
Female left, male right
Sula hanging parrot L. sclateri
Wallace, 1863
LC IUCN Taliabu, Peleng, and smaller, nearby islands Drawing of green parrot with red back and tail, with a yellow band mid-back
Great hanging parrot L. stigmatus
Müller, 1843
LC IUCN Sulawesi Green parrot with red throat
Bismarck hanging parrot L. tener
Sclater, 1877
iNT IUCN New Britain, New Ireland, and New Hanover Drawing of two green parrots with red throat and yellow tail
Philippine hanging parrot L. philippensis
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN The Philippines Drawing of two green parrots with red tail, red crown and chin, yellow nape, and blue face
Yellow-throated hanging parrot L. pusillus
Gray, 1859
iNT IUCN Java and Bali Green parrot with yellow throat
Vernal hanging parrot L. vernalis
Sparrman, 1787
LC IUCN Indochina (excluding the Malay Peninsula), and the Eastern and Western Ghats Green parrot with darker wings and orange beak
Genus Bolbopsittacus Salvadori 1891 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Guaiabero B. lunulatus
Scopoli, 1781
LC IUCN Philippines, excluding the central islands Green parrot with yellow-flecked wings and bright blue-green face

Subfamily Psittaculinae

Tribe Polytelini

Genus Alisterus (king parrots) Mathews, 1911 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Moluccan king parrot A. amboinensis
Linnaeus, 1766
LC IUCN West Papua, Maluku, North Maluku, Buru Island, and the Banggai Islands Red parrot with green wings and blue back
Australian king parrot A. scapularis
Lichtenstein, 1818
LC IUCN Eastern coast of Australia Red parrot with green wings
Papuan king parrot A. chloropterus
Ramsay, 1879
LC IUCN New Guinea, excluding West Papua and the New Guinea Highlands Red parrot with green wings
Genus Aprosmictus Gould, 1842 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Jonquil parrot A. jonquillaceus
Vieillot, 1818
iNT IUCN Timor
Red-winged parrot A. erythropterus
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN Northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea Two green parrots, one with red and black wings and one with red and green
Genus Polytelis Wagler, 1832 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Superb parrot P. swainsonii
Desmarest, 1826
LC IUCN Central New South Wales Green parrot with blue wings, yellow face, and orange chin and beak
Regent parrot P. anthopeplus
lear, 1831
LC IUCN Southwest Western Australia and southwest New South Wales and northwest Victoria Two yellow parrots with black tails, wing edges, and backs
Princess parrot P. alexandrae
Gould, 1863
iNT IUCN Central Australia Green parrot with grey head, pink throat, yellow back, and dark wing tips

Tribe Psittaculini

Genus Prioniturus (racket-tails) Wagler, 1842 – nine species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Montane racket-tail P. montanus
Ogilvie-Grant, 1895
iNT IUCN Luzon Stamp with drawing of two green parrots with yellow chest and orange back, one with blue face and red crown
Mindanao racket-tail P. waterstradti
Rothschild, 1904
iNT IUCN Mindanao, an island of the Philippines
Blue-headed racket-tail P. platenae
Blasius, 1888
gVU IUCN Palawan, an island chain of the Philippines Green parrot with darker wings
Green racket-tail P. luconensis
Steere, 1890
eEN IUCN Luzon and Marinduque
Blue-crowned racket-tail P. discurus
Vieillot, 1818
LC IUCN Central and southern Philippines Drawing of two green parrots with darker wings, yellow throat, and blue crown and tail tips
Mindoro racket-tail P. mindorensis
Steere, 1890
gVU IUCN Mindoro, an island of the Philippines
Blue-winged racket-tail P. verticalis
Sharpe, 1893
CR IUCN Sulu Archipelago Drawing of two green parrots with darker wings and blue tail tips, one with a red and blue crown
Yellow-breasted racket-tail P. flavicans
Cassin, 1853
iNT IUCN Northern Sulawesi Drawing of a green parrot with yellow shoulders and a blue and red crown
Golden-mantled racket-tail P. platurus
Vieillot, 1818
LC IUCN Sulawesi and the Sula Islands Drawing of two green parrots, one with orange shoulders and a blue and red crown
Buru racket-tail P. mada
Hartert, 1900
LC IUCN Buru, Indonesia Green parrot with yellow under-tail and blue shoulders and crown
Genus Eclectus Wagler, 1832 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Eclectus parrot E. roratus
Müller, 1776
LC IUCN New Guinea (excluding the New Guinea Highlands), Solomon Islands, eastern coast of the Cape York Peninsula, Maluku, North Maluku, Buru Island, and Sumba Two parrots, one green with orange and yellow bill, one red with blue nape
Oceanic eclectus parrot E. infectus
Steadman, 2006
aEX IUCN Formerly Tonga and possibly Malakula until the late 1700s Charcoal drawing of a parrot
Genus Geoffroyus Bonaparte, 1850 – four species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Red-cheeked parrot G. geoffroyi
Bechstein, 1811
LC IUCN New Guinea (excluding the New Guinea Highlands), Maluku, North Maluku, Buru Island, Aru Islands, Timor, and the Lesser Sunda Islands Green parrot with rose cheeks and brow
Blue-collared parrot G. simplex
Meyer, 1874
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands and West Papua
Song parrot G. heteroclitus
Hombron and Jacquinot, 1841
LC IUCN New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, and the Solomon Islands
Rennell parrot G. hyacinthinus
Mayr, 1931
LC IUCN Rennell Island, and island of the Solomon Islands
Genus Tanygnathus Wagler, 1832 – four species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Great-billed parrot T. megalorynchos
Boddaert, 1783
LC IUCN North Maluku, Maluku, Buru Island, Tanimbar Islands, East Nusa Tenggara, and Sumba Green parrot with blue wing tips and large red beak
Blue-naped parrot T. lucionensis
Linnaeus, 1766
iNT IUCN The Philippines Green parrot with blue nape and red beak
Blue-backed parrot T. sumatranus
Raffles, 1822
LC IUCN The Philippines, Sulawesi, and Taliabu Green parrot with blue back and red beak
Black-lored parrot T. gramineus
Gmelin, 1788
gVU IUCN Buru Island
Genus Psittinus Blyth, 1842 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Blue-rumped parrot P. cyanurus
Forster, 1795
iNT IUCN Borneo, Sumatra, the Mentawai Islands, Bangka Island, Riau Archipelago, the Lingga Islands, and the Malay Peninsula Dusty green parrot with bright green wings, blue brow, and red beak
Simeulue parrot P. abbotti
Richmond, 1902
iNT IUCN Simeulue and the Siumat Islands
Genus Psittacula Cuvier, 1800 – fifteen species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Newton's parakeet P. exsul
Newton, 1872
aEX IUCN Formerly Rodrigues, an island of Mauritius until 1875 Drawing of blue parrot with darker wings and head
Echo parakeet P. eques
Boddaert, 1783
EN IUCN Southwest corner of Mauritius and formerly Réunion Green parrot with darker wings
Rose-ringed parakeet P. krameri
Scopoli, 1769
LC IUCN Equatorial Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma Green parrot with red beak and pink neck ring
Alexandrine parakeet P. eupatria
Linnaeus, 1766
iNT IUCN Eastern India, Western Ghats, the Himalayas, Indochina, and introduced to Bahrain and southwest Iran Green parrot with red beak
Seychelles parakeet P. wardi
Newton, 1867
aEX IUCN Formerly Mahé, Praslin, and Silhouette Island until 1883 Drawing of green parrot with blue neck ring, red beak, and red wing patch
Plum-headed parakeet P. cyanocephala
Linnaeus, 1766
LC IUCN India, Sri Lanka, and the Himalayas Two light green parrots with green wings, one with red wing patch, blue neck ring, and red head, the other with orange neck ring and grey head
Blossom-headed parakeet P. roseata
Biswas, 1951
iNT IUCN Indochina (excluding Malaysia) and the eastern Himalayas Drawing of two green parrots with darker wings, one with a white head and red cheeks
Slaty-headed parakeet P. himalayana
Lesson, 1832
LC IUCN the Himalayas Green parrot with darker wings, blue nape, and dark grey head
Gray-headed parakeet P. finschii
Hume, 1874
iNT IUCN Indochina, excluding Thailand and Malaysia Drawing of two green parrots with dark grey head, blue neck ring, and red beaks
Blue-winged parakeet P. columboides
Vigors, 1830
LC IUCN Western Ghats
A white parrot with green-blue wings, a yellow tail, and a grey collar
A white parrot with green-blue wings, a long blue tail, and a grey head with red bill
Female left, male right
Layard's parakeet P. calthrapae
Blyth, 1849
LC IUCN Southern Sri Lanka Green parrot with grey back, head, and tail
Lord Derby's parakeet P. derbiana
Fraser, 1852
iNT IUCN Southern China near the China/India and China/Myanmar border Two grey parrots with green back and wings, one with red beak
Red-breasted parakeet P. alexandri
Linnaeus, 1758
iNT IUCN Indochina (excluding central Thailand) and the Himalayas Two green parrots with red chest and grey heads, one with a red beak
Nicobar parakeet P. caniceps
Blyth, 1846
iNT IUCN Nicobar Islands which is northwest of Sumatra Drawing of two green parrots with grey heads, one with a blue beak and one with red
Long-tailed parakeet P. longicauda
Boddaert, 1783
iNT IUCN Sumatra, coasts of Borneo, tip of the Malay Peninsula Green parrot with blue tail, red head, and black crown
Mascarene grey parakeet P. bensoni [l]
Holyoak, 1973
aEX IUCN Formerly Mauritius until 1764 Drawing of a grey parrot with red beak
Genus Lophopsittacus Cuvier, 1800 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Broad-billed parrot L. mauritianus
Owen, 1866
aEX IUCN Formerly Mauritius until 1693 Drawing of black parrot
Genus Necropsittacus Milne-Edwards, 1874 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Rodrigues parrot N. rodricanus
Milne-Edwards, 1867
aEX IUCN Formerly Rodrigues, an island of Mauritius, until 1761

Tribe Micropsittini

Genus Micropsitta (pygmy parrots) Lesson, 1831 – six species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Buff-faced pygmy parrot M. pusio
Sclater, 1866
LC IUCN Northern coast of New Guinea, coast of the Papuan Peninsula, and the southern islands of the Bismarck Archipelago Drawing of green parrot with orange head and black and blue tail tips
Yellow-capped pygmy parrot M. keiensis
Salvadori, 1875
LC IUCN Southern New Guinea, the Aru Islands, coast of West Papua, and the Raja Ampat Islands Drawing of green parrot with yellow cheeks and yellow tail with black markings
Geelvink pygmy parrot M. geelvinkiana
Schlegel, 1871
iNT IUCN Biak-Supiori and Numfor (islands of the Baik Island) Drawing of two green parrots with orange faces and blue crowns, one with orange chest
Meek's pygmy parrot M. meeki
Rothschild and Hartert, 1914
LC IUCN Admiralty Islands and the St Matthias Islands
Finsch's pygmy parrot M. finschii
Ramsay, 1881
LC IUCN Solomon Islands and New Ireland
Red-breasted pygmy parrot M. bruijnii
Salvadori, 1875
LC IUCN New Guinea Highlands, New Britain, New Ireland, Bougainville Island, Kolombangara Island, Guadalcanal, West Papua, and Maruku

Family Psittrichasiidae

Subfamily Coracopsinae

Genus Coracopsis (vasa parrots) Wagler, 1832 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Greater vasa parrot C. vasa
Shaw, 1812
LC IUCN The coasts of Madagascar and Comoros (excluding Mayotte) A brown parrot
Lesser vasa parrot C. nigra
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Madagascar A brown parrot with blue-tipped wings
Seychelles black parrot C. barklyi
Newton, 1867
gVU IUCN Praslin and possibly Curieuse Island A brown parrot

Subfamily Psittrichasinae

Genus Psittrichas Lesson, 1831 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Pesquet's parrot P. fulgidus
Lesson, 1830
gVU IUCN New Guinea Highlands A blue-grey parrot with a red underside and wing tips

Cockatoos

Family Cacatuidae

Subfamily Nymphicinae

Genus Nymphicus Wagler, 1832 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Cockatiel N. hollandicus
Kerr, 1792
LC IUCN Australia, excluding the coast
A grey parrot with white wings (except for the edges), a red cheek, and a yellow head
A grey parrot with white wings (except for the edges), a red cheek, and a yellow-grey head
Male left, female right

Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae

Genus Calyptorhynchus Desmarest, 1826 – two species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Red-tailed black cockatoo C. banksii
Latham, 1790
LC IUCN West Western Australia, northern North Australia, and eastern Australia except Victoria A black parrot with a crest and males have small, white spots on their head and neck
Glossy black cockatoo C. lathami
Teminck, 1807
LC IUCN =Eastern coast of Australia except Queensland
A brown parrot with black wings and a crest
A brown parrot with a small crest and yellow neck
Male left, female right
Genus Zanda Desmarest, 1826 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Baudin's black cockatoo Z. baudinii
Lear, 1832
eEN IUCN Southwestern tip of Australia A brown parrot with a crest, and a white back-of-the-neck and beak
Yellow-tailed black cockatoo Z. funereus
Shaw, 1794
LC IUCN Eastern coast of New South Wales, and all of Victoria and Tasmania
Z. f. funereus in red, Z. f. xanthanotus in green
A brown parrot with a crest and white cheeks
Carnaby's black cockatoo Z. latirostris
Carnaby, 1948
eEN IUCN Southwestern tip of Australia A brown parrot with a crest, and white cheeks and beak

Subfamily Cacatuinae

Tribe Microglossini

Genus Probosciger Kuhl, 1820 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Palm cockatoo P. aterrimus
Gmelin, 1788
LC IUCN New Guinea excluding the New Guinea Highlands A black parrot with a crest, and a red face

Tribe Cacatuini

Genus Callocephalon Lesson, 1837 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Gang-gang cockatoo C. fimbriatum
Grant, 1803
LC IUCN Southern coast of Victoria A grey parrot with a red head and crest
Genus Eolophus Bonaparte, 1854 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Galah E. roseicapilla
Vieillot, 1817
LC IUCN Most of Australia A grey parrot with a pink underside and throat, and a white forehead
Genus Cacatua Vieillot, 1817 – 12 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
White cockatoo C. alba
Müller, 1776
eEN IUCN North Maluku A white parrot with a crest and a grey beak
Solomons cockatoo C. ducorpsii
Pucheran, 1853
LC IUCN Solomon Islands A white parrot with a crest
Sulphur-crested cockatoo C. galerita
Latham, 1790
LC IUCN New Guinea and the eastern and northern coasts of Australia including Tasmania. Introduced to the southwestern tip of Australia
Native range in red, introduced range in violet
A white parrot with a grey beak and a yellow crest
Tanimbar corella C. goffiniana
Roselaar and Michels, 2004
iNT IUCN Yamdena and Larat of the Tanimbar Islands, and introduced to the Kai Islands A white parrot with a crest and a grey beak
Red-vented cockatoo C. haematuropygia
Müller, 1776
CR IUCN The Philippines A white parrot with a crest
Major Mitchell's cockatoo C. leadbeateri
Vigors, 1831
LC IUCN Australia excluding the coast A white parrot with a pink head and underside, a red crest, a grey beak, and white eye-spots
Salmon-crested cockatoo C. moluccensis
Gmelin, 1788
gVU IUCN Seram, Ambon Island, Saparua and Haruku Island A pink parrot with yellow wings, a red crest, and white eye-spots
Blue-eyed cockatoo C. ophthalmica
Sclater, 1864
gVU IUCN New Britain and New Ireland A white parrot with a crest, a grey beak, and blue eye-spots
Western corella C. pastinator
Gould, 1841
LC IUCN Southwest Australian coast A white parrot with a crest, a yellow tail, a grey beak, and blue eye-spots and feet
Little corella C. sanguinea
Gould, 1843
LC IUCN Australia, excluding Cape York Peninsula and west central Australia, and introduced to Tasmania A white parrot with a crest and grey eye-spots
Yellow-crested cockatoo C. sulphurea
Gmelin, 1788
CR IUCN Sulawesi and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Introduced to Singapore and Hong Kong
Native range in blue, introduced range in red
A white parrot with a crest, a black beak and a yellow crest
Long-billed corella C. tenuirostris
Kuhl, 1820
LC IUCN New South Wales, excluding the eastern coast A white parrot with a crest and a red mask

New Zealand parrots

Family Nestoridae

Genus Nestor Lesson, 1830 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
New Zealand kākā N. meridionalis
Gmelin, 1788
eEN IUCN Scattered populations across New Zealand A light brown-grey parrot with maroon spots on the underside and orange cheeks
Norfolk kākā N. productus
Gould, 1836
aEX IUCN Formerly Norfolk Island and Phillip Island until 1851 A brown parrot with orange-and-red cheeks and underside
Kea N. notabilis
Gould, 1856
gVU IUCN Scattered populations across the South Island A green parrot with a light-brown head and a brown-green underside

Family Strigopidae

Genus Strigops Gray, 1845 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Kakapo S. habroptilus
Gray, 1845
CR IUCN Codfish Island, Anchor Island, and Little Barrier Island A stocky, green parrot with black spots on the back and a straw-coloured faced

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This species might be extinct in the wild.[24]
  2. ^ Officially listed as Psittacara holochlorus brevipes, a subspecies of green parakeet, by the IUCN
  3. ^ Officially listed as Psittacara chloropterus maugei, a subspecies of Hispaniolan parakeet, by the IUCN
  4. ^ Officially listed as Psittacara holochlorus strenuus, a subspecies of green parakeet, by the IUCN
  5. ^ The species authority is Johann Baptist von Spix, 1824, by the IOC World Bird List, however the International Union for Conservation of Nature considers it to be Władysław Taczanowski, 1883
  6. ^ Officially listed as Northiella haematogaster narethae, a subspecies of eastern bluebonnet, by the IUCN
  7. ^ Officially Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris, a subspecies of eastern ground parrot
  8. ^ Officially Chalcopsitta cardinalis by the IUCN
  9. ^ Synonymous with Glossopsitta according to the IUCN
  10. ^ Officially Glossopsitta porphyrocephala by the IUCN
  11. ^ Officially Glossopsitta pusilla by the IUCN
  12. ^ This parrot is considered a member of the genus Psittacula by the IOC World Bird List since 2007,[30] but as a member of the genus Lophopsittacus by the IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species.[31]

References

  1. ^ "Psittacine". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000. Archived from the original on 27 August 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  2. ^ "Psittacine". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Joseph, L.; Toon, A.; Schirtzinger, E. E.; Wright, T. F.; Schodde, R. (2012). "A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes)" (PDF). Zootaxa (3205): 26–40. 
  4. ^ Forshaw, J. M.; Cooper, W. T. (1981). Parrots of the World (2nd ed.). London, England: David & Charles, Newton Abbot. ISBN 978-0-7153-7698-0. 
  5. ^ Cooke, F.; Bruce, J. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Animals: a complete visual guide (1st ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-520-24406-1. 
  6. ^ Heatley, J. J.; Cornejo, J. (2015). "Psittaciformes". In Miller, R. E.; Fowler, M. E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 8. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-4557-7397-8. 
  7. ^ Burtt, E. H.; Schroeder, M. R.; Smith, L. A.; Sroka, J. E.; McGraw, K. J. (2010). "Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation". Biology Letters. 7 (2): 214–216. PMC 3061162Freely accessible. PMID 20926430. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0716. 
  8. ^ Forshaw, J. M.; Cooper, W. T. (1978) [1973]. Parrots of the World (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Landsdowne Editions. ISBN 978-0-7018-0690-3. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Wright, T. F.; Schirtzinger, E. E.; Matsumoto, T.; Eberhard, J. R.; Graves, G. R.; Sanchez, J. J.; Capelli, S.; Muller, H.; Scharpegge, J.; Chambers, G. K.; Fleischer, R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (10): 2141–2156. PMC 2727385Freely accessible. PMID 18653733. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. 
  10. ^ a b c d de Kloet, R. S.; de Kloet, S. R. (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706–721. PMID 16099384. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. 
  11. ^ a b c Tokita, M.; Kiyoshi, T.; Armstrong, K. N. (2007). "Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony". Evolution and Development. 9 (6): 590–601. PMID 17976055. doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00199.x. 
  12. ^ Brock, M. K.; White, B. N. (1992). "Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 89 (23): 11121–11125. Bibcode:1992PNAS...8911121B. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.23.11121. 
  13. ^ Sibley, C. G.; Ahlquist, J. E. (1991). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds. Yale University Press. 
  14. ^ Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6. 
  15. ^ Livezey, B. C.; Zusi, R. L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy: II. – Analysis and discussion". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149 (1): 1–94. PMC 2517308Freely accessible. PMID 18784798. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. 
  16. ^ Homberger, D. G. (2006). "Classification and the status of wild populations of parrots". In Luescher AU. Manual of parrot behavior. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 3–11. ISBN 978-0-8138-2749-0. 
  17. ^ a b White, N. E.; Phillips, M. J.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Alfaro-Núñez, A.; Willerslev, E.; Mawson, P. R.; Spencer, P. B. S.; Bunce, M. (2011). "The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 615–622. PMID 21419232. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.011. 
  18. ^ Astuti, D. (2004). "A phylogeny of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes) inferred from DNA sequences of the seventh intron of nuclear β-fibrinogen gene" (PDF). Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Japan: 1–3. 
  19. ^ Adams, M.; Baverstock, P. R.; Saunders, D.A.; Schodde, R.; Smith, G. T. (1984). "Biochemical systematics of the Australian cockatoos (Psittaciformes: Cacatuinae)". Australian Journal of Zoology. 32 (3): 363–377. doi:10.1071/ZO9840363. 
  20. ^ "Introduction". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  21. ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen, O.; Güntert, M.; Hertwig, S. T. (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 984–994. PMID 19699808. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021. 
  22. ^ Joseph, L.; Toon, A.; Schirtzinger, E. E.; Wright, T. F. (2011). "Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 675–684. PMID 21453777. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.017. 
  23. ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen, O.; Hertwig, S. T. (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38 (11): 2176–2194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x. 
  24. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Cyanopsitta spixii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  25. ^ "Platycercus/Barnardius – Rosellas". Avian Web. 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  26. ^ Forshaw, Joseph M. (2006). Parrots of the World; an Identification Guide. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09251-5. 
  27. ^ Lendon, A. H. (1973). Australian Parrots in Field and Aviary (2nd ed.). Sydney, Australia: Angus and Robertson. ISBN 978-0-207-12424-2. 
  28. ^ Falla, R. A.; Sibson, R. B.; Turbot, E. G. (1966). A Field guide to the birds of New Zealand. London, England: Houghton Mifflin and Company. ISBN 978-0-00-212022-7. 
  29. ^ BirdLife International. "Northern Rosella Platycercus venustus". IUCN Redlist for Birds. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  30. ^ Gill, F.; Donsker, D. (2016). "Parrots and cockatoos". IOC World Bird List. 6.4. International Ornithological Congress. doi:10.14344/IOC.ML.6.4. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  31. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Lophopsittacus bensoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 

External links

  • eBird – Enter the name of a parrot species to find detailed information about their current range as well as sightings across the world
  • IOC World Bird List – A comprehensive list of parrots with up-to-date information on taxonomy, including synonyms and authority
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System – A list providing taxonomic information on all subordinate taxa of Psittaciformes, including subspecies
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