List of supercontinents

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This is a list of supercontinents.


The list is written in reverse-chronological order ("stratolithic order"). Dates are given as the approximate beginning of the formation of the supercontinent; dates in parentheses are approximate date of the fully formed supercontinent. The Notes column provides the geologic time period of the fully formed supercontinent.

Minor supercontinent
Major supercontinent
List of Supercontinents
Name Ga
(Billions of years ago)
Geologic time period[1] / Notes


~0.253–~0.056 Phanerozoic > Mesozoic[2]
Pangaea ~0.335 (.299[3]) –~0.173 Phanerozoic > Paleozoic > Permian[4]
Euramerica 0.433-0.056
Gondwana ~0.62–~0.132
Pannotia, also called Vendian 0.62–~0.555 Precambrian > Proterozoic > Neoproterozoic > Ediacaran[5]
Avalonia 0.63-0.056
Protogondwana 1.071-0.62
Protolaurasia 1.071–0.592
Rodinia[6] 1.071–~0.75 Precambrian > Proterozoic > Neoproterozoic > Tonian
Cimmeria 1.25–present
Baltica 1.8-present
Laurentia 1.816-present
Columbia, also called Nuna ~1.82–1.35[7] Precambrian > Proterozoic > Paleoproterozoic > Statherian
Nena 1.95-0.592
Atlantica 2.11-0.114 Protracted tectonic magma plume rifting occurred 1.31 Ga. Final breakup occurred ~114 Ma.
India (continent) 2.525-present
Siberia (continent) 2.695-present
Sclavia 2.665-2.33 Kenorland is a "one-piece" alternative to Superia, Vaalbara, and Sclavia.
Kenorland/Arctica ~2.72–2.1 Neoarchean sanukitoid cratons and new continental crust formed Narnia. Protracted tectonic magma plume rifting occurred 2.48 to 2.4 Ga and this contributed to the Paleoproterozoic glacial events in 2.4 to 2.22 Ga. Final breakup occurred ~2.1 Ga.
Ur ~3.1-2.803 Classified as the earliest known landmass, Ur was a continent that existed three billion years ago. While probably not a supercontinent, one can argue that Ur was a supercontinent for its time as it was possibly the only continent on Earth, even if it was smaller than Australia is today. Still, an older rock formation now in Greenland dates back from Hadean times.
Congo (continent) (Protoafrica) 3.6-present This former continent thought to be parental to the São Francisco craton, Congo craton and the Central Africa.
Vaalbara ~3.6-2.803 Possibly the first supercontinent
Superior craton 4.031-present

Present day

List of Supercontinents
Name Myr (millions of years)
Afro-Eurasia ~-5 Myr to ~+215 Myr
Ocean-Eurasia ~-5 Myr to ~+215 Myr
America ~-15 Myr to +150 Myr
Eurasia ~-253 Myr to ~+215 Myr If not considered a part of Afro-Eurasia

Future (speculative)

List of Supercontinents
Name Year (Myr) Notes
East Africa—India—Madagascar—Indonesia—East Asia—Australia—Zealand—North America 316-472
Pangaea Ultima/Novopangaea 249–540
East Asia—Australia—Zealand—North America 102-472
Antarctica—South America 102-739
Amasia 39–215
Afro-Euraustralasia 27–215
Africa—Europe—West Asia 0.65-450


  1. ^ Inc., Advanced Solutions International,. "GSA Geologic Time Scale". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  2. ^ "Tectonics of the Triassic Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  3. ^ "The Permian Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  4. ^ "The Permian Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  5. ^ "The Ediacaran Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  6. ^ Science, Carnegie (2017-12-14). "One of The Supercontinents Is Different from the Others (It's Rodinia)". Carnegie Institution for Science. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  7. ^

External links

  • Earth History
  • Plate Tectonic Reconstructions at UTIG
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