List of state leaders in the 21st century

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State leaders in the 20th centuryCurrent state leadersState leaders by year

This is a list of the leaders of autonomous states in the 21st century (2001–present) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 21st century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.


Africa: Central

  • President (2013)
  • Transitional Head of State (2013–2014)

Africa: East

post currently abolished
post currently abolished

Africa: Northcentral

  • President of the General National Congress of Libya (2013–2014)
  • Contesting Chairman of the 2014 General National Congress of Libya (2014–2016)

Africa: Northeast

Africa: Northwest

Africa: South

  • Ntfombi, Queen Regent (1983–1986), Ndlovukati (1983–present)
post currently abolished

Africa: West

post currently abolished
  • Yahya Jammeh, Chairman of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (1994–1996), President (1996–2017)
  • Adama Barrow, President (2017–present)


Americas: Caribbean

  • Fidel Castro, Prime minister (1959–1976), President of the Council of Ministers (1976–2008)
  • Raúl Castro, President of the Council of Ministers (2008–present)

Americas: Central

Americas: North

Americas: South


Asia: Central

  • Emomali Rahmon, Chairman of the Supreme Assembly (1992–1994), President (1994–present)

Asia: East

  • People's Republic of China
  • Jiang Zemin, General Secretary (1989–2002), paramount leader (1989–2002)
  • Hu Jintao, General Secretary (2002–2012), paramount leader (2002–2012)
  • Xi Jinping, General Secretary (2012–present), paramount leader (2012–present)
  • Akihito, Emperor (1989–present)
  • Kim Jong-il, General Secretary (1997–2011)
  • Kim Jong-un, First Secretary (2012–2016), Chairman (2016–present)

Asia: South

  • Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Asia: Southeast

  • Hun Sen, Prime minister (1998–present)

Asia: West

  • Qaboos, Sultan (1970–present)

Houthi takeover in Yemen


Europe: Balkans

Europe: British Isles

Europe: Central

Europe: East

Baltic states

Non-Baltic states

Europe: Nordic

Europe: Southcentral

Europe: Southwest

Europe: West

  • Henri, Grand Duke (2000–present)

Eurasia: Caucasus



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