List of state leaders in the 20th century

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State leaders in the 19th centuryState leaders in the 21st centuryState leaders by year

This is a list of the leaders of autonomous states in the 20th century (1901–2000) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa

Africa: Central

Angola

For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

For details see the German Empire under central Europe
East Cameroon
West Cameroon
United Cameroon

Central African Republic

  • President (1966–1976)
  • Emperor (1976–1979)

Chad

  • Ahmad Abu al-Ghazali ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1900–1901)
  • rule of Rabih az-Zubayr
For details see France under western Europe

Congo (Léopoldville)

vassal to Portugal: 1888–1910
  • BopeKena, Nyim (1900-1901)
  • Sovereign –

Congo (Brazzaville)

For details see France under western Europe

Guinea

Gabon

São Tomé and Príncipe

For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Zambia

Africa: East

Burundi

Comoros

Djibouti

Eritrea

Ethiopia

  • Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Kenya

Madagascar

Mauritius

Rwanda

Seychelles

Somalia

Tanzania

Uganda

Africa: Northcentral

Libya

  • Idris, King (1951–1969)

Tunisia

Africa: Northeast

Egypt

Sudan

Africa: Northwest

Algeria

  • Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1965–1976)
  • President (1976–1978)

Morocco

Africa: South

Botswana

Lesotho

Malawi

Mozambique

Namibia

South Africa

Swaziland

Zambia

Zimbabwe

Africa: West

Liberia

Americas

Americas: Caribbean

Bahamas

Greater Antilles: Cuba

Greater Antilles: Hispaniola

Greater Antilles: Jamaica

Lesser Antilles

Trinidad and Tobago

Americas: Central

Belize

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

Honduras

Nicaragua

Panama

  • Military leaders: de facto Heads of state (1968–1989)

Americas: North

Canada

Mexico

United States

Americas: South

Argentina

Bolivia

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Guyana

Paraguay

Peru

Suriname

Uruguay

Venezuela

Asia

Asia: Central

Asia: East

  • People's Republic of China
  • Mao Zedong, Chairman (1945–1976), paramount leader (1949–1976)
  • Hua Guofeng, Chairman (1976–1981), paramount leader (1976–1978)
  • Deng Xiaoping, paramount leader (1978–1989)
  • Hu Yaobang, Chairman (1981–1982), General Secretary (1982–1987)
  • Zhao Ziyang, General Secretary (1987–1989)
  • Jiang Zemin, General Secretary (1989–2002), paramount leader (1989–2002)

Asia: South

Asia: Southeast

  • Pol Pot, General Secretary (1963–1981)
  • Heng Samrin, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1979–1981), Chairman of the State Council (1981–1992)
  • Sao Shwe Thaik, President (1948–1952)
  • Ba U, President (1952–1957)
  • Win Maung, President (1957–1962)
  • Ne Win, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1962–1974)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1948–1956)
  • Ba Swe, Prime minister (1956–1957)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1957–1958)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1958–1960)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1960–1962)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1962–1974)
First Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
Second Philippine Republic: Japanese puppet state
Third Philippine Republic
Fourth Philippine Republic
Fifth Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
  • Jorge B. Vargas, Presiding Officer of Executive Commission, de facto head of government (1942–1943)
Fourth Philippine Republic

Vietnam

  • Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–)

Asia: West

Bahrain

Cyprus

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

  • Abdullah I, Emir (1921–1946), King (1946–1951)

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

  • Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

  • Ali Abdullah Saleh, Chairman of the Presidential Council (1990–1994), President (1994–2012)

Europe

Europe: Balkans

Albania

Bulgaria

  • Ferdinand I, Prince (1887–1908), Tsar (1908–1918)
  • Vasil Kolarov, Chairman of the Provisional Presidency of Bulgaria (1946–1947)
  • Mincho Neychev, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1947–1950)
  • Georgi Damyanov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1950–1958)
  • Dimitar Ganev, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1958–1964)
  • Georgi Traykov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1964–1971)
  • Todor Zhivkov, Chairman of the State Council (1971–1990), President (1990)
  • Petar Mladenov, President (1990)

Greece

Yugoslavia: Serbia & Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Yugoslavia: Croatia

Yugoslavia: Macedonia

Yugoslavia: Montenegro

  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)
  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)

Yugoslavia: Slovenia

Europe: British Isles

Ireland

United Kingdom

Europe: Central

Austria

Czechoslovakia

Germany

  • Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of West Germany (1982–1990), Chancellor of reunified Germany (1990–1998)
  • Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor (1998–2005)

Hungary

Liechtenstein

Poland

Switzerland

Europe: East

Baltic states: Estonia

Baltic states: Latvia


Baltic states: Lithuania

Non-Baltic states: Belarus

Non-Baltic states: Moldova

Romania

Russia

  • Ivan Durnovo, Chairman of the committee of ministers (1895–1903)

Ukraine

Europe: Nordic

Denmark

Finland

Iceland

Sweden and Norway

Prime ministers in Christiania, Norway

Europe: Southcentral

Italy

Malta

San Marino

Vatican

Europe: Southwest

Andorra

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West

Belgium

France

Luxembourg

  • Adolphe, Grand Duke (1890–1905)
  • Henri, Grand Duke (2000–present)

Monaco

Netherlands

Eurasia: Caucasus

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

Oceania

Australia

Fiji

Kiribati

Marshall Islands

Micronesia

Nauru

New Guinea

New Zealand

Palau

Samoa

Solomon Islands

Tonga

Tuvalu

Vanuatu

Wallis and Futuna

References

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