List of state leaders in the 20th century

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State leaders in the 19th centuryState leaders in the 21st centuryState leaders by year

This is a list of the leaders of autonomous states in the 20th century (1901–2000) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa

Africa: Central

Angola

Cameroon

East Cameroon
West Cameroon
United Cameroon

Central African Republic

  • President (1966–1976)
  • Emperor (1976–1979)

Chad

Congo (Léopoldville)

  • Sovereign –

Congo (Brazzaville)

Guinea

Gabon

São Tomé and Príncipe

Africa: East

  • Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Africa: Northcentral

  • Idris, King (1951–1969)

Africa: Northeast

Africa: Northwest

  • Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1965–1976)
  • President (1976–1978)

Africa: South

Africa: West

Americas

Americas: Caribbean

Americas: Central

  • Military leaders: de facto Heads of state (1968–1989)

Americas: North

Americas: South

  • Co-operative Republic of Guyana

Asia

Asia: Central

Asia: East

  • People's Republic of China
  • Mao Zedong, Chairman (1945–1976), paramount leader (1949–1976)
  • Hua Guofeng, Chairman (1976–1981), paramount leader (1976–1978)
  • Deng Xiaoping, paramount leader (1978–1989)
  • Hu Yaobang, Chairman (1981–1982), General Secretary (1982–1987)
  • Zhao Ziyang, General Secretary (1987–1989)
  • Jiang Zemin, General Secretary (1989–2002), paramount leader (1989–2002)
  • Hu Jintao, General Secretary (2002–2012), paramount leader (2002–2012)
  • Xi Jinping, General Secretary (2012–present), paramount leader (2012–present)

Asia: South

Asia: Southeast

  • Pol Pot, General Secretary (1963–1981)
  • Heng Samrin, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1979–1981), Chairman of the State Council (1981–1992)
  • Sao Shwe Thaik, President (1948–1952)
  • Ba U, President (1952–1957)
  • Win Maung, President (1957–1962)
  • Ne Win, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1962–1974)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1948–1956)
  • Ba Swe, Prime minister (1956–1957)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1957–1958)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1958–1960)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1960–1962)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1962–1974)
First Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
Second Philippine Republic: Japanese puppet state
Third Philippine Republic
Fourth Philippine Republic
Fifth Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
  • Jorge B. Vargas, Presiding Officer of Executive Commission, de facto head of government (1942–1943)
Fourth Philippine Republic

Vietnam

  • Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–)

Asia: West

Bahrain

Cyprus

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

  • Abdullah I, Emir (1921–1946), King (1946–1951)

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

  • Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

  • Ali Abdullah Saleh, Chairman of the Presidential Council (1990–1994), President (1994–2012)

Europe

Europe: Balkans

Europe: British Isles

Europe: Central

Europe: East

Baltic states

Non-Baltic states

Europe: Nordic

Europe: Southcentral

Europe: Southwest

Europe: West

  • Henri, Grand Duke (2000–present)
  • Wim Kok, Prime minister (1994–2002)

Eurasia: Caucasus

Oceania

References

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