List of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000)

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State leaders: 1901–1950State leaders in the 21st centuryState leaders by year

This is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa

Africa: Central

Angola

Colony, 1575–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe
United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
East Cameroon
West Cameroon
United Cameroon

Central African Republic

French colony, 1903–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Chad

Colony, 1900–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Congo: Belgian

Colony, 1908–1960
For details see the Belgium under Western Europe

Congo: French

Federation of colonies, 1910–1934; Colony, 1934–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East

Burundi

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1962
For details see Belgium under western Europe

Comoros

Overseas territory, 1946–1961
For details see France under western Europe

Djibouti

Overseas territory, 1946–1967
Overseas territory, 1967–1977
For details see France under western Europe

Eritrea

Ethiopia

  • Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Kenya

British colony and protectorate, 1920–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Madagascar

Colony, 1897–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Mauritius

Colony, 1810–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Rwanda

Seychelles

British colony, 1903–1976
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Somalia

Protectorate, 1884–1940, 1941–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
United Nations trust territory of Italy, 1950–1960
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe

Tanzania

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Uganda

British protectorate, 1894–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northcentral

Libya

Allied military administration, 1942–1951
  • Idris, Emir (1949–1951), King (1951–1969)
  • Idris, Emir (1949–1951), King (1951–1969)

Tunisia

Protectorate, 1881–1956
For details see France under western Europe

Africa: Northeast

Egypt

Sudan

Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt, 1899–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northwest

Algeria

French Départements, 1830–1962
For details see France under western Europe
  • People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1965–1976)
  • President (1976–1978)

Morocco

French protectorate, 1912–1956; Spanish protectorate, 1912–1956; Tangier International Zone, 1924–1956
Overseas territory, 1884–1958; Overseas province, 1958–1975
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Africa: South

Botswana

British protectorate, 1885–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Lesotho

British colony, 1884–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Malawi

British protectorate, 1907–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972; Territory, 1972–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1990
For details see the South African Republic under southern Africa

South Africa

Swaziland

  • Sobhuza II, Paramount Chief under British rule (1921–1968), King (1968–1982)

Zambia

British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Self-governing British colony, 1953–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zimbabwe

British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: West

Benin

Colony, 1904–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Burkina Faso

  • Yencabri, ruler (1942–1969)
  • Abdullahi Sandu bi Faruku, Almami (1932–1956)
  • Usman bi Amiru, Almami (1956–1959)
  • Yendieri, Boopo (1945–1976)
  • Huntani, Jafuali (1938–1952)
  • Yempaabu, Jafuali (1952–?)
  • Yamba Sorgo, Naaba (1933–1957)
  • Naaba Saaga II, Moogo-naaba (1942–1957)
  • Naaba Kugri, Moogo-naaba (1957–1982)
  • Naaba Tigre, Yatenga naaba (1914–1954)
  • Naaba Sigiri, Yatenga naaba (1954–1960)
Colony, 1919–1932, 1947–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

British colony and protectorate, 1821–1965
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Dawda Jawara, President (1970–1994)
  • Yahya Jammeh, Chairman of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (1994–1996), President (1996–2017)

Ghana

British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guinea

French colony, 1894–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1974
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

Colony, 1893–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Liberia

Mali

Colony, 1880–1958
French territory, united together with Senegal 1959–1960
For details see France under western Europe
  • Modibo Keïta, Head of State (1960–1965), President (1965–1968)
  • Moussa Traoré, Chairman of the Military Committee for National Liberation (1968–1969), Head of State (1969–1979), President (1979–1991)
  • Amadou Toumani Touré, Chairman of the National Reconciliation Council (1991), Chairman of the Transitional Committee (1991–1992)
  • Alpha Oumar Konaré, President (1992–2002)

Mauritania

French colony, 1903–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Niger

French colony, 1921–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Nigeria

British colony, 1821–1957
British colony, 1914–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Senegal

  • Fode N'Gouye Joof, Maad Saloum (1935–c.1960)[2][3]
Federation of colonies, 1895–1958
For details see France under western Europe
French colony, 1848–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Sierra Leone

British colony and protectorate, 1808–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
First Republic
Military regime
Second Republic


Togo

United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Americas

Americas: Caribbean

Bahamas

Greater Antilles: Cuba

Greater Antilles: Hispaniola

Greater Antilles: Jamaica

Lesser Antilles

Trinidad and Tobago

Americas: Central

Belize

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

Honduras

Nicaragua

Panama

  • Military leaders: de facto Heads of state (1968–1989)

Americas: North

Canada

Mexico

United States

Americas: South

Argentina

Bolivia

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Guyana

Paraguay

Peru

Suriname

Uruguay

Venezuela

Asia

Asia: Central

Asia: East

  • People's Republic of China
  • Mao Zedong, Chairman (1945–1976), paramount leader (1949–1976)
  • Hua Guofeng, Chairman (1976–1981), paramount leader (1976–1978)
  • Deng Xiaoping, paramount leader (1978–1989)
  • Hu Yaobang, Chairman (1981–1982), General Secretary (1982–1987)
  • Zhao Ziyang, General Secretary (1987–1989)
  • Jiang Zemin, General Secretary (1989–2002), paramount leader (1989–2002)
  • Kim Il-sung, Chairman (1949–1966), General Secretary (1966–1994)
  • Kim Jong-il, General Secretary (1997–2011)

Asia: South

Afghanistan

Bangladesh

Bhutan

India

Maldives

Nepal

Pakistan

  • Monarchs –

Sri Lanka

  • Monarchs –

Asia: Southeast

Brunei

Burma / Myanmar

  • Sao Shwe Thaik, President (1948–1952)
  • Ba U, President (1952–1957)
  • Win Maung, President (1957–1962)
  • Ne Win, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1962–1974)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1948–1956)
  • Ba Swe, Prime minister (1956–1957)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1957–1958)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1958–1960)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1960–1962)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1962–1974)

Cambodia

  • Pol Pot, General Secretary (1963–1981)
  • Heng Samrin, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1979–1981), Chairman of the State Council (1981–1992)

East Timor

Indonesia

Laos

Malaysia

Philippines

Third Philippine Republic
Fourth Philippine Republic
Fifth Philippine Republic
Fourth Philippine Republic

Vietnam

  • Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–)

Asia: West

Bahrain

Cyprus

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

  • Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)

Turkey


United Arab Emirates

Yemen

  • Ali Abdullah Saleh, Chairman of the Presidential Council (1990–1994), President (1994–2012)

Europe

Europe: Balkans

Albania

Bulgaria

  • Georgi Damyanov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1950–1958)
  • Dimitar Ganev, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1958–1964)
  • Georgi Traykov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1964–1971)
  • Todor Zhivkov, Chairman of the State Council (1971–1990), President (1990)
  • Petar Mladenov, President (1990)

Greece

Yugoslavia: Serbia & Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Yugoslavia: Croatia

Yugoslavia: Macedonia

Yugoslavia: Slovenia

Europe: British Isles

Ireland

United Kingdom

Europe: Central

Austria

Czechoslovakia

Germany

  • Walter Ulbricht, General Secretary (1950–1953), First Secretary (1953–1971)
  • Erich Honecker, First Secretary (1971–1976), General Secretary (1976–1989)
  • Egon Krenz, General Secretary (1989)
  • Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of West Germany (1982–1990), Chancellor of reunified Germany (1990–1998)
  • Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor (1998–2005)

Hungary

Liechtenstein

Poland

Switzerland

Europe: East

Baltic states: Estonia

Baltic states: Latvia

Baltic states: Lithuania

Non-Baltic states: Belarus

Non-Baltic states: Moldova

Non-Baltic states: Romania

  • Constantin Ion Parhon, President of the Provisional Presidium (1947–1948), President of the Presidium (1948–1952)
  • Nicolae Ceaușescu, President of the State Council (1967–1974), President (1974–1989)

Non-Baltic states: Russia

  • Nikolay Shvernik, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1946–1953)
  • Kliment Voroshilov, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1953–1960)
  • Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1960–1964)
  • Anastas Mikoyan, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1964–1965)
  • Nikolai Podgorny, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1965–1977)
  • Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1977–1982)
  • Yuri Andropov, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1983–1984)
  • Konstantin Chernenko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1984–1985)
  • Andrei Gromyko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1985–1988)
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1988–1990), President (1990–1991)

Non-Baltic states: Ukraine

Europe: Nordic

Denmark

Finland

Iceland

Norway

Sweden

Europe: Southcentral

Italy

Malta

San Marino

Vatican

Europe: Southwest

Andorra

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West

Belgium

France

Luxembourg

  • Charlotte, Grand Duchess (1919–1964)
  • Jean, Grand Duke (1964–2000)
  • Henri, Grand Duke (2000–present)

Monaco

Netherlands

Eurasia: Caucasus

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

Oceania

Australia

Fiji

Kiribati

Marshall Islands

Micronesia

Nauru

New Zealand

Palau

Papua New Guinea

Samoa

Solomon Islands

Tonga

Tuvalu

Vanuatu

References

  1. ^ Sheridan, Michael J. et Nyamweru, Celia, African sacred groves: ecological dynamics & social change, James Currey, 2008, p. 141 ISBN 0821417894
  2. ^ a b Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
  3. ^ Sheridan, Michael J. et Nyamweru, Celia, African sacred groves: ecological dynamics & social change, James Currey, 2008, p. 141 ISBN 0821417894
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