List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein

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The following is a list of rulers, usually dukes, who ruled both Schleswig and Holstein, starting from the first Holstein count who received Schleswig, until both provinces were annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia; and afterwards, titular dukes.

The Houses of Schauenburg and Estridsen

In the course of history the County of Holstein was several times partitioned among the inheriting sons into up to six lines. In 1386 King Oluf II of Denmark and his mother-regent, Queen Margaret I, enfeoffed in Nyborg Gerhard VI, Count of Holstein-Rendsborg and his cognatic successors with the Duchy of Schleswig, which had been in the royal family's hands until 1375.[1] He was as Gerhard II duke of Schleswig. Until 1390 the Rendsborg branch united by inheritance all branches except of that of Holstein-Pinneberg. It remaining a separately ruled territory in Holstein until its line was extinct in 1640, when Holstein-Pinneberg was merged into the then Duchy of Holstein. Furthermore, the here mentioned rulers of course only reigned Holstein and Schleswig in their respective territorial composition of the time, thus without states and territories only merged later in what became today's State of Schleswig-Holstein, such as Ditmarsh, conquered and annexed in 1559, Saxe-Lauenburg merged in 1876, Heligoland (British rule 1807–1891), Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck, Region of Lübeck, together with some Hamburgian exclaves in 1937. In turn much of the current westerly, northerly and easterly suburbs within Greater Hamburg were ceded from Holstein on 1 April 1937 (Cf. Greater Hamburg Act). North Schleswig had merged into Denmark in 1920. Some Lauenburgian and Mecklenburgian municipalities were exchanged by the Barber Lyashchenko Agreement in 1945.

Ruler Born Reign Death Part House Consort Notes
Olaf I Hunger
Oluf hunger.jpg
c.1050 1080-1095 18 August 1095 Schleswig Estridsen Ingegerd of Norway
c.1070
one child
Jarl (earl) of Jutland, since 1086 king of Denmark.
Eric (I) the Good
Erik 1. Ejegod.jpg
c.1050 1095-1103 10 July 1103 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Boedil Thurgotsdatter
before 1086
one child
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Nicholas (I)
Kong niels.jpg
c.1065 1103-1115 25 June 1134 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Margaret Fredkulla
c.1105
two children

Ulvhild Håkansdotter
1130
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Adolph I ? 1106-1110 13 November 1130 Schauenburg Schauenburg Hildewa
before 1128
four children
First count of Schauenburg, in 1110 becomes count of Holstein.
1110-1130 Schauenburg and Holstein
Canute I Lavard
Knut Lavard.jpg
12 March 1096 1115-1131 7 June 1131 Schleswig Estridsen Ingeborg of Kiev
1116
four children
Titled dux Daciae[2] (i.e. Duke of Denmark)
Adolph II c.1128 1130-1137 6 July 1164 Schauenburg and Holstein Schauenburg Mechthild of Schwarzburg-Käfernburg
before 1160
one son
In 1137 Henry of Badewide occupied Holstein.
1137-1143 Schauenburg
Magnus I c.1106 1131-1134 4 June 1134 Schleswig Estridsen Richeza of Poland
c.1127
two children
Also King of Sweden
Eric (II) the Memorable
Erik emune.jpg
c.1090 1134-1137 18 September 1137 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Malmfred of Kiev
c.1130
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Henry of Badewide ? 1137-1143 1164 Holstein Non-dynastic A relative of the King of Denmark
before 1164
at least two children
Restrained in 1139 to Wagria.
Eric (III) Lamb
Erik lam.jpg
c.1120 1137-1146 27 August 1146 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Lutgard of Salzwedel
c.1144
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Adolph II c.1128 1143-1164 6 July 1164 Schauenburg and Holstein Schauenburg Matilda of Schwarzburg-Käfernburg
before 1160
one son
Reunites Holstein and Schauenburg.
Sweyn I Grathe
Swen.jpg
c.1125 1146-1152

1154-1157
23 October 1157 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Adela of Meissen
c.1152
two children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Canute II
Knud 5. Magnussen coin.jpg
c.1129 9 August 1157 Helena of Sweden
c.1156
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar I the Great
Valdemar 1. den Store.jpg
14 January 1131 1146-1170 12 May 1182 Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Matilda of Schwarzburg-Käfernburg
(regent)
? 1164-c.1174 1192 Schauenburg and Holstein Schauenburg Adolph II
before 1160
one son
Regent during the minority of her son.
Adolph III
Hansa-schwert.jpg
1160 c.1174-1203 3 January 1225 Schauenburg and Holstein Schauenburg Adelaide of Assel
1182
no children

Adelaide of Querfurt
Before 10 May 1189
four children
Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, ceding the latter to Valdemar II in 1203 in order to be released from his captivity.
1203-1225 Schauenburg
Christopher I 1150 1170-1173 1173 Schleswig Estridsen Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Between 1152-1154, titled dux Iuciae[3] (i.e. Duke of Jutland).
Valdemar I the Great
Valdemar 1. den Store.jpg
14 January 1131 1173-1182 12 May 1182 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Canute III
Knud 4. Valdemarsen.jpg
c.1163 1182-1183 12 November 1202 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Gertrude of Bavaria
February 1177
Lund Cathedral
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar II the Victorious
Valdemar sejr.jpg
9 May or 28 June 1170 1183-1209 28 March 1241 Schleswig Estridsen Dagmar of Bohemia
1205
one son

Berengaria of Portugal
1214
four children
Titled dux slesvicensis[4] (i.e. Sleswickian duke), represented by the regent Bishop Valdemar Knudsen (1182–1193), Valdemar II became Danish king in 1202. He also invaded Holstein in 1203, and resigned in 1227, after being expelled.
1203-1227 Holstein
Valdemar (III) the Young
Valdemar den Unge 1209-1231.jpg
c.1209 1209-1216 28 November 1231 Schleswig Estridsen Eleanor of Portugal
24 June 1229
Ribe Cathedral
one child
Minor duke as co-duke of Valdemar II.
Eric (IV) Ploughpenny
Erik d4 Plovpenning cropped.jpg
c.1216 1216-1232 9 August 1250 Schleswig Estridsen Jutta of Saxony
17 November 1239
six children
Minor duke as co-duke of Valdemar II.
Adolph IV
Adolf von Schauenburg IV.jpg
Before 1205 1225-1227 8 July 1261 Schauenburg Schauenburg Heilwig of Lippe
1223
four children
Count of Holstein by military victory over Valdemar II; he later resigned and became a monk.
1227-1238 Schauenburg and Holstein
Abel
Abel af Danmark.JPG
c.1218 1232-1252 29 June 1252 Schleswig Estridsen Matilda of Holstein
25 April 1237
Schleswig Cathedral
four children
Also king of Denmark from 1250.
Heilwig of Lippe (regent) 1200 1238-c.1243 1249 or 1250 Schauenburg and Holstein Schauenburg Adolph IV
1223
four children
Regent during the minority of her sons.
John I
Seal Johann I. (Holstein-Kiel) 02.jpg
1229 c.1243-1261 20 April 1263 Schauenburg and Holstein Schauenburg Elisabeth of Saxe-Wittenberg
1249 or 1250
four children
Sons of Adolph IV, ruled jointly. On the aftermath of the death of their father in self-retirement, they divided their possessions: John received Holstein-Kiel; Gerhard received Holstein-Itzehoe and also the county of Schauenburg. After Gerhard's death in 1290 his sons partitioned Holstein-Itzehoe and Schaumburg into three branches, with Adolph getting Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg, Gerhard getting Holstein-Plön, and Henry getting Holstein-Rendsburg.
1261-1263 Holstein-Kiel
Gerhard I
Seal Gerhard I. (Holstein-Itzehoe) 01.jpg
1232 c.1243-1261 21 December 1290 Schauenburg and Holstein Elizabeth of Mecklenburg
1250
eleven children

Alexia of Montferrat
1282
no children
1261-1290 Holstein-Itzehoe and Schauenburg
Christopher II
Kong Christoffer 1. (1219-1259).jpg
c.1219 1252-1254 29 May 1259 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Margaret Sambiria
1248
five children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar III c.1238 1254-1257 c.1257 Schleswig Estridsen Unmarried
Eric I
Erikabelsenssegl.jpg
c.1242 1257-1272 27 May 1272 Schleswig Estridsen Margaret of Rugia
1259 or 1260
three children
John II the One-Eyed
Seal Johann II. (Holstein-Kiel) 01.jpg
1253 1263-1316 1321 Holstein-Kiel Schauenburg Margareta of Denmark
1276
two children
Sons of John I, ruled jointly. In 1273 divided the land: John II kept Holstein-Kiel; Adolph received Holstein-Segeberg. After the death of Adolph in 1308 without descendants, Holstein_Segeberg returned to Holstein-Kiel. In 1316, John II was deposed by his cousin John III from Holstein-Plön.
Adolph V the Pomeranian
Seal Adolf V. (Holstein-Segeberg) 02.jpg
1252 1263-1273 10 April or 11 November 1308 Holstein-Kiel Schauenburg Euphemia of Pomerania-Wolgast
1273 or 1278
one child
1273-1308 Holstein-Segeberg
Margaret Sambiria (regent)
Krolowa Malgorzata Sambiria afT.jpeg
c.1219 1272-1282 29 December 1282 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Christopher I
1248
five children
Regent of Schleswig-Denmark.
Eric (V)
Erik Glipping.jpg
c.1249 1282-1283 22 November 1286 Schleswig Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Agnes of Brandenburg
11 November 1273
Schleswig Cathedral
seven children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar IV c.1265 1283-1312 26 March or 7 July 1312 Schleswig Estridsen Elisabeth of Saxe-Lauenburg
1287
one child
Gerhard II the Blind
Seal Gerhard II. (Holstein-Plön) 01.jpg
1254 1290-1312 28 October 1312 Holstein-Plön Schauenburg Ingeborg of Sweden
12 December 1275
four children

Agnes of Brandenburg
1293
one child
First son of Gerhard I, ruled in -Plön.
Adolph VI the Elder
Seal Adolf VI. (Holstein-Schauenburg) 01.jpg
1256 1290-1315 13 May 1315 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Helen of Saxe-Lauenburg
14 February 1294
seven children
Second son of Gerhard I, ruled in -Pinneberg and also received Schauenburg.
Henry I
Seal Heinrich I. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1258 1290-1304 5 August 1304 Holstein-Rendsburg Schauenburg Heilwig of Bronckhorst
1289
four children
Third son of Gerhard I, ruled in -Rendsburg.
Gerhard III the Great
Seal Gerhard III. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 02.jpg
1292 1304-1326 1 April 1340 Holstein-Rendsburg Schauenburg Sophia of Werle
1315
four children
As Gerhard I, also Duke of Schleswig between 1326 and 1330.
Gerhard IV
Seal Gerhard IV. (Holstein-Plön) 01.jpg
1254 1312-1323 1323 Holstein-Plön Schauenburg Anastasia of Schwerin
30 July 1313
two children
Sons of Gerhard II, ruled jointly. In 1316, John III deposed John II of Holstein-Kiel and took over the duchy, leaving sole rule of Plön to his brother Gerhard IV. John III also served, alongside Gerhard III, as lord ruling in guardianship the Danish Duchy of Schleswig 1332–1340.
John III the Mild
Seal Johann III. (Holstein-Kiel) 02.jpg
1297 1312-1316 27 September 1359 Holstein-Plön Schauenburg Catherine of Głogów
25 December 1317 or 27 January 1319
three children

Miroslawa of Schwerin-Wittenburg
1327
three children
1316-1359 Holstein-Kiel
Eric II c.1290 1312-1325 12 March 1325 Schleswig Estridsen Adelaide of Holstein-Rendsburg
1313
two children
Adolph VII 1295 or 1297 1315-1354 9 October 1354 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Hedwig of Schwalenberg
by 1301
three children

Helwig of Lippe
1322
eight children
Gerhard V
Seal Gerhard IV. (Holstein-Plön) 01.jpg
1315 1323-1350 22 September 1350 Holstein-Plön Schauenburg Unmarried After his death, his uncle John III, ruler of -Kiel and previous co-ruler in -Plön, reunites both lands.
Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg (regent)
Seal Gerhard III. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 02.jpg
1292 1325-1326 1 April 1340 Schleswig Estridsen Sophia of Werle
1315
four children
Regent in name of his nephew, Valdemar V, placed him on Denmark in 1326 and ruled Schleswig himself.
Valdemar V
Valdemar 3 kongesegl.jpg
c.1314 c.1364 Schleswig Richardis of Schwerin
c.1329?
two children
Under regency of his uncle, in 1326 became king of Denmark.
Gerhard III the Great
Seal Gerhard III. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 02.jpg
1292 1326-1330 1 April 1340 Holstein-Rendsburg and Schleswig Schauenburg Sophia of Werle
1315
four children
Between 1326 and 1330, as ruler of Schleswig, he united (briefly) Schleswig and Holstein-Rendsburg.
1330-1340 Holstein-Rendsburg
Valdemar V
Valdemar 3 kongesegl.jpg
c.1314 1330-1364 c.1364 Schleswig Estridsen Richardis of Schwerin
c.1329?
two children
Henry I c.1342 1364-1375 August 1375 Schleswig Estridsen Kunigunde
no children
In 1375, Schleswig reunited with Holstein-Rendsburg.
Nicholas I
Seal Nikolaus (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1321 1340-1375 8 May 1397 Holstein-Rendsburg Schauenburg Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1354
one child
Nicholas and Henry ruled jointly as sons of Gerhard III. In 1375 they inherited the Duchy of Schleswig from the House of Estridsen. In 1384, with the death of his brother, Nicholas associated his nephews (Gerhard and Albert, sons of Henry) to power. In 1386 he abdicated of Schleswig to his older nephew Gerhard, who assumed alone this lands. In 1390 Nicholas inherited Holstein-Kiel. After Nicholas' death in 1397, the co-ruling nephews, Gerhard and Albert, divided the land: Gerhard kept Rendsburg, which he reunited with his duchy of Schleswig; Albert received Segeberg. As Albert left no descendants at his death in 1403, Segeberg reunited again with Rendsburg, still in hands of his brother, who died in the following year.
1375-1386 Holstein-Rendsburg and Schleswig
1386-1397 Holstein-Rendsburg
Henry II of Iron
Seal Heinrich II. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1317 1340-1375 1384 Holstein-Rendsburg Matilda of Lippe
one child

Ingeborg of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
before 1374
four children
1375-1384 Holstein-Rendsburg and Schleswig
Gerhard VI
Gerhard VI.jpg
1367 1384-1386 5 August 1404 Holstein-Rendsburg Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1390
six children
1386-1404 Holstein-Rendsburg and Schleswig
Albert I
Seal Albrecht II. (Holstein) 01.jpg
1369 1384-1397 28 September 1403 Holstein-Rendsburg Agnes of Saxe-Lauenburg
before 23 March 1399
no children
1397-1403 Holstein-Segeberg
Adolph VIII the Younger
Seal Adolf VIII. (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
After 1301 1354-1370 13 October 1370 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Unmarried
Adolph IX the Mild
Seal Adolf IX. (Holstein-Kiel) 04.jpg
1327 1359-1390 26 January 1390 Holstein-Kiel Schauenburg Anne of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
4 December 1362 or 21 September 1365
no children
Received from inheritance of his father -Kiel and also -Plön, incorporated in 1350. After his death in 1390 without descendants, -Kiel and its patrimony is inherited by Holstein-Rendsburg.
Otto I
Seal Otto I. (Schaumburg), 01.jpg
1330 1370-1404 After 16 March 1404 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Mechtild of Brunswick-Lüneburg
25 June 1368
ten children
Henry III
Seal Heinrich III. von Schauenburg-Holstein 01.jpg
c.1372 1404-1421 February 1421 Holstein-Rendsburg Schauenburg Unmarried Also Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück as Henry I (1402–1410).
Adolph X 1375 1404-1426 9 October 1426 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Helena of Hoya
1378
three children
Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg (regent)
Catharina of Brunswick.jpg
1385 1404-1413 After 1423 Schleswig Schauenburg Gerhard II
1390
six children
Respectively mother and uncle, took the regency in name of Henry III.
Henry III, Count of Schauenburg-Holstein (regent)
Seal Heinrich III. von Schauenburg-Holstein 01.jpg
c.1372 February 1421 Unmarried
Henry IV 1397 1413-1421 28 May 1427 Schleswig Schauenburg Unmarried Died without descendants. Passed the land to his brothers.
1421-1427 Holstein-Rendsburg and Schleswig
Otto II
Seal Otto II. (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
1400 1426-1464 2 June 1464 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Elisabeth of Hohnstein
1418
ten children
Adolph XI
C. W. Eckersberg Hertug Adolf, som afslaar Tilbudet om den danske Krone.jpg
1401 1427-1459 4 December 1459 Holstein-Rendsburg and Schleswig Schauenburg Matilda
before 1433
no children

Margareta of Mansfeld
1433
no children
Sons of Gerhard VI, ruled jointly in Holstein-Rendsburg. As Gerhard also wanted to rule in Schleswig he claimed (unsuccessfully) this duchy for himself against his brother. Adolph was the mightiest vassal of Danish crown at his time, gaining royal Danish recognition in 1440. After Adolph's death his patrimony is annexed by Denmark.
Gerhard VII
Seal Gerhard VII. (Holstein) 01.jpg
1404 1427-1433 24 July 1433 Holstein-Rendsburg and Schleswig Schauenburg Agnes of Baden
2 June 1432
Baden
ten children
Adolph XII 1419 1464-1474 9 October 1474 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Irmgard of Hoya
1459
no children
First son of Otto II. Left no descendants.
Eric I 1420 1474-1492 24 or 25 March 1492 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Heba of East Frisia
1476
no children
Second son of Otto II. Left no descendants.
Otto III
Seal Otto III. (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
1426 1492-1510 1510 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Unmarried Third son of Otto II. Left no descendants.
Anton I 1439 1510-1526 22 December 1526 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 November 1492
no children

Anna of Schönburg
before 25 September 1497
no children
Sixth son of Otto II and the fourth ruling. Left no descendants.
John IV 1449 1526-1527 30 March 1527 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Cordula of Gehmen
1482
one child
Jobst I 1483 1527-1531 5 June 1531 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Maria of Nassau-Dietz
1506
eight children
Adolph XIII
Seal Adolf (III.) von Schaumburg 01.jpg
19 January 1511 1531-1544 20 September 1556 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Unmarried Joint rule with his brother John IV. Abdicated in 1544. Later he became Archbishop of Cologne as Adolph III (1547-1556).
John V 1512 1531-1544 1560 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Elisabeth of East Frisia
1558
no children
Joint rule with his brother Adolphus XIII. Abdicated in 1544.
Otto IV
Stadthagen StMartini Grabmal.JPG
1517 1544-1576 21 December 1576 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Maria of Pomerania-Stettin
before 1545
four children

Ursula of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1558
three children
In 1559 he officially began the Reformation in Schauenburg and Holstein-Pinneberg.
Adolph XIV
Seal Adolf XI. (XIV.) (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
27 February 1547 1576-1601 2 July 1601 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
6 May 1583
Wolfenbüttel
one child
Ernest
Ernst von Schaumburg.jpg
24 September 1569 1601-1622 17 January 1622 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Hedwig of Hesse-Kassel
11 September 1597
Schmalkalden
ten children
Brother of Adolphus XIV. Was elevated to "Prince of Schaumburg" in 1619.
Jobst Herman 6 October 1593 1622-1635 5 November 1635 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Unmarried Cousin of his predecessor. Died without descendants.
Otto V 1 March 1614 1635-1640 15 November 1640 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Schauenburg Unmarried Cousin of his predecessor. Died without descendants.

With Otto's death the main line of Schauenburg was extinct and Holstein-Pinneberg was acquired by Christian IV for the royal share of the Holstein duchy. Schauenburg went to the House of Lippe.

The House of Oldenburg

In 1460, Schleswig fell to the Danish royal House of Oldenburg, in the person of Christian I, who inherited not only the Duchy, a Danish fief, but also the County of Holstein-Rendsburg, a Saxe-Lauenburgian subfief within the Holy Roman Empire, following the death of his maternal uncle Adolf I (and VIII as Count of Holstein-Rendsburg). In 1474 Lauenburg's liege lord Emperor Frederick III elevated Christian as Count of Holstein-Rendsburg to Duke of Holstein, thus becoming an immediate imperial vassal (see imperial immediacy). The smaller Holstein-Pinneberg remained a county further ruled by the House of Schauenburg. In 1544, after Christian III's brothers reached majority, they partitioned the Duchies of Holstein (a fief of the Holy Roman Empire) and of Schleswig (a Danish fief) in an unusual way, following negotiations between the brothers and the Estates of the Realm of the duchies, which opposed a factual partition. They determined their youngest brother Frederick for a career as Lutheran administrator of an ecclesiastical state within the Holy Roman Empire.[5]

So the revenues of the duchies were divided in three equal shares by assigning the revenues of particular areas and landed estates to each of the elder brothers, while other general revenues, such as taxes from towns and customs dues, were levied together but then shared among the brothers. The estates, whose revenues were assigned to the parties, made Holstein and Schleswig look like patchwork rags, technically inhibiting the emergence of separate new duchies, as intended by the estates of the duchies. The secular rule in the fiscally divided duchies thus became a condominium of the parties. As dukes of Holstein and Schleswig the rulers of both houses bore the formal title of "Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Dithmarschen and Stormarn".

The dynastic name Holstein-Gottorp comes as convenient usage from the technically more correct Duke of Schleswig and Holstein at Gottorp. Adolf, the third son of Duke and King Frederick I and the second youngest half-brother of King Christian III, founded the dynastic branch called House of Holstein-Gottorp, which is a cadet branch of the then royal Danish House of Oldenburg. The Danish monarchs and the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp listed below ruled both duchies together as to general government, however, collected their revenues in their separate estates. John II the Elder conveniently called Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev produced no issue, so no branch emerged from his side.

Similar to the above-mentioned agreement Christian III's youngest son John the Younger gained for him and his heirs a share in Holstein's and Schleswig's revenues in 1564, comprising a third of the royal share, thus a ninth of Holstein and Schleswig as to the fiscal point of view. John the Younger and his heirs, however, had no share in the condominial rule, they were only titular partitioned-off dukes.

The share of John II the Elder, who died in 1580, was halved between Adolf and Frederick II, thus increasing again the royal share by a fiscal sixth of Holstein and Schleswig.[6] As an effect the complicated fiscal division of both separate duchies, Holstein and Schleswig, with shares of each party scattered in both duchies, provided them with a condominial government binding both together, partially superseding their legally different affiliation as Holy Roman and Danish fiefs.

Ruler Born Reign Death Part Consort Notes
Christian I
(Christian 1.)
Christian I of Denmark, Norway & Sweden 1440s.jpg
February 1426 1460-1481 21 May 1481 Schleswig Dorothea of Brandenburg
28 October 1449
Copenhagen
five children
First ruler of Schleswig, which was inherited from Holstein-Rendsburg. Also King of Denmark and of the Kalmar Union.
John I
(Hans)
1455 Johann.JPG
2 February 1455 1481-1513 20 February 1513 Schleswig Christina of Saxony
6 September 1478
Copenhagen
five children
Ruled jointly in Schleswig, John and Frederick, brothers, ruled togerther, and after the death of John, Frederick, kept the co-rulership with his nephew, Christian II. In 1523 the latter was deposed in both Denmark and Schleswig. They were also in succession Kings of Denmark: John 1481-1513, Christian 1513-23, Frederick 1523-33. John and Christian were also Kings of the Kalmar Union.
Frederick I
(Frederik 1.)
Frederik 1-detail.jpg
7 October 1471 1490-1533 20 February 1533 Schleswig Anna of Brandenburg
10 April 1502
Stendal
two children

Sophie of Pomerania
9 October 1518
Kiel
six children
Christian II the Tyrant
(Christian 2.)
ChristianII of denmark.jpg
February 1426 1513-1523 21 May 1481 Schleswig Isabella of Austria
12 August 1515
Copenhagen
six children
Christian III
(Christian 3.)
Christian III of Denmark.jpg
12 August 1503 1533-1544 1 January 1559 Schleswig Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 October 1525
Lauenburg
five children
Christian was also King of Denmark. In 1544 divided Schleswig with his half-brothers. John received Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev, and Adolph Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp.
1544-1559 Schleswig-Schleswig
John II the Elder
Hans den Eldre.JPG
21 June 1521 1544-1580 1 October 1580 Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev Unmarried
Adolph
Adolf I. von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf.jpg
25 January 1526 1544-1586 1 October 1586 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Christine of Hesse
17 December 1564
Schleswig
ten children
Haderslev divided between Schleswig and Gottorp
Frederick II
(Frederik 2.)
1581 Lorck Frederik 2.(crop).jpg
1 July 1534 1559-1588 4 April 1588 Schleswig-Schleswig Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
20 July 1572
Copenhagen
eight children
Also King of Denmark.
Frederick III 21 April 1568 1586-1587 15 June 1587 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Unmarried Died without descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Philip
Hertug Philip af Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp.jpg
10 August 1570 1587-1590 18 October 1590 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Unmarried Died without descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Christian IV
(Christian 4.)
Kristian IV av Danmark, malning av Pieter Isaacsz 1611-1616.jpg
12 April 1577 1588-1648 28 February 1648 Schleswig-Schleswig Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
27 November 1597
Haderslev
seven children

Kirsten Munk
31 December 1615
Copenhagen
(morganatic)
twelve children
Also King of Denmark.
John Adolph
Johann Adolf von Holstein Gottorp.jpg
27 February 1575 1590-1616 31 March 1616 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Augusta of Denmark
30 August 1596
Copenhagen
eight children
Frederick IV
Friedrich III Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf.jpg
22 December 1597 1616-1659 10 August 1659 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Marie Elisabeth of Saxony
21 February 1630
Dresden
sixteen children
Frederick V
(Frederik 3.)
Frederik 3 by window.jpg
18 March 1609 1648-1670 9 February 1670 Schleswig-Schleswig Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1 October 1643
Glücksburg
eight children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick III.
Christian Albert
Christian Albrecht.jpg
3 February 1641 1659-1695 6 January 1695 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Frederica Amalia of Denmark
24 October 1667
Glücksburg
four children
Christian V
(Christian 5.)
Christian V of Denmark.jpg
15 April 1646 1670-1699 25 August 1699 Schleswig-Schleswig Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
25 June 1667
Nykøbing Falster
eight children
Also King of Denmark.
Frederick VI
Frederik IV af Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp.jpg
18 October 1671 1695-1702 19 July 1702 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Hedvig Sophia of Sweden
12 May 1698
Karlberg
one child
Frederick VII
(Frederik 4.)
Frederik den 4.jpg
11 October 1671 1699-1730 12 October 1730 Schleswig-Schleswig (until 1713)

Schleswig (after 1713)
Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
5 December 1695
Copenhagen
five children

Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg
26 September 1703
(morganatic and bigamous)
one child

Anne Sophie Reventlow
4 April 1721
Copenhagen
three children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick IV. In 1713 reunited Schleswig.
Charles Frederick
Carl Frederick of Sweden c 1722 by David von Krafft.jpg
30 April 1700 1702-1739 18 June 1739 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (until 1713)

Holstein-Gottorp (after 1713)
Anna Petrovna of Russia
21 May 1725
St Petersburg
one child
Christian VI
(Christian 6.)
Christian 6.jpg
30 November 1699 1730-1746 6 August 1746 Schleswig Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
7 August 1721
Pretzsch
three children
Also King of Denmark.
Charles Peter Ulrich
Coronation portrait of Peter III of Russia -1761 (cropped).jpg
21 February 1728 1739-1762 17 July 1762 Holstein-Gottorp Sophie Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
21 August 1745
St Petersburg
one child
He later ascended as Peter III of Russia.
Frederick VIII
(Frederik 5.)
Pilo - Frederik V of Denmark.jpg
31 March 1723 1746-1766 14 January 1766 Schleswig Louise of Great Britain
11 December 1743
Altona
five children

Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 July 1752
Hillerød
one son
Also King of Denmark as Frederick V.
Paul I
Borovikovsky Pavel I.jpg
1 October 1754 1762-1773 23 March 1801 Holstein-Gottorp Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
20 September 1773
St Petersburg
no children

Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
7 October 1776
St Petersburg
ten children
He later succeeded his mother, Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
Gottorp reunited with Schleswig
Christian VII
(Christian 7.)
Christian VII 1772 by Roslin.jpg
29 January 1749 1766-1773 13 March 1808 Schleswig Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
8 November 1766
Copenhagen
two children
Also King of Denmark. In 1773 reunited Schleswig and Holstein.
1773-1808 Schleswig-Holstein
Frederick IX
(Frederik 6.)
Fiedrichvidenmark.jpg
28 January 1768 1808-1839 8 December 1839 Schleswig-Holstein Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel
31 July 1790
Schleswig
eight children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick VI.
Christian VIII
(Christian 8.)
Christian VIII af Wilhelm Marstrand.jpg
18 September 1786 1839-1848 20 January 1848 Schleswig-Holstein Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
21 June 1806
Ludwigslust
two children

Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
22 May 1815
Augustenborg
no children
Also King of Denmark.
Frederick X
(Frederik 7.)
Frederik VII af August Schiøtt.jpg
6 October 1808 1848-1863 15 November 1863 Schleswig-Holstein Vilhelmine Marie of Denmark
1 November 1828
Copenhagen
(annulled 1837)
no children

Caroline Mariane of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
10 June 1841
Neustrelitz
(annulled 1846)
no children

Louise Rasmussen
7 August 1850
Hillerød
(morganatic)
no children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick VII.
Christian IX
(Christian 9.)
Christian IX af Henrik Olrik.jpg
8 April 1818 1863-1864 29 January 1906 Schleswig-Holstein Louise of Hesse-Kassel
26 May 1842
Copenhagen
six children
He was from the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch of the Oldenburgs. Also King of Denmark. In 1864 the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia.

In 1864, following the Second Schleswig War, the Duchy of Schleswig became an occupied territory of the German Confederation and two years later, following the Austro-Prussian War, part of the new Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein.

Titular dukes

Prussia, the annexing state, recognized the head of the House of Oldenburg as mediatized duke of this duchy/these two duchies, with the rank and all the titles pertaining:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Esben Albrectsen, "Das Abel-Geschlecht und die Schauenburger als Herzöge von Schleswig", Marion Hartwig and Frauke Witte (trls.), in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 52–71, here pp. 63seq. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  2. ^ Esben Albrectsen, "Das Abel-Geschlecht und die Schauenburger als Herzöge von Schleswig", Marion Hartwig and Frauke Witte (trls.), in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 52–71, here p. 52. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  3. ^ "Albrectsen 2008 p. 52"
  4. ^ "Albrectsen 2008 p. 52"
  5. ^ In 1551 Frederick became administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim, comprising ecclesiastical and secular power, and, however, lacking secular power Bishop of Schleswig with the pertaining revenues from episcopal estates.
  6. ^ Cf. Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen, "Die dänischen Könige als Herzöge von Schleswig und Holstein", Frauke Witte and Marion Hartwig (trls.), in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 73–109, here pp. 87seq. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
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