List of retired Pacific typhoon names

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Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity

This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 38 typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $68 billion in damage (2017 USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.

Background

Tacloban devastated by Typhoon Haiyan

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with systems named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in the Western Pacific.[1] These included the Kamikaze, 1906 Hong Kong typhoon, 1922 Swatow typhoon and the 1934 Muroto typhoon.[2]

The practice of retiring significant names was started during 1955 by the United States Weather Bureau in the Northern Atlantic basin, after hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the East Coast of the United States and caused a significant amount of damage in the previous year.[3] Initially the names were only designed to be retired for ten years after which they might be reintroduced; however, it was decided at the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference, that any significant hurricane in the future would have its name permanently retired.[3][4] The first tropical cyclone name to be removed in the South Pacific, was Rosie after it had impacted Vanuatu and New Caledonia during 1971. Several names have been removed from the Pacific naming lists for various other reasons than causing a significant amount of death/destruction, which include being pronounced in a very similar way to other names and political reasons.[5][6]

In 2000, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) began naming tropical cyclones from a list of 140 names, submitted by 14 countries. Previously, the JMA labeled storms with numbers, but not names. The JMA has been the official warning agency of the western Pacific Ocean since 1981, though other organizations have also tracked typhoons. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) unofficially named tropical cyclones from 1947 to 1999.[7] During this time period, there were several pre-determined tropical cyclone lists, in which many names were removed and replaced with others.[8] The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) names tropical cyclones using a separate list, which is adjusted periodically.[9]

Several names were removed from the list. In 2002, the name Hanuman was replaced prior to being used, due to objection by the India Meteorological Department for reason of religion.[10] Additionally, the name Kodo was replaced in 2002 without being used.[11] The following year, Koni was replaced by Goni, after an apparent misspelling was made. In 2004, the names Yanyan and Tingting were removed at the request of the Hong Kong Observatory.[11][12] A total of nine names on the list had their spellings changed.[11] In February 2014, the name Sonamu was removed at the request from Malaysia due to causing unprecedented panic by the similar pronunciation to tsunami.[13] In February 2015 the name Jongdari was chosen as replacement for Sonamu. In the 46th session of the Typhoon Committee, it was noted the name Vicente appears on both the tropical cyclone name lists for the Western North Pacific and Eastern North Pacific. In response to this duplication the name Lan was chosen as replacement for Vicente on the Western North Pacific name list to avoid potential confusion.

20th century

Typhoon Mireille near peak intensity on September 22, 1991

Between 1947 and 2000, eleven names of significant tropical cyclones were retired from the list of names used by the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center.[14] During this time other names were removed from the naming lists, including in 1979 when the lists of names used were revised to include both male and female names.[14][15] Tropical Storm Lucille was the first name to be retired for its impacts, while Ophelia was retired because of its long 8,045 km (5,000 mi) track.[14]

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Lucille May 25 – June 4, 1960 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Philippines $2 million 300–500 [16][17][18][19][20]
Ophelia November 21 –
December 6, 1960
Category 4 super typhoon 250 km/h (155 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Caroline Islands Unknown 2 [14][21]
Karen November 7 – 17, 1962 Category 5 super typhoon 295 km/h (185 mph) 894 hPa (26.40 inHg) Guam $250 million 11 [22]
Bess October 8 – 14, 1974 Category 1 typhoon 120 km/h (75 mph) 977 hPa (28.85 inHg) Philippines, China, Vietnam $9.2 million 32 [14][23][24]
Bess July 21 – August 3, 1982 Category 5 super typhoon 260 km/h (160 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) Japan $2.32 billion 95 [25]
Ike August 26 –
September 6, 1984
Category 4 typhoon 230 km/h (145 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Guam, Philippines, China $1 billion 1,142
Roy January 7 – 19, 1988 Category 4 typhoon 215 km/h (135 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Micronesia, Philippines $28.5 million 2
Mike November 5 – 18, 1990 Category 5 super typhoon 280 km/h (175 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Micronesia, Philippines, China $389 million 748
Mireille September 13 – 27, 1991 Category 4 super typhoon 240 km/h (150 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea $10 billion 66
Thelma November 1 – 8, 1991 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam $27.7 million 5,081–8,145 [26][27][28][29]
Omar August 20 –
September 6, 1992
Category 4 super typhoon 240 km/h (150 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Mariana Islands, Guam, Taiwan, China $561 million 15
11 Names Reference for retired names.[nb 1] $14.6 billion 7494

2000s

Typhoon Morakot approaching Taiwan on August 7, 2009
Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Vamei December 26, 2001 –
January 1, 2002
Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia $3.6 million 5 [nb 2][30]
Chataan June 27 – July 13, 2002 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Chuuk, Guam, Japan $660 million 54 [31][32][33]
Rusa August 22 – September 4, 2002 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Japan, Korean Peninsula $4.2 billion 238 [34]
Pongsona December 2 – 12, 2002 Typhoon 165 km/h (105 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Mariana Islands $730 million 1 [35][36]
Yanyan January 11 – 21, 2003 Tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
Imbudo July 15 – 25, 2003 Typhoon 165 km/h (105 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Philippines, China $340 million 64 [37][38][39]
Maemi September 4 – 16, 2003 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) Korean Peninsula $4.8 billion 117 [34]
Sudal April 2 – 18, 2004 Typhoon 165 km/h (105 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Yap, Guam $14 million None [40]
Tingting June 24 – July 4, 2004 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan $23.7 million 12
Rananim August 6 – 15, 2004 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) China, Japan $2.44 billion 169 [41][42]
Matsa July 30 – August 9, 2005 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) China, Taiwan $2.23 billion 29 [43][44]
Nabi August 29 – September 9, 2005 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea $535 million 32
Longwang September 25 – October 3, 2005 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Taiwan, China $971 million 149 [45][46][47]
[48][49][50]
Chanchu May 8 – 19, 2006 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam $478 million 268 [51][52]
Bilis July 8 – 16, 2006 Severe tropical storm 110 km/h (70 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, China $4.4 billion 859 [53][54][55]
Saomai August 4 – 11, 2006 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Mariana Islands, Taiwan, China $2.5 billion 458 [55][56]
Xangsane September 25 – October 2, 2006 Typhoon 155 km/h (100 mph) 925 hPa (27.76 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand $750 million 312 [57][58][59][60]
Durian November 25 – December 7, 2006 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand >$400 million >1,500 [61][62][63][64]
Morakot August 2 – 12, 2009 Typhoon 140 km/h (85 mph) 945 hPa (27.90 inHg) Taiwan, China, Korean Peninsula $6.2 billion 789
Ketsana September 23 – 30, 2009 Typhoon 130 km/h (80 mph) 960 hPa (28.35 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam, Laos
Cambodia, Thailand
$1.09 billion 710 [65]
Parma September 27 – October 14, 2009 Typhoon 185 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Philippines, China, Vietnam $617 million 500
21 Names References:[nb 1][nb 3][nb 4][nb 5][nb 6] >$33.5 billion >6,266

2010s

Typhoon Fitow at peak intensity on October 5, 2013

So far during the current decade thirteen names have had their names retired by the Typhoon Committee. Collectively, these systems killed at least 9349 people and caused at least $33.6 billion worth of damage. Typhoon Haiyan is currently the strongest and deadliest storm of the decade to have its name retired, while Typhoon Fitow is currently the costliest storm of the decade to have its name retired.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Fanapi September 14 – 21, 2010 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Taiwan, China $893 million 80 [68]
Washi December 13 – 19, 2011 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Micronesia, Palau, Philippines $97.8 million 1,268 [69][70]
Vicente July 18 – 25, 2012 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Philippines, China
Vietnam, Laos, Burma
$329 million 15
Bopha November 25 – December 9, 2012 Typhoon 185 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Micronesia, Philippines $1.04 billion 1,146
Sonamu January 1 – 10, 2013 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 990 hPa (29.23 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia Minimal 2 [71][72]
Utor August 8 – 18, 2013 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Philippines, China $2.6 billion 97 [73][74][75]
Fitow September 29 – October 7, 2013 Typhoon 140 km/h (85 mph) 960 hPa (28.35 inHg) China, Taiwan, Japan $10.4 billion 12 [73]
Haiyan November 3 – 11, 2013 Typhoon 230 km/h (145 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, China $2.86 billion 6,340 [73][76]
Rammasun July 9 – 20, 2014 Typhoon 165 km/h (105 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Philippines, China, Vietnam $7.13 billion 195 [77][78][79]
Soudelor July 29 – August 11, 2015 Typhoon 215 km/h (130 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan, Taiwan, China $3.72 billion 40 [80]
Mujigae September 30 – October 5, 2015 Typhoon 155 km/h (100 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Philippines, China $4.13 billion 29 [80]
Koppu October 12 – 21, 2015 Typhoon 185 km/h (115 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Philippines $236 million 58 [80]
Melor December 9 – 17, 2015 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Philippines $136 million 42 [80]
Meranti September 9 – 16, 2016 Typhoon 220 km/h (140 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, China $2.63 billion 30
Sarika October 13 – 19, 2016 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Philippines, China, Vietnam $757 million 36
Haima October 14 – 22, 2016 Typhoon 215 km/h (130 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, China $1.93 billion 20
Nock-ten December 20 – 28, 2016 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Philippines $104 million 8
17 Names References:[nb 1][nb 3][nb 7][nb 7][nb 8] $39 billion 9,418

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Reference for the retired names between 1947 and 2010.[14]
  2. ^ The name Vamei was retired because it was the first tropical cyclone recorded near the equator.[14]
  3. ^ a b Reference for dates, season, wind speeds and pressure between 2000 and 2016 [66]
  4. ^ Reference for the retired names between 2000 and 2015.[11]
  5. ^ Reference for the retired names between 2000 and 2015.[67]
  6. ^ Reference for the retired names between 1947 and 2013.[6]
  7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Retired_2000.E2.80.932016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Retired_1945.E2.80.932016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

References

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External links

  • Japan Meteorological Agency
  • China Meteorological Agency
  • Digital Typhoon
  • Hong Kong Observatory
  • Joint Typhoon Warning Center
  • Korea Meteorological Administration
  • National Weather Service Guam
  • Malaysian Meteorological Department
  • Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
  • Taiwan Central Weather Bureau
  • TCWC Jakarta (in Indonesian)
  • Thai Meteorological Department (in Thai)
  • Typhoon2000
  • Vietnam's National Hydro-Meteorological Service
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