List of people executed by lethal injection

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A lethal execution room in the San Quentin State Prison in California

Lethal injection is the practice of injecting one or more drugs into a person by a government for the express purpose of causing immediate death. While Nazi Germany was known to execute enemies of the state using an injection of lethal drugs, the first country to legalize and formally implement what is referred to today as lethal injection was the United States. The state of Texas adopted it as its form on capital punishment in 1977 and executed the first person by it, Charles Brooks Jr., in 1982.[1] The practice was subsequently adopted by the other U.S. states using capital punishment.[2] As of 2017, the method is being used by 31 U.S. states, as well as by their federal government and military.[3]

Lethal injection was also adopted as a method of execution by Guatemala in 1996, China in 1997, the Philippines in 1999, Thailand in 2003, Taiwan in 2005, and Vietnam in 2013.[4] The Philippines abolished the death penalty in 2006.[5] While the death penalty still exists in Guatemala and Thailand, no executions have been carried out there since 2000 and 2009 respectively.[6][7] The United States and China are the two biggest users of this method of execution. The U.S. had executed 1,283 people via lethal injection as of April 2017.[8] The number of people executed annually in China is thought to surpass all other countries combined, though the actual number is a state secret,[9] and the percentage of people killed via lethal injection and the other method of execution used there, firing squad, is also unclear.[10] This alphabetical list features notable cases up to May 2018, and only those where lethal injection can be reliably sourced to be the method of execution. The criterion for notability is an article on the individual in the English Wikipedia, which inevitably causes a bias towards U.S. executions, as notable individuals in other countries such as Thailand and Vietnam may only have articles in their own language. A complete list of all executions in the United States can be found here.

Lethal injection was proposed and adopted on the grounds it was more humane than the methods of execution in place at the time, such as the electric chair and gas chamber.[2] Opponents of lethal injection reject this argument, noting multiple cases where executions have been either painful, prolonged, or both.[11][12][13] According to the Death Penalty Information Center, lethal injections have the highest rate of botched executions of any method used in the US, with 7.12% of executions using this method between 1982 and 2010 considered to have not gone according to plan.[14][15] A study published in The Lancet in 2005 found that in 43% of cases of lethal injection, the blood level of hypnotics was insufficient to guarantee unconsciousness.[16] However, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled 7–2 in 2008 (Baze v. Rees) and 5–4 in 2015 (Glossip v. Gross) that lethal injection does not constitute cruel and unusual punishment.[17]

Executions

At 76, Clarence Ray Allen is one of the oldest people to be executed in the US.[18]
Stephen Wayne Anderson was executed in California in 2002 for murder.
Alojs Andritzki, a Catholic priest, was executed by the Nazi regime at Dachau concentration camp.[19]
Andrée Borrel, a member of Britain’s Special Operations Executive, was executed by the Nazis with an injection of phenol.[20]
Titus Brandsma, a Catholic priest, was executed for opposing the Nazi regime.
Richard Cartwright was the main contributor to Uncensored from Texas Death Row until his execution.
Oba Chandler, executed in 2011 for three murders, maintained his innocence.[21]
Giuseppe Girotti, a Catholic priest, was executed by the Nazis with an injection of gasoline.
Both the Vatican and Jewish groups asked for Martin Grossman to be spared the death penalty.[22]
Name Born Died Age Nationality Executed in Executed for Ref.
Jesús Ledesma Aguilar 1963 2006 42 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Jack Alderman 1951 2008 57 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [23]
Clarence Ray Allen 1930 2006 76 American California Murder (three counts) [23]
Wanda Jean Allen 1959 2001 41 American Oklahoma Murder [23]
Robert Anderson 1966 2006 40 American Texas Murder [23]
Stephen Wayne Anderson 1953 2002 48 American California Murder [24]
Alojs Andritzki 1914 1943 28 German Nazi Germany Making "hostile statements" [19]
Edgar Tamayo Arias 1967 2014 46 American Texas Murder [23]
Herman Ashworth 1973 2005 32 American Ohio Murder [23]
James Autry 1954 1984 29 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Manny Babbitt 1949 1999 50 American California Murder [25]
Wesley Baker 1958 2005 47 American Maryland Murder [26]
Yuan Baojing 1966 2006 40 Chinese China Murder [27]
Velma Barfield 1932 1984 52 American North Carolina Murder [23]
Odell Barnes 1968 2000 31 American Texas Murder [23]
Suzanne Basso 1954 2014 59 American Texas Murder [23]
John Battaglia 1955 2018 62 American Texas Murder (two counts) [28]
Donald Beardslee 1943 2005 61 American California Murder (two counts) [29]
Napoleon Beazley 1976 2002 25 American Texas Murder [23]
Betty Lou Beets 1937 2000 62 American Texas Murder [23]
Glenn Lee Benner II 1962 2006 43 American Ohio Murder (two counts) [23]
Earl Wesley Berry 1959 2008 49 American Mississippi Murder [30]
Wilford Berry Jr. 1962 1999 36 American Ohio Murder [23]
Kenneth Biros 1958 2009 51 American Ohio Murder [23]
Arthur Gary Bishop 1952 1988 35 American Utah Murder (five counts) [23]
William Bonin 1947 1996 49 American California Murder (14 counts) [31]
Andrée Borrel 1919 1944 24 French Nazi-occupied France Being a Special Operations Executive member [32]
Titus Brandsma 1881 1942 61 Dutch Nazi Germany Ordering Catholic newspapers not to print Nazi documents [33]
David M. Brewer 1959 2003 44 American Ohio Murder [23]
Charles Brooks Jr. 1942 1982 40 American Texas Murder [23]
John A. Brown Jr. 1962 1997 35 American Louisiana Murder [23]
Robert Anthony Buell 1940 2002 62 American Ohio Murder [23]
John William Byrd, Jr. 1963 2002 38 American Ohio Murder [23]
Genaro Ruiz Camacho 1954 1998 43 American Texas Murder [23]
Ruben Cantu 1966 2003 26 American Texas Murder [23]
Scott Carpenter 1975 1997 22 American Oklahoma Murder [23]
Desmond Keith Carter 1967 2002 35 American North Carolina Murder [23]
Richard Cartwright 1970 2005 35 American Texas Murder [23]
Oba Chandler 1946 2011 65 American Florida Murder (three counts) [23]
Elroy Chester 1969 2013 43 American Texas Murder [23]
James B. Clarke, Jr. 1957 1996 39 American Delaware Murder [34]
Joseph Lewis Clark 1949 2006 57 American Ohio Murder [23]
Terry D. Clark 1956 2001 45 American New Mexico Murder [23]
Hoyt Franklin Clines 1956 1994 37 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Robert Glen Coe 1956 2000 44 American Tennessee Murder [23]
Carroll Cole 1938 1985 47 American Nevada Murder [23]
Alton Coleman 1955 2002 46 American Ohio Murder (two counts) [23]
Charles Coleman 1947 1990 43 American Oklahoma Murder [23]
Richard Cooey 1967 2008 41 American Ohio Murder (two counts) [23]
Manuel Martínez Coronado 1954c. 1954 1988 33 Guatemalan Guatemala Murder (seven counts) [35]
Gary Lee Davis 1944 1997 53 American Colorado Murder [36]
Troy Davis 1968 2011 42 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [23]
David Thomas Dawson 1957 2006 48 American Montana Murder (three counts) [23]
Carlos DeLuna 1962 1989 27 American Texas Murder [23]
Andrew Grant DeYoung 1974 2011 37 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder (two counts) [23]
Ángel Nieves Díaz 1951 2006 55 Puerto Rican Florida Murder [23]
Adremy Dennis 1976 2004 28 American Ohio Murder [23]
Marion Dudley 1962 1989 33 American Texas Murder (four counts) [23]
John David Duty 1952 2010 58 American Oklahoma Murder [23]
Leo Echegaray 1960 1999 38 Filipino Philippines Rape of a minor [37]
James Homer Elledge 1942 2001 58 American Washington State Murder [23]
Barry Lee Fairchild 1954 1995 41 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Stanley Faulder 1937 1999 61 Canadian Texas Murder [23]
Melbert Ford 1960 2011 49 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder (two counts) [23]
Richard Edwin Fox 1956 2003 47 American Ohio Murder [23]
Joseph Paul Franklin 1950 2013 63 American Missouri Murder [23]
Derrick Wayne Frazier 1977 2006 29 American Texas Murder [23]
James Garrett Freeman 1980 2016 35 American Texas Murder [38]
John Wayne Gacy 1942 1994 52 American Illinois Murder (12 counts) [39]
Gustavo Julian Garcia 1972 2016 43 American Texas Murder [40]
Humberto Leal Garcia 1973 2011 38 Mexican Texas Murder [23]
Juan Martin Garcia 1980 2015 35 American Texas Murder (two counts) [41]
Mark Gardner 1956c. 1956 1999 42–43 American Arkansas Murder (three counts) [23]
Johnny Frank Garrett 1963 1992 28 American Texas Murder [23]
Carlton Gary 1950 2018 67 American Georgia (U.S) Murder (three counts) [42]
Juan Garza 1957 2001 43 American Indiana Murder (three counts) [43]
Kenneth Edward Gentry 1961 1997 36 American Texas Murder [23]
Jason Getsy 1975 2009 33 American Ohio Murder [23]
Tyrone Delano Gilliam, Jr. 1964c. 1964 1998 32 American Maryland Murder [44]
Kelly Gissendaner 1968 2015 47 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [45]
Giuseppe Girotti 1905 1945 39 Italian Nazi Germany Aiding Jews [46]
David Alan Gore 1953 2012 58 American Florida Murder (six counts) [23]
Thomas J. Grasso 1962 1995 32 American Oklahoma Murder [23]
Marlin Gray 1967 2005 38 American Missouri Murder (two counts) [23]
Larry Griffin 1954 1995 40 American Missouri Murder [23]
Martin Grossman 1965 2010 45 American Florida Murder [23]
Scott Hain 1970 2003 32 American Oklahoma Murder (two counts) [23]
Edward Hartman 1964 2003 39 American North Carolina Murder [23]
Gary M. Heidnik 1943 1999 55 American Pennsylvania Murder (two counts) [23]
Richard Henyard 1965 2010 34 American Florida Murder (two counts) [23]
Amilcar Cetino Perez 1961c. 1961 2000 39 Guatemalan Guatemala Murder [47]
John R. Hicks 1956 2005 49 American Ohio Murder [23]
Clarence Hill 1957 2006 48 American Florida Murder [23]
Paul Jennings Hill 1954 2003 49 American Florida Murder (two counts) [23]
Warren Hill 1960 2015 54 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [48]
James William Holmes 1956 1994 37 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Mark Hopkinson 1949 1992 42 American Wyoming Murder (four counts) [23]
Ronald Ray Howard 1973 2005 32 American Texas Murder [23]
James Hubbard 1930 2004 74 American Alabama Murder [49]
Tommie Hughes 1974 2006 31 American Texas Murder [23]
Shawn Paul Humphries 1971 2005 34 American South Carolina Murder [23]
Flint Gregory Hunt 1958c. 1958 1997 38 American Maryland Murder [23]
James W. Hutchins 1929 1984 54 American North Carolina Murder (three counts) [23]
Antonio James 1954 1996 42 American Louisiana Murder [23]
Joseph Paul Jernigan 1954c. 1954 1993 39 American Texas Murder [23]
Yang Jia 1980 2008 28 Chinese China Murder (six counts) [50]
David Dewayne Johnson 1963 2000 37 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Gregory Scott Johnson 1965 2005 40 American Indiana Murder [51]
Brandon Astor Jones 1943 2016 72 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [52]
Michał Kozal 1893 1943 49 Polish Nazi Germany Refusing to preach in German [53]
Andrew Lackey 1983 2013 29 American Alabama Murder [54]
Jeffrey Landrigan 1960c. 1960 2010 50 American Arizona Murder [55]
Terry Langford 1966 1998 31 American Montana Murder (two counts) [23]
Ledell Lee 1965 2017 51 American Arkansas Murder [56]
Vera Leigh 1903 1944 41 British Nazi-occupied France Being a French Resistance fighter [32]
Teresa Lewis 1969 2010 41 American Virginia Murder (two counts) [23]
Liu Liankun 1933 1999 66 Chinese China Treason [57]
David Martin Long 1953 1999 46 American Texas Murder (three counts) [23]
Richard Longworth 1968 2005 37 American South Carolina Murder (two counts) [23]
Jeffrey Lundgren 1950 2006 56 American Ohio Murder (five counts) [23]
William Earl Lynd 1955 2008 53 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [23]
Robbie Lyons 1972 2003 31 American North Carolina Murder [23]
John Marek 1961 2009 47 American Florida Murder [23]
Ernest Martin 1960 2003 42 American Ohio Murder [23]
Leslie Dale Martin 1967 2002 35 American Louisiana Murder [23]
Jason Massey 1973 2001 28 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Alan Matheney 1950 2005 54 American Indiana Murder [58]
Kimberly McCarthy 1961 2003 52 American Texas Murder [23]
Kenneth McDuff 1946 1998 52 American Texas Murder [23]
Steven Van McHone 1970 2005 35 American North Carolina Murder (two counts) [23]
Duncan McKenzie 1951 1995 43 American Montana Murder [23]
Timothy McVeigh 1968 2001 33 American Indiana Eleven federal charges, including eight counts of murder [59]
José Medellín 1975 2008 33 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Robert Melson 1971 2017 46 American Alabama Murder (three counts) [60]
George Mercer 1944 1989 44 American Missouri Murder [23]
Scott Andrew Mink 1963 2004 40 American Ohio Murder [23]
Stephen Anthony Mobley 1965 2005 39 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [23]
Patrick Moody 1966 2006 39 American North Carolina Murder [23]
Walter Moody 1935 2018 83 American Alabama Murder [61]
Harry Charles Moore 1941 1997 56 American Oregon Murder (two counts) [23]
Stephen Morin 1951 1985 34 American Texas Murder (three counts) [23]
William Morva 1982 2017 35 American Virginia Murder (two counts) [62]
John Allen Muhammad 1960 2009 48 American Virginia Murder [23]
Dawud M. Mu'Min 1953 1997 44 American Virginia Murder [23]
Eric Nance 1960 2005 45 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Jay Wesley Neill 1965 2002 37 American Oklahoma Murder (four counts) [23]
Eric Nenno 1961 2007 47 American Texas Murder (four counts) [23]
Frances Newton 1965 2005 40 American Texas Murder (three counts) [23]
John B. Nixon 1928 2005 83 American Mississippi Murder [63]
Riley Dobi Noel 1972 2003 31 American Arkansas Murder (three counts) [23]
Ronald Clark O'Bryan 1944 1984 39 American Texas Murder [23]
Steven Oken 1962 2004 42 American Maryland Murder (two counts) [23]
Sonya Olschanezky 1923 1944 20 German Nazi-occupied France Being a Special Operations Executive member [64]
Curtis Osborne 1970 2008 37 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [23]
Gary Otte 1971 2017 45 American Ohio Murder (two counts) [65]
Joseph Mitchell Parsons 1964 1999 35 American Utah Murder [23]
Kelsey Patterson 1954 2004 49 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Ronald Phillips 1973 2017 43 American Ohio Murder [66]
Robert Lynn Pruett 1979 2017 38 American Texas Murder [67]
Steven Brian Pennell 1957 1992 34 American Delaware Murder (two counts) [68]
Tomas Cerrate Hernandez 1965c. 1965 2000 35 Guatemalan Guatemala Murder [47]
Thomas Harrison Provenzano 1949 2000 51 American Florida Murder [23]
Marion Albert Pruett 1951 2008 49 American Georgia (U.S.) Murder [23]
Mir Qazi 1964 2002 38 Pakistani Virginia Murder [69]
Wen Qiang 1956 2010 54 Chinese China Accepting bribes, rape [70]
Luis L. Ramirez 1963 2005 42 American Texas Murder [23]
Ricky Ray Rector 1950 1992 42 American Arkansas Murder [23]
James Allen Red Dog 1954 1993 39 American Delaware Murder [71]
Lamont Reese 1977 2006 28 American Texas Murder (three counts) [23]
Ángel Maturino Reséndiz 1959 2006 46 Mexican Texas Murder [23]
Michael Wayne Richard 1959 2007 47 American Texas Murder [23]
Darryl Richley 1951 1994 43 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Christina Marie Riggs 1971 2000 28 American Arkansas Murder (two counts) [23]
Roy Michael Roberts 1952 1999 46 American Missouri Murder [23]
Johnny Leartice Robinson 1952 2004 51 American Florida Murder [23]
David Rocheville 1968 1999 31 American South Carolina Murder [23]
Rosendo Rodriguez 1980 2018 38 American Texas Murder (two counts) [72]
Danny Rolling 1954 2006 52 American Florida Murder (five counts) [23]
Michael Bruce Ross 1959 2005 45 American Connecticut Murder (eight counts) [73]
Vaughn Ross 1971 2013 41 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Diana Rowden 1915 1944 29 British Nazi-occupied France Being a Special Operations Executive member [32]
Robert Dale Rowell 1955 2005 50 American Texas Murder [23]
Raymond Dale Rowsey 1971 2004 32 American North Carolina Murder [23]
Jeremy Vargas Sagastegui 1970 1998 27 American Washington State Murder (three counts) [23]
Shaka Sankofa 1963 2000 36 American Texas Murder [23]
Robert Sawyer 1951c. 1951 1993 42 American Louisiana Murder [23]
Mark Dean Schwab 1968 2008 39 American Florida Murder [23]
Jay D. Scott 1952 2001 48 American Ohio Murder [23]
Sean Sellers 1969 1999 29 American Oklahoma Murder (three counts) [23]
Tommy Lynn Sells 1964 2014 49 American Texas Murder [23]
Akmal Shaikh 1956 2009 53 British China Drug trafficking [74]
Robert Alan Shields, Jr. 1975 2005 30 American Texas Murder [23]
Anthony Allen Shore 1962 2018 55 American Texas Murder [75]
Ronald Gene Simmons 1940 1990 49 American Arkansas Murder (16 counts) [23]
Charles Laverne Singleton 1959 2004 44 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Clay King Smith 1970 2001 30 American Arkansas Murder (five counts) [23]
Kermit Smith, Jr. 1957 1995 37 American North Carolina Murder [23]
William Smith 1957 2005 47 American Ohio Murder [23]
Richard Snell 1930 1995 64 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Roger Dale Stafford 1951 1995 43 American Oklahoma Murder (nine counts) [23]
Brian Steckel 1968 2005 36 American Delaware Murder [76]
Elias Syriani 1938 2005 67 American North Carolina Murder [23]
Feltus Taylor 1962 2000 38 American Maryland Murder [23]
Michael Taylor 1967 2014 47 American Missouri Murder [23]
John Thanos 1949 1994 45 American Maryland Murder (three counts) [23]
Shannon Charles Thomas 1971 2005 34 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Karla Faye Tucker 1959 1998 38 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Pablo Lucio Vasquez 1977 2016 38 American Texas Murder [77]
Charles Walker 1940c. 1940 1990 50 American Illinois Murder (two counts) [78]
Adam Kelly Ward 1982 2016 33 American Texas Murder [79]
Thomas Lee Ward 1936 1995 59 American Louisiana Murder [23]
Keith Wells 1962 1994 31 American Idaho Murder (two counts) [80]
Coy Wayne Wesbrook 1958 2016 58 American Texas Murder (five counts) [81]
Melvin White 1950 2005 55 American Texas Murder [23]
Ponchai Wilkerson 1971 2000 28 American Texas Murder [23]
Christopher Chubasco Wilkins 1968 2017 48 American Texas Murder (two counts) [82]
Alan Willett 1956c. 1956 1999 43 American Arkansas Murder [23]
Dobie Gillis Williams 1961 1999 37 American Louisiana Murder [23]
Stanley Williams 1953 2005 51 American California Murder (four counts) [83]
Willie Williams 1956 2006 48 American Ohio Murder (four counts) [23]
Cameron Todd Willingham 1968 2004 36 American Texas Murder (three counts) [23]
Marvin Lee Wilson 1958 2012 54 American Texas Murder [23]
Hastings Arthur Wise 1954 2005 51 American South Carolina Murder (four counts) [23]
Joseph Wood 1958 2014 55 American Arizona Murder (two counts) [84]
Bobby Wayne Woods 1965 2009 44 American Texas Murder [23]
Stephen Michael Woods 1980 2011 31 American Texas Murder (two counts) [23]
Philip Workman 1953 2007 53 American Tennessee Murder [23]
Aileen Wuornos 1956 2002 46 American Florida Murder (seven counts) [23]
Douglas Wright 1940 1996 56 American Oregon Murder (three counts) [23]
Eric Wrinkles 1960 2009 49 American Indiana Murder (three counts) [85]
William G. Zuern, Jr. 1958 2004 45 American Ohio Murder [23]

See also

References

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