List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

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The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. The objective of the treaty is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system".[1]

The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. Instead, the treaty provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called "protocols") that may set binding limits on greenhouse gases.

The UNFCCC was opened for signature on 9 May 1992, after an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee produced the text of the Framework Convention as a report following its meeting in New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. It entered into force on 21 March 1994. As of December 2015, UNFCCC has 197 parties.


Parties

As of 2015, the UNFCCC has 197 parties including all United Nations member states, United Nations General Assembly observer State of Palestine, UN non-member states Niue and the Cook Islands and the supranational union European Union.[2][3] In addition, the Holy See is an observer state.[2]

Classification of Parties by the Annex

Parties to the UNFCCC
  Annex I and II parties
  Annex I parties
  Non-annex parties
  Observer states

Parties to the UNFCCC are classified as:

Party negotiation groups

Party groupings.

Like minded parties group themselves in negotiation blocks, who oftentimes take common positions. 12 parties do not belong to any block.

List of parties

State[3][10] Classification[4][11] Signature Ratification Notes
 Afghanistan June 12, 1992 September 19, 2002
 Albania October 3, 1994
 Algeria June 13, 1992 June 9, 1993
 Andorra March 2, 2011
 Angola June 14, 1992 May 17, 2000
 Antigua and Barbuda June 4, 1992 February 2, 1993
 Argentina June 12, 1992 March 11, 1994
 Armenia June 13, 1992 May 14, 1993
 Australia Annex I, II June 4, 1992 December 30, 1992
 Austria Annex I, II June 8, 1992 February 28, 1994
 Azerbaijan June 12, 1992 May 16, 1995
 Bahamas June 12, 1992 March 29, 1994
 Bahrain June 8, 1992 December 28, 1994
 Bangladesh June 9, 1992 April 15, 1994
 Barbados June 12, 1992 March 23, 1994
 Belarus Annex I, EIT June 11, 1992 May 11, 2000
 Belgium Annex I, II June 4, 1992 January 16, 1996
 Belize June 13, 1992 October 31, 1994
 Benin June 13, 1992 June 30, 1994
 Bhutan June 11, 1992 August 25, 1995
 Bolivia June 10, 1992 October 3, 1994
 Bosnia and Herzegovina September 7, 2000
 Botswana June 12, 1992 January 27, 1994
 Brazil June 4, 1992 February 28, 1994
 Brunei August 7, 2007
 Bulgaria Annex I, EIT June 5, 1992 May 12, 1995
 Burkina Faso June 12, 1992 September 2, 1993
 Burundi June 11, 1992 January 6, 1997
 Cambodia December 18, 1995
 Cameroon June 14, 1992 October 19, 1994
 Canada Annex I, II June 12, 1992 December 4, 1992
 Cape Verde June 12, 1992 March 29, 1995
 Central African Republic June 13, 1992 March 10, 1995
 Chad June 12, 1992 June 7, 1994
 Chile June 13, 1992 December 22, 1994
 China June 11, 1992 January 5, 1993 Applies to Macao, extended by Portugal on 28 June 1999. Application remained in force after transfer of sovereignty to China. Applies to Hong Kong from 8 April 2003.
 Colombia June 13, 1992 March 22, 1995
 Comoros June 11, 1992 October 31, 1994
 Democratic Republic of the Congo June 11, 1992 January 9, 1995
 Republic of the Congo June 12, 1992 October 14, 1996
 Cook Islands June 12, 1992 April 20, 1993
 Costa Rica June 13, 1992 August 26, 1994
 Côte d'Ivoire June 10, 1992 November 29, 1994
 Croatia Annex I, EIT June 11, 1992 April 8, 1996 At its request, added to Annex I as an EIT by an amendment which entered into force in 1998.[11][12][13]
 Cuba June 13, 1992 January 5, 1994
 Cyprus Annex I June 12, 1992 October 15, 1997 At its request, added to Annex I by an amendment which entered into force in 2013.[11][14][15]
 Czech Republic Annex I, EIT[a] June 18, 1993 October 7, 1993 At its request, replaced Czechoslovakia in Annex I as an EIT by an amendment which entered into force in 1998.[11][12][13]
 Denmark Annex I, II June 9, 1992 December 21, 1993 Including Faroe Islands and Greenland
 Djibouti June 12, 1992 August 27, 1995
 Dominica June 21, 1993
 Dominican Republic June 12, 1992 October 7, 1998
 Ecuador June 9, 1992 February 23, 1993
 Egypt June 9, 1992 December 5, 1994
 El Salvador June 13, 1992 December 4, 1995
 Equatorial Guinea August 16, 2000
 Eritrea April 24, 1995
 Estonia Annex I, EIT June 12, 1992 July 27, 1994
 Ethiopia June 10, 1992 April 5, 1994
 European Union[b] Annex I, II June 13, 1992 December 21, 1993 Ratified as the European Economic Community.
 Fiji October 9, 1992 February 25, 1993
 Finland Annex I, II June 4, 1992 May 3, 1994
 France Annex I, II June 13, 1992 March 25, 1994
 Gabon June 12, 1992 January 21, 1998
 Gambia June 12, 1992 June 10, 1994
 Georgia July 29, 1994
 Germany Annex I, II June 12, 1992 December 9, 1993
 Ghana June 12, 1992 September 6, 1995
 Greece Annex I, II June 12, 1992 August 4, 1994
 Grenada December 3, 1992 August 11, 1994
 Guatemala June 13, 1992 December 15, 1995
 Guinea June 12, 1992 May 7, 1993
 Guinea-Bissau June 12, 1992 October 27, 1995
 Guyana June 13, 1992 August 29, 1994
 Haiti June 13, 1992 September 25, 1996
 Honduras June 13, 1992 October 19, 1995
 Hungary Annex I, EIT June 13, 1992 February 24, 1994
 Iceland Annex I, II June 4, 1992 June 16, 1993
 India June 10, 1992 November 1, 1993
 Indonesia June 5, 1992 August 23, 1994
 Iran June 14, 1992 July 18, 1996
 Iraq July 28, 2009
 Ireland Annex I, II June 13, 1992 April 20, 1994
 Israel June 4, 1992 June 4, 1996
 Italy Annex I, II June 5, 1992 April 15, 1994
 Jamaica June 12, 1992 January 6, 1995
 Japan Annex I, II June 13, 1992 May 28, 1993
 Jordan June 11, 1992 November 12, 1993
 Kazakhstan [a][c] June 8, 1992 May 17, 1995
 Kenya June 12, 1992 August 30, 1994
 Kiribati June 13, 1992 February 7, 1995
 North Korea June 11, 1992 December 5, 1994
 South Korea June 13, 1992 December 14, 1993
 Kuwait December 28, 1994
 Kyrgyzstan May 25, 2000
 Laos January 4, 1995
 Latvia Annex I, EIT June 11, 1992 March 23, 1995
 Lebanon June 12, 1992 December 15, 1994
 Lesotho June 11, 1992 February 7, 1995
 Liberia June 12, 1992 November 5, 2002
 Libya June 29, 1992 June 14, 1999
 Liechtenstein Annex I June 4, 1992 June 22, 1994 At its request, added to Annex I by an amendment which entered into force in 1998.[11][12][13]
 Lithuania Annex I, EIT June 11, 1992 March 24, 1995
 Luxembourg Annex I, II June 9, 1992 May 9, 1994
 Macedonia January 28, 1998
 Madagascar June 10, 1992 June 2, 1999
 Malawi June 10, 1992 April 21, 1994
 Malaysia June 9, 1993 July 13, 1994
 Maldives June 12, 1992 November 9, 1992
 Mali September 30, 1992 December 28, 1994
 Malta Annex I June 12, 1992 March 17, 1994 At its request, added to Annex I by an amendment which entered into force in 2010.[11][20]
 Marshall Islands June 12, 1992 October 8, 1992
 Mauritania June 12, 1992 January 20, 1994
 Mauritius June 10, 1992 September 4, 1992
 Mexico June 13, 1992 March 11, 1993
 Federated States of Micronesia June 12, 1992 November 18, 1993
 Moldova June 12, 1992 June 9, 1995
 Monaco Annex I[a] June 11, 1992 November 20, 1992 At its request, added to Annex I by an amendment which entered into force in 1998.[11][12][13]
 Mongolia June 12, 1992 September 30, 1993
 Montenegro October 23, 2006
 Morocco June 13, 1992 December 28, 1995
 Mozambique June 12, 1992 August 25, 1995
 Myanmar June 11, 1992 November 25, 1994
 Namibia June 12, 1992 May 16, 1995
 Nauru June 8, 1992 November 11, 1993
   Nepal June 12, 1992 May 2, 1994
 Netherlands Annex I, II June 4, 1992 December 20, 1993 Excluding Aruba, Curaçao, Caribbean Netherlands and Sint Maarten
 New Zealand Annex I, II June 4, 1992 September 16, 1993
 Nicaragua June 13, 1992 October 31, 1995
 Niger June 11, 1992 July 25, 1995
 Nigeria June 13, 1992 August 29, 1994
 Niue February 28, 1996
 Norway Annex I, II June 4, 1992 July 9, 1993
 Oman June 11, 1992 February 8, 1995
 Pakistan June 13, 1992 June 1, 1994
 Palau December 10, 1999
 Palestine December 18, 2015
 Panama March 18, 1993 May 23, 1995
 Papua New Guinea June 13, 1992 March 16, 1993
 Paraguay June 12, 1992 February 24, 1994
 Peru June 12, 1992 June 7, 1993
 Philippines June 12, 1992 August 2, 1994
 Poland Annex I, EIT June 5, 1992 July 28, 1994
 Portugal Annex I, II June 13, 1992 December 21, 1993
 Qatar April 18, 1996
 Romania Annex I, EIT June 5, 1992 June 8, 1994
 Russia Annex I, EIT June 13, 1992 December 28, 1994
 Rwanda June 10, 1992 August 18, 1998
 Saint Kitts and Nevis June 12, 1992 January 7, 1993
 Saint Lucia June 14, 1993 June 14, 1993
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines December 2, 1996
 Samoa June 12, 1992 November 29, 1994
 San Marino June 10, 1992 October 28, 1994
 Sao Tome and Principe June 12, 1992 September 29, 1999
 Saudi Arabia December 28, 1994
 Senegal June 13, 1992 October 17, 1994
 Serbia March 12, 2001 Acceded as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 2001. The FR Yugoslavia had previously signed (8 June 1992) and ratified (3 September 1997) the UNFCCC, but this was not recognized by the Secretary-General of the United Nations as depositary because UN membership or membership of a UN specialized agency is a prerequisite to become party to the convention, and the succession of the FR Yugoslavia from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (and it's UN membership) was disputed.[21]
 Seychelles June 10, 1992 September 22, 1992
 Sierra Leone February 11, 1993 June 22, 1995
 Singapore June 13, 1992 May 29, 1997
 Slovakia Annex I, EIT[a] May 19, 1993 August 25, 1994 At its request, replaced Czechoslovakia in Annex I as an EIT by an amendment which entered into force in 1998.[11][12][13]
 Slovenia Annex I, EIT[a] June 13, 1992 December 1, 1995 At its request, added to Annex I as an EIT by an amendment which entered into force in 1998.[11][12][13]
 Solomon Islands June 13, 1992 December 28, 1994
 Somalia September 11, 2009
 South Africa June 15, 1993 August 29, 1997
 South Sudan February 17, 2014
 Spain Annex I, II June 13, 1992 December 21, 1993
 Sri Lanka June 10, 1992 November 23, 1993
 Sudan June 9, 1992 November 19, 1993
 Suriname June 13, 1992 October 14, 1997
 Swaziland June 12, 1992 October 7, 1996
 Sweden Annex I, II June 8, 1992 June 23, 1993
  Switzerland Annex I, II June 12, 1992 December 10, 1993
 Syria January 4, 1996
 Tajikistan January 7, 1998
 Tanzania June 12, 1992 April 17, 1996
 Thailand June 12, 1992 December 28, 1994
 Timor-Leste October 10, 2006
 Togo June 12, 1992 March 8, 1995
 Tonga July 20, 1998
 Trinidad and Tobago June 11, 1992 June 24, 1994
 Tunisia June 13, 1992 July 15, 1993
 Turkey Annex I February 24, 2004 Turkey was originally listed in both Annex I and Annex II of the UNFCCC. It refused to ratify the Convention, as it objected to its listing in the annexes. In 1997 a proposal was submitted that Annex I and Annex II be amended to remove Turkey.[22][23] Though no consensus could be reached on this proposal,[17][24][25] a compromise was reached and an amendment that entered into force in 2002 removed Turkey from Annex II.[11][18][19][26][27][28]
 Turkmenistan June 5, 1995
 Tuvalu June 8, 1992 October 26, 1993
 Uganda June 13, 1992 September 8, 1993
 Ukraine Annex I, EIT June 11, 1992 May 13, 1997
 United Arab Emirates December 29, 1995
 United Kingdom Annex I, II June 12, 1992 December 8, 1993 Including Jersey, Isle of Man, Guernsey (8 December 1993), Gibraltar (2 January 2007), Bermuda, Cayman Islands and Falkland Islands (7 March 2007). Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Turks and Caicos Islands or the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia: not applied
 United States Annex I, II June 12, 1992 October 15, 1992
 Uruguay June 4, 1992 August 18, 1994
 Uzbekistan June 20, 1993
 Vanuatu June 9, 1992 March 25, 1993
 Venezuela June 12, 1992 December 28, 1994
 Vietnam June 11, 1992 November 16, 1994
 Yemen June 12, 1992 February 21, 1996
 Zambia June 11, 1992 May 28, 1993
 Zimbabwe June 12, 1992 November 3, 1992

List of observers

State[2]
 Holy See[29]

Observer Holy See announced it was considering the possibility of ratifying the Convention in December 2015.[30]

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Monaco (1992), the Czech Republic (1995), Slovakia (1996), Slovenia (1998) and Kazakhstan (2000)[19] submitted declarations under Article 4.2 (g) of the UNFCCC.[10] All of these states except Kazakhstan have since been added to Annex I of the UNFCCC by an amendment to the convention.
  2. ^ All 28 EU member states are also members of the UNFCCC individually, in addition to their common representation through the EU.
  3. ^ Kazakhstan proposed in 1999 that Annex I be amended to include it,[16] but the proposal was never adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC as no consensus could be reached on the matter.[17][18][19]

References

  1. ^ "Article 2". The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Archived from the original on 28 October 2005. Retrieved 15 November 2005.
  2. ^ a b c "Parties to the Convention and Observer States". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
  3. ^ a b "Status of Ratification of the Convention". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
  4. ^ a b "List of Annex I Parties to the Convention". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  5. ^ a b c d Parties & Observers, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15
  6. ^ Full text of the convention - Annex I (PDF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15
  7. ^ Full text of the convention - Annex II (PDF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15
  8. ^ "List of Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  9. ^ UNFCCC (25 October 2005), Sixth compilation and synthesis of initial national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention. Note by the secretariat. Executive summary. Document code FCCC/SBI/2005/18, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Office, p. 4
  10. ^ a b "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations Treaty Series. 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS THIRD SESSION, HELD AT KYOTO FROM 1 TO 11 DECEMBER 1997 - Annex Table: Total carbon dioxide emissions of Annex I Parties in 1990, for the purposes of Article 25 of the Kyoto Protocol" (PDF). FCCC/CP/1997/7Add.1. United Nations. 1998-03-25. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "ADOPTION OF AMENDMENTS TO THE LIST IN ANNEX I TO THE CONVENTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 4.2 (f) OF THE CONVENTION" (PDF). United Nations. 1998-02-13. Retrieved 2015-10-18.
  14. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendments to Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  15. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Entry into force of amendments to Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  16. ^ "AMENDMENT TO ANNEX I TO THE CONVENTION - Proposal from the Republic of Kazakhstan to amend Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 1999-05-28. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
  17. ^ a b "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS FIFTH SESSION, HELD AT BONN FROM 25 OCTOBER TO 5 NOVEMBER 1999" (PDF). United Nations. 1999-12-21. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
  18. ^ a b "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29 OCTOBER TO 10 NOVEMBER 2001" (PDF). United Nations. 2002-01-21. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
  19. ^ a b c "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29 OCTOBER TO 10 NOVEMBER 2001" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2002-01-21. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
  20. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendments to Annex I to the Convention in accordance with Article 16(3) of the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2010-04-26. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  21. ^ "FINAL CLAUSES OF MULTILATERAL TREATIES" (PDF). United Nations. 2003. Retrieved 2018-05-12.
  22. ^ "ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTERGOVERNMENTAL MEETINGS - Amendments to the Convention or its Annexes - Letters from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Azerbaijan Republic, the Netherlands (on behalf of the European Community and its Member States) and Kuwait proposing amendments to the Convention or its Annexes" (PDF). United Nations. 1997-06-20. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  23. ^ "REVIEW OF INFORMATION AND POSSIBLE DECISIONS UNDER ARTICLE 4.2(f)" (PDF). United Nations. 1997-12-02. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  24. ^ "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS THIRD SESSION, HELD AT KYOTO FROM 1 TO 11 DECEMBER 1997" (PDF). United Nations. 1998-02-24. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  25. ^ "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS FOURTH SESSION, HELD AT BUENOS AIRES FROM 2 TO 14 NOVEMBER 1998" (PDF). United Nations. 1999-01-25. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  26. ^ "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON THE FIRST PART OF ITS SIXTH SESSION, HELD AT THE HAGUE FROM 13 TO 25 NOVEMBER 2000" (PDF). United Nations. 2001-04-04. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  27. ^ "PROPOSALS TO AMEND THE LISTS IN ANNEXES I AND II TO THE CONVENTION - PROPOSAL TO AMEND THE LISTS IN ANNEXES I AND II TO THE CONVENTION BY REMOVING THE NAME OF TURKEY: REVIEW OF INFORMATION AND POSSIBLE DECISIONS UNDER ARTICLE 4, PARAGRAPH 2 (F)" (PDF). United Nations. 2001-10-05. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  28. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendment to the list in Annex II to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2001-12-28. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  29. ^ Delegates from Parties and Observer States ( A..Z by Country ) – Holy See
  30. ^ "Vatican intent on signing Paris climate agreement". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2015-12-09. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
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