List of parties to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Participation in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

The contracting states to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) are the states that have signed and ratified the international agreement banning all nuclear explosions in all environments. Technically they will not be "parties" until the treaty enters into force,[1] at which point these states will also be Member States of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which comes into existence upon entry into force of the treaty. Non-contracting states are also listed, including those that are signatories and those are not. States Signatories are Members of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission.

On September 24, 1996, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature. All five nuclear weapons states recognized under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) signed the treaty, with 66 other states following that day.[2] Fiji became the first state to ratify the treaty on October 10, 1996. Currently, 183 states have signed and 166 states have ratified the treaty. Most recently, Niue signed the treaty on April 9, 2012 and Myanmar and Swaziland ratified on September 21, 2016.[3][4][5]

Signatures are received at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City by authorized representatives of the state.[6] Ratification is achieved with the approval of either or both chamber of the legislature and executive of the state. The instrument of ratification serves as the document binding the state to the international treaty and can be accepted only with the validating signature of the head of state or other official with full powers to sign it.[7] The instrument is deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.[8]

Under the CTBT, there are 195 Annex 1 states[9] which include a subset of 44 Annex 2 states.[10]

  • Annex 1 states are agreed upon by conference and currently comprise all 193 United Nations member states, the Cook Islands, Holy See and Niue. All Annex 1 states may become members of the Executive Council, the principal decision-making body of the organization responsible for supervising its activities.[11] These states are formally bound to the conditions of the treaty; however, their ratification is not necessary for the treaty to come into effect (unless they are also an Annex 2 state).
  • Annex 2 states are those that formally participated in the 1996 Conference on Disarmament and possessed nuclear power or research reactors at the time.[12] Annex 2 lists the following 44 States: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, and Vietnam.

Eight Annex 2 states have not ratified the treaty: China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and the United States have already signed the Treaty, whereas India, North Korea and Pakistan have not signed it. The treaty will come into force only with the signature and ratification of the above Annex 2 states of the treaty, 180 days after they have all deposited their instruments of ratification.[13]

Summary

Status Annex 2 states Not Annex 2 states Total Membership
Signed and ratified 36 130 166 Parties to the CTBT
Member States of the CTBT Preparatory Commission
Member States of the CTBTO (after entry into force)
Only signed 5 12 17 Member States of the CTBT Preparatory Commission
Non-signatory 3 10 13
Total 44 152 196

Ratifying states

State[5][3] Annex Signed Ratified
 Afghanistan 1 Sep 24, 2003 Sep 24, 2003
 Albania 1 Sep 27, 1996 Apr 23, 2003
 Algeria 21, 2 Oct 15, 1996 Jul 11, 2003
 Andorra 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 12, 2006
 Angola 1 Sep 27, 1996 Mar 20, 2015
 Antigua and Barbuda 1 Apr 16, 1997 Jan 11, 2006
 Argentina 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Dec 4, 1998
 Armenia 1 Oct 1, 1996 Jul 12, 2006
 Australia 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 9, 1998
 Austria 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Mar 13, 1998
 Azerbaijan 1 Jul 28, 1997 Feb 2, 1999
 Bahamas 1 Feb 4, 2005 Nov 30, 2007
 Bahrain 1 Sep 24, 1996 Apr 12, 2004
 Bangladesh 21, 2 Oct 24, 1996 Mar 8, 2000
 Barbados 1 Jan 14, 2008 Jan 14, 2008
 Belarus 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 13, 2000
 Belgium 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jun 29, 1999
 Belize 1 Nov 14, 2001 Mar 26, 2004
 Benin 1 Sep 27, 1996 Mar 6, 2001
 Bolivia 1 Sep 24, 1996 Oct 4, 1999
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 Sep 24, 1996 Oct 26, 2006
 Botswana 1 Sep 16, 2002 Oct 28, 2002
 Brazil 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 24, 1998
 Brunei 1 Jan 22, 1997 Jan 10, 2013
 Bulgaria 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 29, 1999
 Burkina Faso 1 Sep 27, 1996 Apr 17, 2002
 Burundi 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 24, 2008
 Cabo Verde 1 Oct 1, 1996 Mar 1, 2006
 Cambodia 1 Sep 26, 1996 Nov 10, 2000
 Cameroon 1 Nov 16, 2001 Feb 6, 2006
 Canada 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Dec 18, 1998
 Central African Republic 1 Dec 19, 2001 May 26, 2010
 Chad 1 Oct 18, 1996 Feb 8, 2013
 Chile 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 12, 2000
 Colombia 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jan 29, 2008
 Cook Islands 1 Dec 5, 1997 Sep 6, 2005
 Costa Rica 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 25, 2001
 Côte d'Ivoire 1 Sep 25, 1996 Mar 11, 2003
 Croatia 1 Sep 24, 1996 Mar 2, 2001
 Cyprus 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 18, 2003
 Czech Republic 1 Nov 12, 1996 Sep 11, 1997
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 21, 2 Oct 4, 1996 Sep 28, 2004
 Republic of the Congo 1 Feb 11, 1997 Sep 2, 2014
 Denmark 1 Sep 24, 1996 Dec 21, 1998
 Djibouti 1 Oct 21, 1996 Jul 15, 2005
 Dominican Republic 1 Oct 3, 1996 Sep 4, 2007
 Ecuador 1 Sep 24, 1996 Nov 12, 2001
 El Salvador 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 11, 1998
 Eritrea 1 Nov 11, 2003 Nov 11, 2003
 Estonia 1 Nov 20, 1996 Aug 13, 1999
 Ethiopia 1 Sep 25, 1996 Aug 8, 2006
 Federated States of Micronesia 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 25, 1997
 Fiji 1 Sep 24, 1996 Oct 10, 1996
 Finland 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jan 15, 1999
 France 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Apr 6, 1998
 Gabon 1 Oct 7, 1996 Sep 20, 2000
 Georgia 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 27, 2002
 Germany 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Aug 20, 1998
 Ghana 1 Oct 3, 1996 Jun 14, 2011
 Greece 1 Sep 24, 1996 Apr 21, 1999
 Grenada 1 Oct 10, 1996 Aug 19, 1998
 Guatemala 1 Sep 20, 1999 Jan 12, 2012
 Guinea 1 Oct 3, 1996 Sep 20, 2011
 Guinea-Bissau 1 Apr 11, 1997 Sep 24, 2013
 Guyana 1 Sep 7, 2000 Mar 7, 2001
 Haiti 1 Sep 24, 1996 Dec 1, 2005
 Holy See 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 18, 2001
 Honduras 1 Sep 25, 1996 Oct 30, 2003
 Hungary 21, 2 Sep 25, 1996 Jul 13, 1999
 Iceland 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jun 26, 2000
 Indonesia 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Feb 6, 2012
 Iraq 1 Aug 19, 2008 Sep 26, 2013
 Ireland 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 15, 1999
 Italy 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Feb 1, 1999
 Jamaica 1 Nov 11, 1996 Nov 13, 2001
 Japan 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 8, 1997
 Jordan 1 Sep 26, 1996 Aug 25, 1998
 Kazakhstan 1 Sep 30, 1996 May 14, 2002
 Kenya 1 Nov 14, 1996 Nov 30, 2000
 Kiribati 1 Sep 7, 2000 Sep 7, 2000
 Kuwait 1 Sep 24, 1996 May 6, 2003
 Kyrgyzstan 1 Oct 8, 1996 Oct 2, 2003
 Laos 1 Jul 30, 1997 Oct 5, 2000
 Latvia 1 Sep 24, 1996 Nov 20, 2001
 Lebanon 1 Sep 16, 2005 Nov 11, 2008
 Lesotho 1 Sep 30, 1996 Sep 14, 1999
 Liberia 1 Oct 1, 1996 Aug 17, 2009
 Libya 1 Nov 13, 2001 Jan 6, 2004
 Liechtenstein 1 Sep 27, 1996 Sep 21, 2004
 Lithuania 1 Oct 7, 1996 Feb 7, 2000
 Luxembourg 1 Sep 24, 1996 May 26, 1999
 Macedonia 1 Oct 29, 1998 Mar 14, 2000
 Madagascar 1 Oct 9, 1996 Sep 15, 2005
 Malawi 1 Oct 9, 1996 Nov 11, 2008
 Malaysia 1 Jul 23, 1998 Jan 17, 2008
 Maldives 1 Oct 1, 1997 Sep 7, 2000
 Mali 1 Feb 18, 1997 Aug 4, 1999
 Malta 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 23, 2001
 Marshall Islands 1 Sep 24, 1996 Oct 28, 2009
 Mauritania 1 Sep 24, 1996 Apr 30, 2003
 Mexico 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Oct 5, 1999
 Moldova 1 Sep 24, 1997 Jan 16, 2007
 Monaco 1 Oct 1, 1996 Dec 18, 1998
 Mongolia 1 Oct 1, 1996 Aug 8, 1997
 Montenegro
(succession from Serbia and Montenegro)
1 Oct 23, 2006 Oct 23, 2006
 Morocco 1 Sep 24, 1996 Apr 17, 2000
 Mozambique 1 Sep 26, 1996 Nov 4, 2008
 Myanmar 1 Nov 25, 1996 Sep 21, 2016
 Namibia 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jun 29, 2001
 Nauru 1 Sep 8, 2000 Nov 12, 2001
Kingdom of the Netherlands Netherlands 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Mar 23, 1999
 New Zealand 1 Sep 27, 1996 Mar 19, 1999
 Nicaragua 1 Sep 24, 1996 Dec 5, 2000
 Niger 1 Oct 3, 1996 Sep 9, 2002
 Nigeria 1 Sep 8, 2000 Sep 27, 2001
 Niue 1 Apr 9, 2012 Mar 4, 2014
 Norway 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 15, 1999
 Oman 1 Sep 23, 1999 Jun 13, 2003
 Palau 1 Aug 12, 2003 Aug 1, 2007
 Panama 1 Sep 24, 1996 Mar 23, 1999
 Paraguay 1 Sep 25, 1996 Oct 4, 2001
 Peru 21, 2 Sep 25, 1996 Nov 12, 1997
 Philippines 1 Sep 24, 1996 Feb 23, 2001
 Poland 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 May 25, 1999
 Portugal 1 Sep 24, 1996 Jun 26, 2000
 Qatar 1 Sep 24, 1996 Mar 3, 1997
 Romania 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Oct 5, 1999
 Russia 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jun 30, 2000
 Rwanda 1 Nov 30, 2004 Nov 30, 2004
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1 Mar 23, 2004 Apr 27, 2005
 Saint Lucia 1 Oct 4, 1996 Apr 5, 2001
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1 Jul 2, 2009 Sep 23, 2009
 Samoa 1 Oct 9, 1996 Sep 27, 2002
 San Marino 1 Oct 7, 1996 Mar 12, 2002
 Senegal 1 Sep 26, 1996 Jun 9, 1999
 Serbia
(continuing the membership of Serbia and Montenegro)
1 Jun 8, 2001 May 19, 2004
 Seychelles 1 Sep 24, 1996 Apr 13, 2004
 Sierra Leone 1 Sep 8, 2000 Sep 17, 2001
 Singapore 1 Jan 14, 1999 Nov 10, 2001
 Slovakia 21, 2 Sep 30, 1996 Mar 3, 1998
 Slovenia 1 Sep 24, 1996 Aug 31, 1999
 South Africa 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Mar 30, 1999
 South Korea 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 24, 1999
 Spain 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Jul 31, 1998
 Sudan 1 Jun 10, 2004 Jun 10, 2004
 Suriname 1 Jan 14, 1997 Feb 7, 2006
 Swaziland 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 21, 2016
 Sweden 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Dec 2, 1998
  Switzerland 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Oct 1, 1999
 Tajikistan 1 Oct 7, 1996 Jun 10, 1998
 Tanzania 1 Sep 30, 2004 Sep 30, 2004
 Togo 1 Oct 2, 1996 Jul 2, 2004
 Trinidad and Tobago 1 Oct 8, 2009 May 26, 2010
 Tunisia 1 Oct 16, 1996 Sep 23, 2004
 Turkey 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Feb 16, 2000
 Turkmenistan 1 Sep 24, 1996 Feb 20, 1998
 Uganda 1 Nov 7, 1996 Mar 14, 2001
 Ukraine 21, 2 Sep 27, 1996 Feb 23, 2001
 United Arab Emirates 1 Sep 25, 1996 Sep 18, 2000
 United Kingdom 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Apr 6, 1998
 Uruguay 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 21, 2001
 Uzbekistan 1 Oct 3, 1996 May 29, 1997
 Vanuatu 1 Sep 24, 1996 Sep 16, 2005
 Venezuela 1 Oct 3, 1996 May 13, 2002
 Vietnam 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996 Mar 10, 2006
 Zambia 1 Dec 3, 1996 Feb 23, 2006

States that have signed but not ratified

State[5][3] Annex Signed
 China 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996
 Comoros 1 Dec 12, 1996
 Egypt 21, 2 Oct 14, 1996
 Equatorial Guinea 1 Oct 9, 1996
 Gambia 1 Apr 9, 2003
 Iran 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996
 Israel 21, 2 Sep 25, 1996
   Nepal 1 Oct 8, 1996
 Papua New Guinea 1 Sep 25, 1996
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1 Sep 26, 1996
 Solomon Islands 1 Oct 3, 1996
 Sri Lanka 1 Oct 24, 1996
 Thailand 1 Nov 12, 1996
 Timor-Leste 1 Sep 26, 2008
 United States 21, 2 Sep 24, 1996
 Yemen 1 Sep 30, 1996
 Zimbabwe 1 Oct 13, 1999

Non-signatory states

State Annex
 Bhutan 1
 Cuba 1
 Dominica 1
 India 21, 2
 Mauritius 1
 North Korea 21, 2
 Pakistan 21, 2
 Saudi Arabia 1
 Somalia 1
 South Sudan 1
 Syria 1
 Tonga 1
 Tuvalu 1

In addition, the UN observer State of Palestine has neither signed nor acceded to the convention.

Ratification progress

India

In 1998, India said it would only sign the treaty if the United States presented a schedule for eliminating its nuclear stockpile, a condition the United States rejected.[14]

Israel

In 2016, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that its ratification was dependent upon "the regional context and the appropriate timing".[15]

United States

The United States has signed the CTBT, but not ratified it; there is ongoing debate whether to ratify the CTBT.

The United States has stated that its ratification of the CTBT is conditional upon:

A: The conduct of a Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure a high level of confidence in the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons in the active stockpile, including the conduct of a broad range of effective and continuing experimental programs.
B: The maintenance of modern nuclear laboratory facilities and programs in theoretical and exploratory nuclear technology which will attract, retain, and ensure the continued application of our human scientific resources to those programs on which continued progress in nuclear technology depends.
C: The maintenance of the basic capability to resume nuclear test activities prohibited by the CTBT should the United States cease to be bound to adhere to this treaty.
D: Continuation of a comprehensive research and development program to improve our treaty monitoring capabilities and operations.
E: The continuing development of a broad range of intelligence gathering and analytical capabilities and operations to ensure accurate and comprehensive information on worldwide nuclear arsenals, nuclear weapons development programs, and related nuclear programs.
F: The understanding that if the President of the United States is informed by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Energy (DOE) – advised by the Nuclear Weapons Council, the Directors of DOE's nuclear weapons laboratories and the Commander of the U.S. Strategic Command – that a high level of confidence in the safety or reliability of a nuclear weapon type which the two Secretaries consider to be critical to the U.S. nuclear deterrent could no longer be certified, the President, in consultation with Congress, would be prepared to withdraw from the CTBT under the standard "supreme national interests" clause in order to conduct whatever testing might be required.[16]

Proponents of ratification claim that it would:

  1. Establish an international norm that would push other nuclear-capable countries like North Korea, Pakistan, and India to sign.
  2. Constrain worldwide nuclear proliferation by vastly limiting a country's ability to make nuclear advancements that only testing can ensure.
  3. Not compromise US national security because the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program serves as a means for maintaining current US nuclear capabilities without physical detonation.[17]

Opponents of ratification claim that:

  1. The treaty is unverifiable and that other nations could easily cheat.
  2. The ability to enforce the treaty was dubious.
  3. The U.S. nuclear stockpile would not be as safe or reliable in the absence of testing.
  4. The benefit to nuclear nonproliferation was minimal.[18]

On 13 October 1999, the United States Senate rejected ratification of the CTBT. During his 2008 presidential election campaign Barack Obama said that "As president, I will reach out to the Senate to secure the ratification of the CTBT at the earliest practical date."[19] In his speech in Prague on 5 April 2009, he announced that “[To] achieve a global ban on nuclear testing, my administration will immediately and aggressively pursue U.S. ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. After more than five decades of talks, it is time for the testing of nuclear weapons to finally be banned.”[20]

An article in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists describes how a North Korean underground nuclear test on 25 May 2009 was detected and the source located by GPS satellites. The authors suggest that the effectiveness of GPS satellites for detecting nuclear explosions enhances the ability to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, giving the United States more reason to ratify it.[21]

References

  1. ^ "Definition of key terms used in the UN Treaty Collection". United Nations. Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  2. ^ "When did the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty open for signature?". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  3. ^ a b c "Status of signature and ratification: CTBTO Preparatory Commission". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. 2010-05-26. Retrieved 2010-05-27. 
  4. ^ "Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2013-02-24. 
  5. ^ a b c "Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty". United Nations Treaty Collection. 2013-02-24. Retrieved 2013-02-24. 
  6. ^ "How does a State sign the Treaty?". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  7. ^ "How does a State ratify the Treaty?". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  8. ^ "How does a State deposit its instrument of ratification?". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  9. ^ "Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty". United Nations. Retrieved 2008-07-09.  (Article II, Paragraph 28)
  10. ^ "Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty". United Nations. Retrieved 2008-07-09.  (Article XIV)
  11. ^ "Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty". United Nations. Retrieved 2008-08-02.  (Article I, Section C)
  12. ^ "What are the Annex 2 States?". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  13. ^ "When will the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty enter into force?". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  14. ^ Enver, Masud. "Rebuffed by U.S., India, Pakistan Storm Nuclear Club". The Wisdom Fund. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  15. ^ "Israel confirms it'll ratify nuke test ban 'at the right time'". Times of Israel. 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  16. ^ Jonathan Medalia (2 June 2005). "Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty". Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress (US). Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  17. ^ "Press Release: U.S. Stockpile Security and International Monitoring Capabilities Strengthened, Says New Report on Technical Issues Behind the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty". National Research Council of the National Academies. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  18. ^ http://adamvn1.wordpress.com/tag/ctbt/ Kathleen Bailey and Robert Barker, “Why the United States Should Unsign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Resume Nuclear Testing,” Comparative Strategy 22 (2003): 131
  19. ^ "Nuclear Testing Is an Acceptable Risk for Arms Control". Scientific American. March 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  20. ^ "Remarks by President Barack Obama, Hradcany Square, Prague, Czech Republic". The White House. 5 April 2005. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  21. ^ Park, J., Grejner-Brzezinska, D., von Frese, R. (18 August 2011). "A new way to detect secret nuclear tests: GPS". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 

External links

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_parties_to_the_Comprehensive_Nuclear-Test-Ban_Treaty&oldid=757845877"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_parties_to_the_Comprehensive_Nuclear-Test-Ban_Treaty
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "List of parties to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA