List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games

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Flagbearers for each of the participating nations at the I Olympic Winter Games (1924) recite the athlete's oath.

This is a list of nations, as represented by National Olympic Committees (NOCs), that have participated in the Winter Olympic Games between 1924 and 2014. The Winter Olympic Games have been held every four years (once during each Olympiad) since 1924, except for the cancelled Games of 1940 and 1944, and in 1994 when the Winter Games were moved to the middle of the Olympiad, two years after the previous Games. 119 NOCs (110 of the current 206 NOCs and 9 obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one Winter Games, and twelve nations (Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have participated in all twenty-two Winter Games to date. Including continuity from Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have also been represented in every edition.

History

Origin and early Games

The first winter sport to be contested at the modern Olympic Games was figure skating at the 1908 Games in London. A total of 21 skaters from six countries (Argentina, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, Russia, and the United States) competed in four events on October 28–29.[1] Skating was not in the program of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, but returned for the 1920 Games in Antwerp. Ice hockey was also part of the 1920 program of events, with seven teams competing.[2]

The first Winter Games were held in 1924, in Chamonix, France. They were originally called International Winter Sports Week and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, but were in retrospect designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games.[3] Sixteen nations participated in these Games: fourteen from Europe and two from North America.[4] Four years later, 25 nations were represented at the 1928 Winter Olympics, in St. Moritz, Switzerland, including Argentina (the first nation from the Southern Hemisphere), Japan (the first Asian nation), and Mexico.[5] Participation in the 1932 Games, held in Lake Placid, United States, during the Great Depression, was reduced to 17 nations.[6] The 1936 Winter Games, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, had 28 participating nations, the largest number to that date.[7] These would be the last Winter Games for twelve years, as the planned 1940 Games and 1944 Games were cancelled due to World War II.[8]

Post-war years and Cold War era

After the war, 28 nations would return to St. Moritz for the 1948 Winter Olympics, but not Germany or Japan, who were not invited because of their roles in the war.[9] The 1952 Winter Games in Oslo, Norway, featured 30 participating nations.[10] The 1956 Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, marked the Winter Games debut of the Soviet Union, along with 31 other nations.[11] The NOCs of East Germany and West Germany would be represented by a single German team, an arrangement that would continue until 1964.[12] Thirty nations would participate at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, United States,[13] including South Africa, the first African nation to participate in the Winter Games. Thirty-six nations were represented in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1964.[14]

The 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, marked the first time that East Germany and West Germany competed as independent teams, two of the 37 nations that took part.[15] The Games of 1972 were held in Sapporo, Japan, the first time the Winter Games were held outside of Europe or the United States. A total of 35 nations were represented, including the Philippines, the first appearance by a southeast Asian nation.[16] The Winter Games returned to Innsbruck, in 1976, with 37 participating nations.[17]

Lake Placid was once again the site of the Winter Games, in 1980, with 37 competing nations.[18] The People's Republic of China made their Olympic debut but, in response, the Republic of China boycotted the Games, after participating in 1972 and 1976. Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia was host to the 1984 Winter Olympics, which welcomed 49 nations.[19] Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were the first two Caribbean NOCs to compete in the Winter Games. Several more tropical nations would participate at the 1988 Winter Olympics, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, including the famed Jamaican Bobsled Team.[20]

Recent Games

The post-Cold War events of the early 1990s led to a large increase in participating nations at the Olympics. At the 1992 Games, in Albertville, France, a total of 64 NOCs were represented, including a single Germany team—following the German reunification in 1990—and a Unified Team composed of six of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union.[21] The Baltic states competed independently for the first time since 1936, and some of the ex-Yugoslav nations started to compete independently in 1992.

In October 1986, the IOC had voted to hold the Olympic Winter Games halfway through the four-year Olympiad, rather than in the same year as the summer Games,[22] and this change started with the XVIIth Olympic Winter Games in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. A total of 67 nations took part, including the Czech Republic and Slovakia as independent teams, and each of the ex-Soviet nations.[23]

The Winter Games have continued to grow in the recent past, with 72 nations at the 1998 Winter Olympics, in Nagano, Japan,[24] 77 nations at the 2002 Winter Olympics, in Salt Lake City, United States,[25] 80 nations at the 2006 Winter Olympics, in Turin, Italy,[26] 82 nations at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,[27] and a record 88 nations at the 2014 Games in Sochi, Russia.[28]

List of nations

Description

This list includes 119 NOCs (110 of the current 206 NOCs and 9 obsolete NOCs),[29] arranged alphabetically. The three-letter country code is also listed for each NOC. Since the 1960s, these codes have been frequently used by the IOC and each Games organizing committee to identify NOCs, such as within the official report of each Games.[30] However, in this section, several countries uses long-form names designated by the United Nations uses short form common names such as for example: Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic), North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), and Moldova (Republic of Moldova).

Several nations have changed during their Olympic history. Name changes due to geographical renaming are explained by footnotes after the nation's name, and other changes are explained by footnotes links within the table itself.

Obsolete nations

Obsolete nations are included in the table to more clearly illustrate past Olympic appearances for their successor nations.

Table legend

24   In the table headings, indicates the Games year, from 1924 through 2014
Participated in the specified Games
H Host nation for the specified Games
[A] Additional explanatory comments at the linked footnote
  The planned Games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled due to World War II
  NOC superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years

Alphabetical list

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P R S T U V Y Z Total
A Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Albania ALB 3
 Algeria ALG 3
 American Samoa ASA 1
 Andorra AND 11
 Argentina ARG 18
 Armenia ARM Soviet Union EUN 6
 Australia AUS 18
 Austria AUT H H 22
 Azerbaijan AZE Soviet Union 5
B Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Belarus BLR Soviet Union EUN 6
 Belgium BEL 20
 Bermuda BER 7
 Bolivia BOL 5
 Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH Yugoslavia 6
 Brazil BRA 7
 British Virgin Islands IVB 2
 Bulgaria BUL 19
C Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Cameroon CMR 1
 Canada CAN H H 22
 Cayman Islands CAY 2
 Chile CHI 16
 China, People's Republic of CHN 10
 Chinese TaipeiTPE[›] TPE 11
 Colombia COL 1
 Costa Rica CRC [B] 6
 Croatia CRO Yugoslavia 7
 Cyprus CYP 10
 Czech Republic CZE Czechoslovakia 6
 Czechoslovakia [^] TCH 16
D Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Denmark DEN 13
 Dominica DMA 1
E Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Egypt EGY 1
 Estonia EST [A] Soviet Union 9
 Ethiopia ETH 2
F Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Fiji FIJ 3
 Finland FIN 22
 France FRA H H H 22
G Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Georgia GEO Soviet Union 6
 Germany GER H 11
 East Germany [^] GDR EUA 6
 West Germany [^] FRG EUA 6
 United Team of Germany [^] EUA 3
 Ghana GHA 1
 Great Britain GBR 22
 Greece GRE 18
 Guam GUM 1
 Guatemala GUA 1
H Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Honduras HON 1
 Hong Kong HKG 4
 Hungary HUN 22
I Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Iceland ISL 17
 India IND [D] 9
 Iran IRI 10
 Ireland IRL 6
 Israel ISR 6
 Italy ITA H H 22
J Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Jamaica JAM 7
 Japan JPN H H 20
K Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Kazakhstan KAZ Soviet Union EUN 6
 Kenya KEN 3
 North Korea PRK 8
 South Korea KOR 17
 Kyrgyzstan KGZ Soviet Union 6
L Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Latvia LAT Soviet Union 10
 Lebanon LIB 16
 Liechtenstein LIE 18
 Lithuania LTU Soviet Union 8
 Luxembourg LUX 8
M Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Macedonia MKD Yugoslavia 5
 Madagascar MAD 1
 Malta MLT 1
 Mexico MEX 8
 Moldova MDA Romania Soviet Union 6
 Monaco MON 9
 Mongolia MGL 13
 Montenegro MNE Yugoslavia SCG 2
 Morocco MAR 6
N Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Nepal NEP 4
 Netherlands NED 20
 Netherlands Antilles [^] AHO 2
 New Zealand NZL 15
 Norway NOR H H 22
P Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Pakistan PAK 2
 Paraguay PAR 1
 Peru PER 2
 Philippines PHI 4
 Poland POL 22
 Portugal POR 7
 Puerto Rico PUR 6
R Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Romania ROU 20
 Russia RUS Soviet Union EUN H 6
 Unified Team [^] EUN 1
 Soviet Union [^] URS EUN 9
S Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 San Marino SMR 9
 Senegal SEN 5
 Serbia SRB Yugoslavia SCG 2
 Serbia and MontenegroSCG[›] [^] SCG Yugoslavia 3
 Yugoslavia [^] YUG H 14
 Slovakia SVK Czechoslovakia 6
 Slovenia SLO Yugoslavia 7
 South Africa RSA 6
 Spain ESP 19
 Swaziland SWZ 1
 Sweden SWE 22
 Switzerland SUI H H 22
T Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Tajikistan TJK Soviet Union 4
 Thailand THA 3
 Timor-Leste TLS 1
 Togo TOG 1
 Tonga TGA 1
 Trinidad and Tobago TRI 3
 Turkey TUR 16
U Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Ukraine UKR Soviet Union EUN 6
 United States USA H H H H 22
 Uruguay URU 1
 Uzbekistan UZB Soviet Union EUN 6
V Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Venezuela VEN 4
 Virgin Islands ISV [C] 7
Z Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Zimbabwe ZIM 1
Total NOCs number 16 25 17 28 28 30 32 30 36 37 35 37 37 49 57 64 67 72 78 80 82 88 1025

Nations that have never competed

96 of the 206 active NOCs have yet to compete in a Winter Olympics.[34]

Nation Code
 Afghanistan AFG
 Angola ANG
 Antigua and Barbuda ANT
 Aruba ARU
 Bahamas BAH
 Bahrain BRN
 Bangladesh BAN
 Barbados BAR
 Belize BIZ
 Benin BEN
 Bhutan BHU
 Botswana BOT
 Brunei BRU
 Burkina Faso BUR
 Burundi BDI
 Cambodia CAM
 Cape Verde CPV
 Central African Republic CAF
 Chad CHA
 Comoros COM
 Congo CGO
 Cook Islands COK
 Cuba CUB
 Djibouti DJI
 Dominican Republic DOM
 DR Congo COD
 Ecuador ECU
 El Salvador ESA
 Equatorial Guinea GEQ
 Eritrea ERI
 Federated States of Micronesia FSM
 Gabon GAB
 The Gambia GAM
 Grenada GRN
 Guinea GUI
 Guinea-Bissau GBS
 Guyana GUY
 Haiti HAI
 Indonesia INA
 Iraq IRQ
 Ivory Coast CIV
 Jordan JOR
 Kiribati KIR
 Kosovo KOS
 Kuwait KUW
 Laos LAO
 Lesotho LES
 Liberia LBR
 Libya LBA
 Malawi MAW
 Malaysia MAS
 Maldives MDV
 Mali MLI
 Marshall Islands MHL
 Mauritania MTN
 Mauritius MRI
 Mozambique MOZ
 Myanmar MYA
 Namibia NAM
 Nauru NRU
 Nicaragua NCA
 Niger NIG
 Nigeria NGR
 Oman OMA
 Palau PLW
 Palestine PLE
 Panama PAN
 Papua New Guinea PNG
 Qatar QAT
 Rwanda RWA
 Saint Kitts and Nevis SKN
 Saint Lucia LCA
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VIN
 Samoa SAM
 São Tomé and Príncipe STP
 Saudi Arabia KSA
 Seychelles SEY
 Sierra Leone SLE
 Singapore SGP
 Solomon Islands SOL
 Somalia SOM
 South Sudan SSD
 Sri Lanka SRI
 Sudan SUD
 Suriname SUR
 Syria SYR
 Tanzania TAN
 Tunisia TUN
 Turkmenistan TKM
 Tuvalu TUV
 Uganda UGA
 United Arab Emirates UAE
 Vanuatu VAN
 Vietnam VIE
 Yemen YEM
 Zambia ZAM

Notes

Name changes notes

^ TPE: The Chinese Taipei was designated Republic of China (ROC) in 1972[16] and 1976.[17] In 1979, the IOC started to use Chinese Taipei to refer to this NOC, a compromise that was acceptable for the People's Republic of China to start participating in the Olympic Games.[35][36]
^ SCG: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, consisting of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, participated at the Games since 1998. It was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. At the 1998[24] and 2002[25] Games, the nation was still designated Yugoslavia (YUG). The Serbia and Montenegro (SCG) designation and code were first used at the Winter Games in 2006.[26]

Participation notes

  1. ^ A single speed skater from Estonia registered for the 1924 Winter Olympics and carried the flag in the opening ceremonies, but did not compete.[4]
  2. ^ Costa Rica did not take part in the Opening Ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics, but its athletes did compete; 78 nations participated in the 2002 Games, however the IOC web site states that 77 nations participated, probably erroneously not counting Costa Rica.[37]
  3. ^ Anne Abernathy was the lone competitor from the Virgin Islands at the 2006 Winter Olympics, but withdrew from the women's luge event after injuring herself during a practice run.[38]
  4. ^ India's athletes originally competed as Independent Olympic Participants and marched under the Olympic Flag during the opening ceremony due to the Indian Olympic Association's suspension. On February 11, the Indian Olympic Association was reinstated and India's athletes were allowed the option to compete under their own flag from that time onward.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ Cook, Theodore Andrea (May 1909). The Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report (PDF). London: British Olympic Association. pp. 284–295. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  2. ^ Olympic Games Antwerp 1920 — Official Report (PDF) (in French). Belgian Olympic Committee. 1957. pp. 144, 168–170. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  3. ^ "Decisions taken by the Technical Congress at Prague" (PDF). Official Bulletin of the International Olympic Committee (PDF). Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (1): 17. January 1926. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  4. ^ a b (ed.) M. Avé, Comité Olympique Français. Les Jeux de la VIIIe Olympiade Paris 1924 - Rapport Officiel (PDF) (in French). Paris: Librairie de France. p. 669. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  5. ^ Comité Olympique Suisse (1928). Rapport Général du Comité Exécutif des IImes Jeux Olympiques d'hiver (PDF) (in French). Lausanne: Imprimerie du Léman. p. 7. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  6. ^ (ed.) George Lattimer (1932). Official Report III Olympic Winter Games Lake Placid 1932 (PDF). pp. 70–72, 270. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  7. ^ (ed.) Peter von le Fort (1936). IV. Olympische Winterspiele 1936 Amtlicher Bericht (PDF) (in German). Berlin: Reichssportverlag. p. 272. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  8. ^ (ed.) Carl Diem (January 1940). "The Fifth Olympic Winter Games Will Not Be Held" (PDF). Olympic Review (PDF). Berlin: International Olympic Institute (8): 8–10. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  9. ^ Comité Olympique Suisse (January 1951). Rapport Général sur les Ves Jeux Olympiques d'hiver St-Moritz 1948 (PDF) (in French). Lausanne: H. Jaunin. p. 11. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  10. ^ (ed.) Rolf Petersen (1952). The Official Report of the Organising Committee of the VIth Winter Olympic Games 1952 at Oslo (PDF). Oslo. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  11. ^ VII Olympic Winter Games Cortina d'Ampezzo 1956 Official Report (PDF). Rome: Società Grafica Romana. p. 70. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  12. ^ a b (ed.) Berlioux, Monique (July–August 1975). "The Federal Republic of Germany and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (93–94): 290–306. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  13. ^ (ed.) Robert Rubin. VIII Olympic Winter Games Squaw Valley California 1960 Final Report (PDF). California Olympic Commission. p. 92. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  14. ^ (ed.) Friedl Wolfgang and Bertl Neumann (1967). Offizieller Bericht der IX. Olympischen Winterspiele Innsbruck 1964 (PDF) (in German). Vienna, Munich: Österreichischer Bundesverlag für Unterricht, Wissenschaft und Kunst. p. 51. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  15. ^ Xth Winter Olympic Games Official Report (PDF). Comité d'Organisation des xèmes Jeux Olympiques d'Hiver de Grenoble. 1969. p. 399. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  16. ^ a b The Official Report of XIth Winter Olympic Games, Sapporo 1972 (PDF). The Organizing Committee for the Sapporo Olympic Winter Games. 1973. pp. 228–229. ISBN 0-900315-05-9. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  17. ^ a b (ed.) Bertl Neumann. XII.Olympische Winterspiele Innsbruck 1976 Final Report (PDF). Organizing Committee for the XIIth Winter Olympic Games 1976 at Innsbruck. p. 163. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  18. ^ Final Report XIII Olympic Winter Games (PDF). Ed Lewi Associates. 1980. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  19. ^ a b Official Report of the Organising Committee of the XlVth Winter Olympic Games 1984 at Sarajevo (PDF). Sarajevo: Oslobodenje. 1984. pp. 89–90. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  20. ^ (ed.) Rodney Chapman (1988). XV Olympic Winter Games Official Report (PDF). Calgary Olympic Development Association. pp. 621–645. ISBN 0-921060-26-2. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  21. ^ a b (ed.) Claudie Blanc, Jean-Marc Eysseric (1992). "Results". Official Report of the XVI Winter Olympic Games of Albertville and Savoie (PDF). Albertville, France: Comité d'organisation des XVIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver d'Albertville et de la Savoie. p. 3. ISBN 2-9507109-0-5. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  22. ^ (ed.) Gafner, Raymond (November–December 1986). "Decisions of the 91st IOC Session" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (229–230): 651. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  23. ^ "Volume IV". Official Report of the XVII Olympic Winter Games (PDF). 1994. p. 63. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  24. ^ a b c (ed.) Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (1998). "Volume Three Competition Results and Participants". The XVIII Olympic Winter Games Official Report (PDF). The Organizing Committee for the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, Nagano 1998. p. 12. ISBN 4-7840-9827-5. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  25. ^ a b c Official Report of the XIX Olympic Winter Games (PDF). Salt Lake Organizing Committee. 2002. ISBN 0-9717961-0-6. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  26. ^ a b c Torino 2006 - XX Olympic Winter Games (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  27. ^ Vancouver 2010 - Staging the Olympic Winter Games Knowledge Report (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  28. ^ "Record 88 nations to participate in Winter Games". Global News. Sochi, Russia. Associated Press. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  29. ^ "National Olympic Committees". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  30. ^ Mallon, Bill; Karlsson, Ove (May 2004). "IOC and OCOG Abbreviations for NOCs" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History. 12 (2): 25–28. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  31. ^ "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  32. ^ (ed.) Berlioux, Monique (September–October 1975). "The German Democratic Republic and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (95–96): 362–377. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  33. ^ "Curtain comes down on 123rd IOC Session". Olympic.org. 
  34. ^ "Olympic Countries". sports-reference. 
  35. ^ (ed.) Berlioux, Monique (August–September 1983). "China and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (190–191): 583–592. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  36. ^ Chan, Gerald (Autumn 1985). "The "Two-Chinas" Problem and the Olympic Formula". Pacific Affairs. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. 58 (3): 473–490. JSTOR 2759241. doi:10.2307/2759241. 
  37. ^ "Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  38. ^ "Olympics: 'Grandma Luge' crashes out". CNN.com. 2006-02-13. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  39. ^ "IOC Executive Board lifts suspension of NOC of India". Retrieved 11 February 2014. 

External links

  • Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee
  • Olympic Review and Revue Olympique. library.la84.org
  • Official Reports. library.la84.org
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